A different argument against biotechnology comes from Michael Sandel (2007), who argues that biotechnology might not just reduce agency, but that a “hyper-agency” is gained from biotechnological enhancements. Sandel fears that this hyper-agency will push those who are enhanced even further in reshaping nature, as well as human nature. Both Kass (1997; 2003) and Sandel (2007) fear that this hyper-agency will lead to the destruction of the “appreciation of the gifted character of human powers and achievements” (Sandel, 2007, p. 27). Sandel therefore, argues that the “giftedness of life” should be seen as a boundary of how far one can go in humanenhancement, and as a way to show that not everything in life is within the control of human beings (Sandel, 2007, p. 27). Kass (2003) acknowledges that it is difficult to sort the gifts. Which gifts should or could be improved through training, which gifts are to be accepted, and which gifts are to be opposed (p. 19)? Pushing the human to be as perfect as possible would be as dehumanizing as trying to make someone less than human. Kass (2003) leads this back to human dignity by stating that before humanity sets out to enhance themselves, they need to have apparent what aspects of being human humanity wants to uphold before humanity sets out to enhance itself.
increasingly sees health and illness as a matter of personal responsibility, questions about the potential of therapeutic technologies to also confer beyond-normal abilities tend to be answered with the language of human rights. This framing of enhancement as a matter of individual self-actualization, autonomy, and freedom of choice has too often stifled the ability to give equal weight to the risks posed by dual-use, or by adoption on a collective level. This is the uneasy and quickly shifting terrain of Fixed: The Science/Fiction of HumanEnhancement, a new documentary by California filmmaker Regan Brashear.
This is my goal in this thesis. In collaboration with co-authors, I have written five articles which analyse the costs and benefits of enhancement technologies in different contexts. I identify the reasons for and against particular uses of enhancement technologies, and discuss whether these reasons may be strong enough to justify further actions, such as state sponsored restrictions. These five separate manuscripts have been brought together in this “thesis by compilation”. Hence the next five chapters can be read as five different standalone pieces – each making a different set of claims. However, the forthcoming chapters can also be read as five interrelated pieces that support a general conclusion about humanenhancement. This conclusion is that we need to considerer certain population-level properties, such as diversity and robustness when assessing the permissibility of particular enhancement technologies. When individuals alter their own genes, or the genes of their children, they also influence the human gene pool. Similarly when individuals alter their cognitive capacities they also influence the collective cognitive resources available to the population as a whole. These types of effects on collective properties provide reasons both for and against particular uses of enhancement technologies.
Humanenhancement techniques offer a tantalizing prospect for counter- acting human frailty on the battlefield. For example, soldiers who need less sleep, can see clearly in the dark without bulky headwear or can run over rocky terrain for miles without getting fatigued, all offer measurable mili- tary advantages for the fighting force. However, the utilization of the more ambitious of these technologies also risks removing one of the real strengths of armed forces personnel—their humanity. The law of armed conflict allows soldiers to kill an enemy at one moment and obliges them to offer compassion and humane treatment in the next when that same enemy is not killed but is wounded or captured. Technologies which inter- fere with the ability to make that switch must be treated cautiously, taking into regard all the possible ramifications of their use. At the same time, there are not only risks associated with humanenhancement techniques as far as compliance with the law of armed conflict is concerned, but also potential benefits. Techniques that would allow for the suppression or con- trol of sentiments such as fear and revenge may also promote compliance. As with many other military technologies, the implications of human en- hancement techniques for the law of armed conflict are not inherent in the development and fielding of the technology itself, but rather will depend on how they are designed and used. An equally serious legal issue to con- sider is that of the human rights implications of enhancement techniques for soldiers who are required or requested to undergo such enhancement, not only during their service in the armed forces, but also in their reintegra- tion into society as they return to civilian life.
The use of enhancement technologies in the context of work raises a diverse and potentially widespread range of questions. Although some aspects of technological development, such as memory capacity, are fairly predictable, this is not the case for all fields. In addition, we cannot foresee all of the technologies that will be used and applied to work. Further, not only will the field of humanenhancement evolve, but so will the world of work. The concept of work as a collective activity in which individuals effectively sell their services to an employer is relatively new compared with the idea of enhancing one’s abilities. We are now seeing further transformation in terms of, for example, harnessing collective intelligence, and in 50 years’ time work is likely to look very different to its current form. We must develop a better understanding of work and how it is performed if we are to identify potential impacts of enhancement technologies sufficiently. Not only this, but we must appreciate the particular instances where employees’ and employers’ interests diverge, particularly where there are implications beyond work, for example on personal life.
Is there a qualitative difference between modern practices and understandings of humanenhancement and previous concep- tions for which we rather use the terms “ improvement, ” “perfecting” and the like? The difference in question would primarily or exclusively refer to the methods of achieving the desired goal. Therefore, we can adopt a distinction: on the one hand, the conventional, “natural” ways of bringing about im- proved abilities in humans like education, training, diet, exer- cise, even invention of useful tools, external to the body itself; on the other hand, the unconventional ways that rely on the “artificial” means and are now present as tools, internal to the body, literally incorporated, integrated in our bodies . Now, if the difference is only one of degree, the transhumanists are right. If, however, the technologies of humanenhancement are about something essentially different from the results produced by effort put into persistent “work on oneself”, at least in the repeatedly determined (by the context of community) sense of increasing one's abilities past the level of “species-typical normal functional organization,”  then bioconservatives, who set the limit at a given point, will sooner or later be right . That limit – not of enhancement, but of the enhanced human – is the subject of this paper.
In this article I have investigated the traditional resources for restricting humanenhancement, such as the concepts of naturalness, therapy, and disease. These do not seem to do the job. However, the article shows that the concept of enhancement is feeble in defining what is to be enhanced, i.e., goodness. The qualitative better is frequently confused with the quantitative more. Accordingly, the lack of speci- fication of betterment inherent in the conception of HE itself provides means to restrict its unwarranted prolifera- tion as well as guiding its fruitful implementation. We may therefore not need “ external ” measures for setting limits in terms of naturalness, therapy, or disease. We only need to demand clear, sustainable, obtainable goals for hu- man enhancement that are based on evidence, and not lofty speculations, hypes, analogies, or weak associations. Human enhancements that specify how humans will be- come better, and where adequate evidence that this will happen is provided, are good and should be pursued. Others should be restricted.
The procedures for the isolation of human microglia have been previously reported . In brief, human embryonic brain tissues were dissected into small blocks, incubated in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 0.25% trypsin and 40 µ g/ml DNase and then dissociated into single cells by repeated pipetting. Cells were plated in T75 flasks in a medium consisting of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) containing 5% horse serum, 5 mg/ml glucose, 25 µ g/ml gentamicin, and 2.5 µ g/ml amphotericin B. Freely floating microglia were harvested from a medium of mixed cell cultures after 7–10 days of growth in culture flasks and plated on aclar coverslips for identification, on poly-L-lysine-coated glass coverslips for calcium spectrofluorometry and plated on six-well multi- plates for RT-PCR or ELISA. CD11b and ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA), specific markers for microglia, were used to confirm purity of the culture which was in excess of 98% [24,30].
There are widespread applications of low intensity laser irradiation in various areas of the medical field  . The new method that propose for the rejuvenation of preserved Blood (i.e. increasing the ratio of young to old RBCs, a process that could possibly be explained by laser radiation enhancing hemolysis of old or non- functional RBCs) using laser blood irradiation is suspected to be viable, efficient, low-cost, non-invasive and pose non-invasive and pose no blood contamination risk. If this is true, the prospect for performing transfusions using the irradiated blood will be good, in the treatment of some severe or hematological diseases (various types of leukemia). The efficiency of this method was demonstrated when it’s recorded, after irradiation, a positive modification of some markers of the blood’s functional integrity in relation to the non-irradiated samples. Some studies have been reported on the effect of low power laser irradiation on human blood parameters, especially for the parameter of RBC -. More research is needed to be done to understand the respond of this para- meter with low level laser irradiation.
However, few studies have put the focus on the osteo- genic differentiation of human PDLCs (hPDLCs) through the coordination of AuNPs and hBD3 in inflammatory microenvironments; particularly, it is not clear that, when hBD3 combined AuNPs, whether their functions could be more than just a sum of single function. Thus, in this study, we used hBD3-combined AuNPs to enhance and regulate the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs under inflammatory microenvironments. In addition, we further investigated the role of Wnt/ β -catenin signaling pathway in the process of AuNPs and hBD3-mediated osteogenic differentiation.
To assist with analyzing compromised DNA, enhancement strategies can be used to increase the sensitivity of genetic marker detection to get as much information out of the sample as possible. There is a wide variety of techniques and emerging technologies that focus on analyzing compromised DNA; these technologies may have different chemistries and detection methods but all aim to increase the amount of reportable genetic loci to improve discriminatory power. These technologies include having larger and more sensitive multiplexes that reduce not only the amount of input DNA required but also the amount of time for analysis (Peng et al. 2015). Furthermore, high-throughput technologies such as massively parallel sequencing (MPS) can now evaluate new alternative genetic markers and can simultaneously produce large amounts of data for many samples all in one reaction.
Ageing process is characterized by a general decline in cel- lular activity and it is also associated with a decrease in mitochondrial function correlated to the onset and pro- gression of age-related pathologies . Mitochondria play an essential role in ageing and human umbilical vein endo- thelial cells (HUVEC) have been established as a cellular model to follow mitochondrial dysfunction during the age- ing process [2,3]. Consistent with this notion, it is impera- tive to uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the decline of mitochondria in order to iden- tify potential therapeutic targets. Several regulatory factors are implicated in the modulation of mitochondrial function  and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ – coactivator-1 (PGC1-α) has emerged as a master
I would like to first clarify the scope and terminology of my argument. First of all, the argument I am making here per- tains only to non-human animals. This is not to say that the argument cannot be made with respect to humans as well, but merely that this is not my concern in this essay. One reason for this is that non-human animals generally possess a very limited degree of moral agency. To a first approximation, most humans can be considered moral agents, whereas non-human animals cannot, at least not nearly to the same extent. And such moral agency does complicate discussions about the potential effects of enhancement and their ethical status, complications that can be ignored if we restrict our argument to non-human animals only. Note that I am not claiming that moral agents should be granted greater moral consideration than non-agents. The complications I seek to avoid by excluding moral agents mostly have to do with the ability that such agents have to help others.
Employing different cell types and DEN strains has revealed significant insight into DEN replication (see, for example, ref- erences 2, 15, 17, and 21), while few studies have assessed the contribution of cellular growth state to DEN replication (1, 41, 53, 67). How the growth state of mosquito cells influences DEN replication has not been explored. In this report, we demonstrate host cell-specific differences in the response of DEN2 to cell cycle. DEN2 titers were increased in S-phase mosquito cells, but not in S-phase human cells, relative to titers from asynchronously cycling control cells. Moreover, viral progeny were detectable several hours earlier from S-phase mosquito cells than from asynchronously cycling cells. In- creased titers were also observed when virus adsorption, entry, and uncoating were bypassed via transfection with infectious DEN2 RNA. Despite an approximately 30-fold increase in titers of low-passage DEN2 isolates, the amount of viral RNA was only about 2-fold higher and viral translation was not impacted in S-phase mosquito cells. Rather, virion assembly appears to be enhanced during S-phase. The responsiveness of DEN replication to cellular growth state may play a role in dissemination and/or the transmission potential of the virus and represents a useful tool for investigating virus and host determinants of productive infection.
FIG. 2. Wild-type HIV-2 glycoprotein caused enhancement of particle bud- ding. Immunoreactive HIV-2 bands are identified as follows: pre, the HIV-2 precursor glycoprotein; SU, the surface glycoprotein gp120; Gag pp, Gag polyprotein; p41, the Gag intermediate; and CA, capsid protein. (A) SupT1 cells were coinfected with pairs of vaccinia virus vectors indicated as follows: C, rVV-SC11 (control); GP, rVV-gpol; ST, rVV-STenv; and M5, rVV-M5env. Sim- ilar levels of cellular Gag pp were observed when Gag was coexpressed with the control vector, ST glycoprotein, and M5 glycoprotein. (B) Visual inspection revealed that within the corresponding viral pellets (VLPs), coexpression of Gag with wild-type glycoprotein (GP 1 ST lane) caused greater release of Gag pp, p41, and CA than coexpression of Gag with the control vector or the truncated glycoprotein (GP 1 C and GP 1 M5, respectively). The final MOI was a constant 3 PFU per cell in all experiments (1.5 PFU per cell per vector). The viral proteins were analyzed by radioimmunoprecipitation as described previously (40–42). The data presented are representative of multiple independent experiments yielding similar results.
Abstract— The heat exchangers are used to enhance heat transfer by providing high heat fluxes or heat transfer coefficient. One of the most important techniques used is passive heat transfer enhancement technique. These techniques when adopted in Heat exchanger proved that the overall thermal performance improved significantly .Helical wire coil insert in plain tube have been experimentally studied in order to improve the heat transfer and overall thermal performance of heat exchanger The present experimental work are carried out with copper and aluminum wire coil inserts by varying pitches of 1 cm, 2cm and 3 cm respectively. The work includes the determination of heat transfer coefficient for various wire coil inserts with varying pitches and different materials. A performance comparison between wire coils inserts and plain tube has shown that wire coil inserts perform better than plain tube to enhance the high heat transfer.
The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to shape the adaptive immune response to viral infection is mediated largely by their maturation and activation state as determined by the surface expression of HLA molecules, costimulatory molecules, and cytokine production. Dengue is an emerging arboviral disease where the severity of illness is influenced by the adaptive immune response to the virus. In this report, we have demonstrated that dengue virus infects and replicates in immature human myeloid DCs. Exposure to live dengue virus led to maturation and activation of both the infected and surrounding, uninfected DCs and stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- ␣ ) and alpha interferon (IFN- ␣ ). Activation of the dengue virus-infected DCs was blunted compared to the surrounding, uninfected DCs, and dengue virus infection induced low-level release of interleukin-12 p70 (IL-12 p70), a key cytokine in the development of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Upon the addition of IFN- ␥ , there was enhanced activation of dengue virus-infected DCs and enhanced dengue virus-induced IL-12 p70 release. The data suggest a model whereby DCs are the early, primary target of dengue virus in natural infection and the vigor of CMI is modulated by the relative presence or absence of IFN- ␥ in the microenvironment surrounding the virus-infected DCs. These findings are relevant to understanding the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever and the design of new vaccination and therapeutic strategies.
On the other hand, the human visual system model is applied in frequency domain and that gives an advantage than the other domains. Based on the HVS, the embedding process performs on the approximation coefficient or detail coefficient or both of them. However, most of the studies that used HVS model only used approximation coefficient for embedding data because they assumed the approximation coefficient contain important information than detail coefficient, (Foriš and Levický (2007); Motwani and Harris Jr (2009); Agarwal and Mishra (2010); Reddy and Varadarajan (2010)). But as according to (Ghannam and Abou- Chadi (2008)) that assumption is not true for a lot of signals. Approximation coefficient especially at the DWT is too small to contain enough information, while detail coefficients covered the large space in the image (Gui and Hong, 2005).