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Marker less human body part detection, labelling and tracking for human activity recognition

Marker less human body part detection, labelling and tracking for human activity recognition

In Chapter 3, a novel marker-less model-based method is proposed which fits the knowledge from the six implicit body models to detect and label human body parts, rather than explicitly fitting the predefined body models. This is a novel concept which utilizes domain knowledge to detect human body parts, and thus avoids the computationally complex model fitting procedure. The six novel implicit body models have been constructed based on human anthropometry, kinesiology, and human vision inspired studies. This makes them applicable to humans with different anthropometric proportions. The first three implicit body models are de- signed to detect human body parts in activities in which the human anthropometric body proportions and part positioning are somewhat maintained, e.g., the Head is above the Shoulder, the Arms are above the Knee and below the Head, etc. The remaining three implicit body models are created to detect human body parts in activities in which anthropometric body proportions and part positioning are not maintained, i.e., the Arms go above the Head (e.g., Two hand wave), feet go above the Knee (e.g., Kick). The marker-less model-based human body part detection and labelling is achieved by considering the human body as an inverted pendulum model and then applying ellipse fitting and contour moments procedure to classify it as being in Stand, Sit, or Lie posture. Next, a convex hull method is used on the silhouette contour to determine the extreme locations which are the possible significant body points or parts, i.e., Head, Arm, and Feet. Finally, the significant body points of the human body are labelled by using the six implicit body models. The significant body points are connected to the centre of the human contour to generate realistic 2D stick figures. The proposed method is rigorously evaluated on two different data sets, i.e., Weizmann and MuHAVi, of low (180 × 144) and high (720 × 576) resolution, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative results show that the proposed method accurately and reliably detects and labels human body parts in various activities. In addition, the proposed method works in real-time and does not require manual initialization.
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When Embodiment Meets Generative Lexicon: The Human Body Part Metaphors in Sinica Corpus

When Embodiment Meets Generative Lexicon: The Human Body Part Metaphors in Sinica Corpus

This research aims to integrate embodiment with generative lexicon. By analyzing the metaphorically used human body part terms in Sinica Corpus, the first balanced modern Chi- nese corpus, we reveal how these two theories complement each other. Embodiment strengthens generative lexicon by spelling out the cognitive reasons which underlies the pro- duction of meaning, and generative lexicon, specifically the qualia structure, complements embodiment by accounting for the reason un- derlying the selection of a particular body part for metaphorization. Discussing how the four body part terms— 血 xie “blood”, 肉 rou “flesh”, 骨 gu “bone”, 脈 mai “meridian”— behave metaphorically, this research argues that the visibility and the telic role of the qua- lia structure are the major reasons motivating the choice of a body part to represent a com- paratively abstract notion. The finding ac- counts for what constrains the selection of body parts for metaphorical uses. It also facili- tates the prediction of the behavior of the four body part terms in these uses, which can func- tion as the starting point to examine whether the two factors—visibility and telicity—also motivate the metaphorization of the rest hu- man body parts.
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When Romantic Love in Gĩkũyũ Becomes A Human Body Part

When Romantic Love in Gĩkũyũ Becomes A Human Body Part

ule was administered to 48 respondents of different gender by the researcher as- sisted by four research assistants. The Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) and the main principles of the Metaphor Identification Procedure Vrije Universiteit (MIPVU) (see Steen et al. 2010) were used in this study. The principles of the MIPVU were employed to find out whether the lexical items collected were met- aphorical or not. Using three annotators and the researcher, the study identified 100 Metaphor Related Words (MRWs) as per the annotation guidelines adapted from the MIPVU procedures and three lexical units which were annotated as Discard From Metaphor Analysis (DFMA). From the MRWs, the study identi- fied eight metaphors of human body parts which play an indispensable role in the conceptualization of love in Gĩkũyũ. Further, the study noted that gender is a vital variable that provides people with the prism through which they view love since males registered more lexical frequencies for LOVE IS A HUMAN BODY PART than females. The study concludes that metaphor in Cognitive Linguistics is not only a creative device, but an important mental facility and cognitive instrument.
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A fine grained corpus annotation schema of German nephrology records

A fine grained corpus annotation schema of German nephrology records

Another very interesting corpus is the FraMed corpus which is described in Wermter and Hahn (2004). The authors present a German-language medical text corpus containing manually supplied sentence boundary, token segmentation and part-of-speech (POS) tags. Due to the fact that the corpus cannot be legally accessed by a third party, Faessler et al. (2014) present an freely available tool for segmenta- tion and POS tagging for German clinical data, based on models trained on the FraMed corpus. Further relevant sources for German clinical data are for instance the German Specialist Lexicon (Weske-Heck et al., 2002) or the German MeSH 1 . A good overview is also provided in the work of Schulz et al. (2013).
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DEVELOPMENT OF MOTION BASED MULTIPLE HUMAN DETECTION AND TRACKING USING BACKGROUND SUBTRACTION ALGORITHM

DEVELOPMENT OF MOTION BASED MULTIPLE HUMAN DETECTION AND TRACKING USING BACKGROUND SUBTRACTION ALGORITHM

219 | P a g e body motion analysis has been an interesting research for its various applications, such as physical performance, evaluation, medical diagnostics, virtual reality, and human–machine interface. In general, three aspects of research directions are considered in the analysis of human body motion: tracking and estimating motion parameters, analyzing of the human body structure, and recognizing of motion activities. At present methods used in moving object detection are mainly the frame subtraction method, the background subtraction method and the optical flow method. The presence of moving objects determined by calculating the difference between two consecutive images, in the frame subtraction method. Its calculation is simple and easy to implement. For a variety of dynamic environments, it has a strong adaptability, but it is generally difficult to obtain complete outline of moving object, responsible to appear the empty phenomenon, as a result the detection of moving object is not accurate. Optical flow method is to calculate the image optical flow field, and do clustering processing according to the optical flow distribution characteristics of image. This method can get the complete movement information and detect the moving object from the background better, however, a large quantity of calculation, sensitivity to noise, poor anti- noise performance, make it not suitable for real-time demanding occasions. The background subtraction method is to use the difference method of the current image and background image to detect moving objects, with simple algorithm, but very sensitive to the changes in the external environment and has poor anti- interference ability. However, it can provide the most complete object information in the case of the background is known. In this paper, in a single static camera condition, we combine dynamic background modeling with threshold selection method based on the background subtraction, and update background on the basis of exact detection of object, this method is effective to improve the effect of moving object detection. Any motion detection system based on background subtraction needs to handle a number of critical situations such as:
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Station 1- Part A Directions:

Station 1- Part A Directions:

Description: Participants will visit the trial center two times. At the first visit, the participants will take the following tests: A psychiatric interview, a drug test, a physical fitness test and a stress hormone level test. At the second visit, participants will again take a stress-hormone test but will also have their blood drawn four times. Before each visit, the participant must not eat or drink for 24 hours. The participant would receive a small amount of money for being part of the study.

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Vedic Theory Of Everything

Vedic Theory Of Everything

We are all yogis. We are not our bodies, not even our brains; we are our souls. Our soul controls everything in our body. This power of our soul is the yogic power. The very fact that we are walking, talking, hearing, seeing, etc., are the results of commands from our soul to our brain, as we will discuss later. So, we are always connected to our souls and therefore we are yogis and have some built-in yogic powers. We will be dead if the soul leaves our body. Through yogic meditation we can enhance our yogic power, and make it work for us, whenever we want and the way we want. However, as long as it is not included in our individual destiny, things will never happen. Destiny guides everything, we are not free, and we are robots. There are kids who are born with some limited but highly specialized yogic powers. A nine year old autistic girl [21] could read and write every detail of her mother‘s actions and thoughts. A world champion chess player could play with ten chess players simultaneously, all sitting behind his back, and he would still defeat them all [2]. Thus yogic power is real; we see it everywhere, once we are observant. Such examples also demonstrate that memory is not in our brain, it is in nature, and our souls know how to access it and then inform our brains to take appropriate actions. You probably know the miracles that placebo can do. It has been found that all diseases can be cured by giving a placebo [19]. The placebo effect is nothing but the power of our mind which is same as the power of our soul or yogic power. Swami Rama [9] says that the entire body is inside our mind, but not the other way. Thus by controlling our mind you can control anything inside our body. There are many people all over the world who has never gone to see a doctor and yet maintained a perfectly good health with long life. Such people are also yogis by birth. In fact a yogi cannot become sick, the converse is also true, that is, if you are sick then you are not a yogi. There are some normal people with good health, but die peacefully during their sleep apparently with heart attack. There are yogis, however, who can cast off their body at the destined time after informing people. They sit in a meditative pose, in a secluded place, and consciously leave their body. The next few examples of high level yogic powers are taken from well known modern books by [10],[25],[18],[1]. These authors have written many more books. Interested readers should read them to get a better feeling about yogis and yogic powers. Short bios of these authors are given in [5, Ch2]. Any TOE should be able to explain such examples.
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the participation of philosophy in an ethics and politics of joy

the participation of philosophy in an ethics and politics of joy

The second case of encounters refers to sad passions. A body encounters another body with which its relation does not agree. The encountered body does not convene with the nature of the first body or is contrary to it. A passive affection which does not agree with the body’s nature is produced. The idea of such affection is a sad affect or a sad passion, which is defined by the decrease of power to act that it produces in the affected body. Considering that “there is no singular thing in Nature than which there is not another more powerful and stronger” and that by being more powerful and stronger a body can destroy another 23 , it could be inferred that in such a type of encounter a body with a
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Fixed: the science/fiction of human enhancement

Fixed: the science/fiction of human enhancement

While Herr argues that his prostheses are an intrinsic part of both his body and of his identity as someone able to go beyond the human body's natural limitations, activist and artist Patty Berne explains that from a disability rights perspective the problem is not a matter of the body at all, but of social acceptance and provision for people with disabilities, who will always exist, regardless of how far technology is able to go. Futurist writer Jamais Cascio also introduces the idea of extra-ablism through

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Body maps on the human genome

Body maps on the human genome

The human genome may show “little evidence of orga- nization” [1] and be in “an alarming state of disarray” [2], but it seems to have a global landscape, with large- scale patterns encompassing all chromosomes together. One key to revealing this structure is chromosome terri- tories, that is, their sites in the cell nucleus. Tissue- specific genes of the adult human body then appear to map somatotopically onto the genome, in multiple dimen- sions. The holistic arrangement of tissue gene-positions in the complete chromosome set significantly mirrors the antero-posterior, and dorso-ventral, configuration of the tissue-locations in the body. Unlike hox complexes [3] or collinearity phenomena [4], this anatomical mapping in- cludes thousands of genes in the entire chromosome set of the genome. Such a multi-chromosomal bodymap may help as a navigation guide in uncovering genes involved in pathologies of corresponding tissues.
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A Review Paper on Brain Tumour

A Review Paper on Brain Tumour

Primary Brain Tumors are originated in the brain. Name of tumor can be determined by seeing their origination. Tumors of two types-benign and malignant. Benign brain tumor is also known as non-cancerous and it does not affect other parts of our body, while malignant brain tumor is originated in the brain and spreads in other parts of our body like spine. Growth rate of malignant tumor is fast. Benign brain tumor is easy to treat than malignant tumor because it is not deep buried in brain and has defined boundary. Benign tumor if removed successfully then there is very less chance of its coming back. But that is not true in case of malignant tumor. If this is removed then also there is some probability of coming back. Most common type of primary tumor is ‘Giloma’ which occurs due to glial cells. Glial cells are supportive tissues of brain as shown in Figure 2. Glial cells are of three types:
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Causality and "the mental"

Causality and "the mental"

ing of the nature of non-human agency has a bearing on an understanding of the human case. Human beings inhabit, learn about, and act within, the causal nexus of the macrophysical objects admitted in neo-Aristotelian metaphysics. In participating in agency ourselves, we rely on our knowledge of the proper- ties of the objects upon which we may act; and we draw upon such knowledge in acting. Consider, for the sake of having an example, the knowledge that might be at the service of someone who has the opportunity to lift a book she wishes to read from the shelf above her. If she takes the book down from the shelf, then a capacities-based understanding of causality enters into explanations not only of what rendered her capable of taking the book from the shelf — she knew how to get it down, but also of how the book came to be in her hands — it was liftable down from the shelf. The concepts that enter the knowledge a person uses in acting are ones that she employs in learning how things are, knowing how they may come to be, and knowing how to make a difference to how they are. Thus the kind of causality involved in the goings on of objects about which a person can know could hardly be different from the kind of causality that a person’s actions involve. Still the capacities of inanimate things and persons are as dif- ferent as can be, with a person’s capacities consisting in the knowledge of some- one who has lived and is living in a world containing things her knowledge of which may inform what she is doing at any moment.
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Human basal body basics

Human basal body basics

BBs possess most of the characteristics of centrosomes, including the ability to organize the microtubule cytoskeleton. It appears that one of the major regulatory roles of BBs is coordination of several complicated traf- ficking pathways. One example is a sub-compartment of the endocytic pathway, called the recycling endosome. Two GTPases are involved in its organization and func- tion, namely Rab8 and Rab11, which are also reported to have an association with the centrosome [34, 53]. Strik- ingly, these same GTPases have been implicated in early stages of ciliogenesis through a Rab-GTPase cascade [78]. Recycling endosome vesicles modulated by Rab11 are brought to the basal body with the Rab8 guanine nucle- otide exchange factor (GEF), Rabin8. It is proposed that once Rab11 vesicles with Rabin8 accumulate at the cen- trosome, Rabin8 activates Rab8 to initiate ciliogenesis. Two additional known regulators of endocytosis, EHD1 and EHD3, associate with this cascade and influence ciliary vesicle formation at DAPs [32]. These studies sug- gest that during cilia formation, the centrosome usurps a handful of regulatory proteins to manufacture a cilium.
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A Human Body Analysis System

A Human Body Analysis System

With our constraints, for computing cost reasons, the same method has to be used to detect the face and the hands in or- der to achieve real-time processing. As features would be too complex to define for hands, a method based on colour is better suited to our application. When the background has a colour similar to the skin, this kind of method is perhaps less robust than a method based on body modelling. However, re- sults have shown that the proposed method works on a wide range of backgrounds, providing efficient skin detection. In this paper, we present a robust and adaptive skin detection method working in the YCbCr colour space and based on an adaptive thresholding in the CbCr plane. Several colour spaces have been tested and the YCbCr colour space is one of those that yielded the best results [40, 41]. A method of selecting the face and hands among skin patches is also de- scribed. For this processing step, only the general constraints (1, 2, and 3) are assumed. When the static posture recogni- tion processing step was developed, we had to define a ref- erence posture (standing, both arms stretched horizontally), see Section 6.1. Afterwards, we decided to use this reference posture, if it occurs and if necessary, to reinitialise the face and hands locations.
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Tennis player physical health indicator evaluation system research based on AHP analysis

Tennis player physical health indicator evaluation system research based on AHP analysis

With sports development, players call for higher competition performance, training strength also becomes larger, sports injury increases accordingly. To tennis players, sports injury is even quite universal. This paper establishes tennis player health evaluation system, with an aim to let tennis player understand its own conditions and make reasonable adjustment in training plan combining with such conditions. At first through questionnaire investigation of 100 tennis players, it gets that main sports injury body parts are waist, knee joint, ankle joint, thorax and abdomen, wrist, shoulder joint, thigh and shank. Then combine with medicine relative knowledge to make analysis of such 7 factors influence on human health, construct judgment matrix, apply analytic hierarchy process method to get each factor relative influence weight on human health, establish sports health evaluation system. And find out the most important body part to tennis player is waist and ankle joint, then analyze the two parts and make suggestions.
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Body Part Extraction and Pose Estimation Method in Rowing Videos

Body Part Extraction and Pose Estimation Method in Rowing Videos

The second aim in our system is the human pose estimation, where the problem is localizing an- atomical landmarks. This aim focuses on find- ing parts of individuals [23] and there are some new researches going on in this topic [4], [18], [20]. The method of the first paper [4] uses cas- cade detection heatmaps by convolutional neu- ral networks and regression on these heatmaps. The next paper [18] also utilizes convolutional network architecture for human pose estima- tion, using various spatial relationships associ- ated with the body. The authors of the third pa- per [20] proposed ConvNet architecture that is able to benefit from temporal context by com- bining information across the multiple frames using optical flow. Most approaches [14], [23] used a top-down strategy that first detects a person and then, on each detected region, the pose of the detected person is estimated. There is another recent method, Deepcut method [21], which gives good accuracy for this problem. Similarly to Deepcut, Insafutdinov et al. built a solution, the DeeperCut [13] with a stronger part detectors based on ResNet [12]. One of the the previous pixel values observed at this pixel
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Capsules.ppt

Capsules.ppt

Figure 3.2 Drawings of an ordinary capsule (left), a Coni- Snap® capsule (center) and a DBcaps® capsule (right). In Coni-Snap® and DBcaps® capsules, the tapered rim of the body is designed to avoid telescoping, the grooves on cap and body lock together; the presence of indentations prevents

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NATURAL EDIBLE COLOURS AND FLAVOURS USED AS HUMAN HEALTH

NATURAL EDIBLE COLOURS AND FLAVOURS USED AS HUMAN HEALTH

ABSTRACT: Colour is a molecule that absorbs certain wavelengths of visible light and transmits or reflects others whereas colourant is the activity of that molecule. Natural food colour is any dye, pigment or any other substance obtained from vegetable, animal, mineral, or source capable of colouring food drug, cosmetic or any part of human body, colours come from variety of sources such as seeds, fruits, vegetables, algae, and insect. Natural colour exists in their normal habitat at extremely low concentrations and as a result their extraction is expensive and highly sensitive to change.. Colour as a way to identify a food and a way to judge the quality of a food. Food colours come in many forms consisting of liquids, powders, gels and pastes. Food colouring is used both in commercial food production and in domestic cooking. Due to its safety and general availability, food colouring is also used in a variety of non-food applications including cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, home craft projects and medical devices.
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Effective Resistance of Grounded Humans for Whole-Body Averaged SAR Estimation at Resonance Frequencies

Effective Resistance of Grounded Humans for Whole-Body Averaged SAR Estimation at Resonance Frequencies

Abstract—Whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBA- SAR) is used as a metric for human protection from whole-body exposures. The frequency at which the WBA-SAR becomes maximal is called “resonance frequency”. The present study proposes a scheme to estimate WBA-SAR at the resonance frequency based on an analogy between a human and a quarter-wavelength monopole antenna. Specifically, WBA-SAR can be estimated with the human body resistance once ankle current was obtained. Thus, it is essential to investigate the effective resistance for anatomically-based human models. Then, the effective resistances for different humans grounded on the perfect conductor are calculated to clarify the variability. The main factors for the variability were attributed to the body shape and model anatomy. In particular, WBA-SARs in human models grounded are found to be estimated from their BMI and respective measured ankle current in realistic environment, including a scenario of multiple wave exposure.
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HUMAN BODY AS COMMUNICATION MEDIA

HUMAN BODY AS COMMUNICATION MEDIA

Abstract: In today’s world, people can communicate anytime, anywhere, and with anyone. A lot of data are handled on various types of mobile terminals, such as cellular phones, digital cameras, pocket games, personal digital assistants, and notebook-type personal computers. They can transmit the data over the wired network or wireless network. The typical drawbacks of the existing system are as follows: First, routing of the cable for wired network. Second, the wireless network is not secure because of the data signal are radiated outward. Third, data transmission speed is less because of the packet collision and security risk from unwanted signal interception. Fourth, the power consumed by the system is more. The drawback of the existing system is eliminated using Intra-body communication (IBC) because in this system data is transmitted using body as a medium. By touching the hardware connected with the device data can be transmit , eliminating the problem of routing cable, radiation of signal because the data is transmitted within the body, it is the secure transmission because no unwanted signal interception, and the power consume by the system is also reduced. Considering these advantages, IBC is a promising candidate for the forthcoming ubiquitous computing era. Intra-body communication (IBC) is a new, "wireless" communication technique that enables electronic devices on or sometimes near the body to exchange the information. It uses the dielectric properties of human tissues so that human body can be used as the communication channel for data exchange. Transmitting data directly through the skin is can be much more efficient than current wireless transmission technologies (Bluetooth, Wi- Fi), since it requires much less energy. In this paper the concept of Personal Area Networks (PANs) is presented to demonstrate how electronic devices on and near the human body can exchange digital information through the body. Various methods available for Intra- body communication are studied and presented. The advantages of this method over current wireless communication techniques are discussed along with possible limitation. The technology can have a wide range of applications, hence future scope of the system is presented.
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