Non-sewered sanitary systems (NSS) are emerging as one of the solutions to poor sanitation because of the limitations of the conventional flush toilet. These new sanitary systems are expected to safely treat faecal waste and operate without external connections to a sewer, water supply or energy source. The Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT) is a unique domestic-scale sanitary solution currently being developed to treat human waste on-site. This toilet will employ a small-scale gasifier to convert human faeces into products of high energy value. This study investigated the suitability of human faeces as a feedstock for gasification. It quantified the recoverable exergy potential from human faeces and explored the optimal routes for thermal conversion, using a thermodynamic equilibrium model. Fresh human faeces were found to have approximately 70–82 wt.% moisture and 3–6 wt.% ash. Product gas resulting from a typical dry human faeces (0 wt.% moisture) had LHV and exergy values of 17.2 MJ/kg and 24 MJ/kg respectively at optimum equivalence ratio of 0.31, values that are comparable to wood biomass. For suitable conver- sion of moist faecal samples, near combustion operating conditions are required, if an external energy source is not supplied. This is however at 5% loss in the exergy value of the gas, provided both thermal heat and energy of the gas are recovered. This study shows that the maximum recoverable exergy poten- tial from an average adult moist human faeces can be up to 15 MJ/kg, when the gasifier is operated at optimum equivalence ratio of 0.57, excluding heat losses, distribution or other losses that result from operational activities.
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The Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene reported that 32% of the global population had no access to basic sanitation services in 2015 . In many developing countries, more than 90% of the faeces generated are not safely disposed, which poses serious health and environmental threats . The “ Reinvent the Toilet Challenge ” set by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation aims at the development and deploy- ment of novel sanitary systems without connections to water, sewer and electrical supplies in order to ensure safe, affordable and sustainable sanitation solutions to people worldwide . New concepts of sanitary systems have arisen as response to this chal- lenge. The Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT), which is being developed at Cran ﬁ eld University, is based on the recognition of human faeces (HF) as a fuel instead of a waste. The NMT includes the in-situ combustion of HF to produce energy for self-sustained operation of the unit . HF is a carbon-based fuel which consists of a mixture
This article describes the design and commissioning of a micro-combustor for energy recovery from human faeces, which can operate both in updraft and downdraft modes. Energy recovery from faecal matter via ther- mochemical conversion has recently been identi ﬁ ed as a feasible solution for sanitation problems in low income countries and locations of high income countries where access to sewage infrastructures is di ﬃ cult or not possible. This technology can be applied to waterless toilets with the additional outcome of generating heat and power that can be used to pre-treat the faeces before their combustion and to ensure that the entire system is self- sustaining. The work presented here is framed within the Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT) project that is being carried out at Cran ﬁ eld University, as part of the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
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Among the different operating conditions, fuel ignition sequence and fuel characteristics had a significant influence on the combustion processes of the dry human faeces. Fuel ignition is a critical parameter that affects the amount of heat released into the system, as it has a direct influence on combustion temperature and fuel burn rate. Monhol and Martins,  exposed faeces to heat influx of 30 kW/m 2 from a radiant cone heater at elevated temperatures of 570 ° C and achieved a combustion temperature of about 885 ° C. Their studies showed that the ignition tempera- ture of human faeces is about 220–375 ° C and exhibits a heteroge- neous behaviour. In the case of an ‘heterogeneous’ fuel ignition, there is direct interactions of oxygen and the organic matter on the surface of the fuel; however, ‘homogenous’ ignition occurs in the gas surrounding the fuel . In this study, the combustion of faeces can be described to exhibit smouldering ignition with complex heterogeneous reactions that transit into flame propaga- tion. This observation holds for faeces with ‘booster’ ignition, because the heat flux from the air igniter increases the tempera- ture of the fuel directly and enhances the thermal decomposition, such that drying, pyrolysis and release of gaseous volatiles are fas- tened for oxidation to occur. In the case of the standard ignition, the fuel is gradually heated and the volatiles are released, causing smouldering ignition to be dominant without flame propagation, resulting in a low combustion temperature, as described in Sec- tion 3.2.1. Similar to the simulant faeces, the maximum combus- tion temperature achieved under standard ignition of the dry faeces was at most 300 ° C at optimum air flow rate of 16 L/min (results not shown). Since, minimal energy requirement is one of the design considerations for a self-sustained energy conversion system for the NMT, the input power is estimated at 1.2 kW for booster ignition and 2.9 kW for standard ignition. During the booster ignition of the dry faeces, the air igniter was operated at heater temperature between 620 ° C and 627 ° C for 5–6 min. This includes the time required for the heater to reach >600 ° C and the period in which the suction fan is used to draw ambient air across the heated igniter surface until fuel ignition is achieved in the combustion zone.
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Many pathogens that enter the human body orally are enteric. They have been found to be excreted unevenly in faeces and many people without any clinical symptoms can be emitting pathogens. Human faeces are thus very liable to spread enteric micro-organisms to other persons. From the point of view of hygiene, it is extremely important to avoid all circumstances where fresh, unhygienised faeces can contaminate human food, water, or other persons directly.
Our investigation demonstrated that the cholera out- break in Kaiso Village was caused by drinking conta- minated lake water. Prior to this outbreak, cholera outbreaks had been reported in communities along the Lake Albert shoreline. Hence, cholera might have been introduced into the Kaiso community by one or multiple visitors carrying the bacteria, causing the ini- tial infections. Those initial case-patients likely had defecated on the hillside area along the gulley chan- nel. Heavy rainfall subsequently washed the case- patients’ faeces down the gulley channel onto the lakeshore. Village residents collected the contami- nated lake water near the end of the gully channel and drank it without boiling or treating it, causing the outbreak.
Members of the E. coli phylogroups vary in their ecological niche, life history characteristics and propensity to cause disease. Phylogroup A and B1 are considered to be better survivors in external environment, while phylogroup B2 and D strains are considered survive poorly in these habitats (Quero et al., 2015). Phylogroup B2 strains and D strains are more likely to be detected in endothermic vertebrates as compared to ectotherms, while B2 strains are more likely to be detected in mammals compared to birds. Among mammals, B2 strains are isolated more often from species with a hindgut fermentation chamber compared to species lacking a caecum (Gordon & Cowling 2003). In industrialised countries like Australia, phylogroup B2 strains are the phylogroup most frequently isolated from human faeces, blood and urine (Picard et al., 1999; Gordon et al., 2005; Walk et al., 2007; Touchon et al., 2009; Gordon et al., 2017). They are thought to be the most specialised and host adapted strains, persisting in individual humans longer than strains of most other phylogroups (Nowrouzian et al., 2005; Clermont et al., 2008; Smati et al., 2013). Interestingly, strains of this phylogroup are far more likely to cause extra-intestinal diseases compared to strains belonging to other phylogroups (Johnson, 2002; Johnson and Russo, 2002; Day et al., 2016). They are also frequently detected in livestock, poultry, and companion animals, as well as a number of wild species (Gordon and Cowling, 2003; Clermont et al., 2011; Blyton et al., 2013; Coura et al., 2015; Alonso et al., 2017).
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Five bovines, with average weight of 238 kg, were accommodated in individual stalls to facilitate the collec- tion o faeces. The period for the animals to adapt to the housing and diet alterations was of seven days. The feeding was carried out individually, following a 90:10 voluminous-concentrate ratio, with 1 kg/day of corn meal and soy meal concentrate, 10 kg/day of tifton grass hay—which was divided into two daily feedings—, and water at will. The diet was balanced following the nutrient requirements of small ruminants—NRC— to suppress the maintaining requirements.
Classical scrapie is a naturally transmitted prion disease of sheep and goats. Contaminated environments may contribute to the spread of disease and evidence from animal models has implicated urine, blood, saliva, placenta and faeces as possible sources of the infection. Here we sought to determine whether sheep naturally infected with classical scrapie shed prions in their faeces. We used serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) along with two extraction methods to examine faeces from sheep during both the clinical and preclinical phases of the disease and showed amplification of PrP Sc in 7 of 15 and 14 of 14 sheep respectively. However PrP Sc was not amplified from the faeces of 25 sheep not exposed to scrapie. These data represent the first demonstration of prion shedding in faeces from a naturally infected host and thus a likely source of prion contamination in the environment.
Results for 14 enteropathogens (Table 1) of patients with suspected IID who underwent conventional faeces test- ing (microscopy, culture and/or enzyme immunoassay [EIA]) in the before period and with primarily PCR test- ing in the after period, are gathered. A routine culture attempt is performed on all positive bacterial PCR tests. In principle, this allows us to obtain the corresponding isolates and to perform further serologic, relevant phenotypic or genetic typing. For both methods the rela- tive sensitivity, specificity and efficiency will be deter- mined, also proving a basis for the cost-effectiveness analysis (objective 2).
Promising results attained in ruminants by the study of anaerobic degradability of organic matter in the input and output (feeds and faeces) and their quantity as a picture of carbon quality and quantity at steady state initiated our efforts to substantially enlarge the sets of the studied experimental vari- ants because the Oxi Top Control Merck system with its OC 110 controller and the ACHAT OC programme make it possible to study up to 360 va- riants simultaneously. But it is excluded by the ex- tremely high price of this equipment for the time being because the cost of experimental containers with measuring heads with infrared transmitters amounts to 3.6 million Czech crowns in the Czech Republic. This is the reason why we wanted to an- swer a question whether the anaerobic degrad- ability of organic matter could be replaced for this purpose by determination of the ratio of the labile to stable fraction of organic matter (Kolář et al., 2009a). It would be very advantageous for opera- tional conditions because oxidation and hydrolytic methods (Blair et al., 1995; Chan et al., 2001; Rovira and Vallejo, 2002; Shirato and Yokozawa, 2006) are much cheaper.
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workers reported previously . The higher resistance levels against a combination antimicrobial agent are an indicator of spread of antibiotic resistance . Likewise during the present investigation, the quinolone antimicrobials were found the most effective drugs against E.coli isolated from intestinal contents of both diseased and healthy chicken. The ciprofloxacin was determined as highly effective antimicrobial agent. The results recorded in this survey about antibiotics are in agreement to the other workers  who also mentioned the similar findings in their reports regarding the antibiotics against E.coli isolated from different sources. The results of the present investigation revealed extremely elevated levels of the resistance to nearly all antimicrobial agents against the E. coli isolated from obtained feces. The resistance range for the E. coli isolated from the faeces was alarming irrespective of the spectrum of activity. Exact explanation of this is the presence of ESBLs that facilitate hydrolysis of the antimicrobial agent leading to spread of antimicrobial resistance . Despite the metallo-beta lactam ring of carbapenems, the resistance level seen in these antimicrobial agents was elevated has been reported previously . Likewise the amoxicillin /clavulanic acid presented high resistance levels that was recorded as another evidence for the presence of ESBLs [46, 47]. Nevertheless, quinolone antimicrobials presented comparably better susceptibility towards the E.coli isolated from chicken feces. Limited use of these antimicrobial agents in the poultry was regarded as the most suitable explanation of these results.
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Abstract: Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Burkholderia multivorans spp. in bats. The Burkholderia genus, being the largest, consists of Gram-negative, forms part of the Burkholderia complex, a group of Gram negative organisms which are commonly found in soil and water. And can survive for prolonged periods in moist environments. These bacteria can act as a powerful pesticide, capable of eliminating many soil-borne plant pathogens. Many species of Burkholderia are of considerable economic importance as these serve as insecticides, cause food poisoning, produce antibiotics etc. Hence in the present study an effort has been made to elucidate the presence of Burkholderia multivorans BPSS isolated, characterized and identified from the faeces of Pteropus giganteus from Udaipur, Rajasthan India. Its phylogenetic tree has also been derived, which showed evolutionary relationship of eleven related taxa. This is the first report from Indian subcontinent correlating the role of this megachiropteran as a carrier of Burkholderia multivorans BPSS.
Enterococcus faecium EM41 is an isolate from ostrich faeces. It produces a thermo-stable proteinaceous substance, bacteriocin (enterocin) EM41 with the highest inhibition activity in late logarithmic phase of growth (25 600 AU/ml). This strain and its enterocin have not been previously tested in animals. Lohmann Brown laying hens (aged 45 weeks) were involved in this model/pilot experiment, divided into 3 groups 6 birds in each. E. faecium EM41 applied was a variant treated with rifampicin (10 9 cfu/ml, dose 400 µl/animal/day) to differentiate it from the other enterococci. Partially-purified
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attempts to estimate the challenge dose were performed. The qualitative analysis was regarded good enough, as our main interest was to measure if the numbers of bacte- ria were enough to reach above the threshold for detect- able infection. Also, to quantify the concentration of Salmonella in the faeces of the seeder pigs was deemed not very useful as it is variable and the dose also would have been affected by the build-up of environmental con- tamination. As the direct transmission was studied in previously cleaned and disinfected facilities the pathogen load was probably low. However, one of the S Cubana seeder pigs had a history of constant faecal shedding in all the 23 faecal samples collected during the eight weeks prior to the commingling with the naive pigs  and con- tinued to shed S Cubana in five of the eight faecal samples collected during the study period of two weeks. This was also the only group where faecal shedding of Salmonella was demonstrated in the weaners in the DT-study. Thus,
The results described in Table 1 - 1 0 above highlight the level of inconsistency that occurs when similar doses of chlamydospores are experimentally administered by different researchers. The cause/s of this is inconsistency have not yet been identified, but remain under investigation. Unfortunately, studies which result in no significant larval reduction are rarely published. Nevertheless, these studies demonstrate the ability of D. jlagrans to pass through the gastro-intestinal tract, and remain viable in numbers sufficient to significantly reduce the number of larvae developing in faeces and moving onto herbage (Pena et al. , 2002; Sarkunas et al. , 2000; Femandez et al. , 1 997; Nansen et al, 1 996). However, the harmful effects of rumen fluid may cause the dose rate necessary to obtain efficacy to be unreasonably high. If the number of spores killed en-route through the digestive tract can be reduced through protective coatings, the minimum oral dose necessary to obtain efficacy will also be reduced (this prospect is considered in Chapters 3, 5 and 6). Reducing the loss of viable spores in the rumen could allow reduction in the spore loading of slow release devices, and/or increase the time they remain effective in the animal. Both would improve the commercial potential of such devices (Wall er et al. 200 1 ; Ski pp, unpublished data)
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The present paper deals with the case study of Sanitation system in Ambarelli village, Dholka. The wastewater sanitation system consists of PVC collection pipelines and treatment units. Ecological sanitation system provides the solution to sustainable sanitation as it aims at providing improved sanitation by sanitizing the excreta and re-using it in agriculture. The main objective of this work is to change attitudes of people and encouraging them to consider cleanliness as an important issue and to consider human urine and faeces as a valuable resource and not a waste. The aim of the work is to spread public health awareness and find a local cheap solution for village sanitation services.
Abstract -- Bangladesh has always to face pressing sanitation problems due to its vulnerable geographical location and lack of appropriate and adaptive technological options. EcoSan toilets are found as one of the most appropriate and proven technological options, as these are cost effective, established and environmentally as well as socially sounds and reliable option can effectively contribute in solving the existing and emerging sanitation problems of Bangladesh. Eco-San toilet is a urine diversion toilet and based on the idea that urine, faeces and water are resources in an ecological loop. It has two defecation holes at the top of each vault that receive faeces. Sufficient ashes are used to cover new faeces for protecting odor, flies, insects and pollutions. Moreover, it does not need to use water for cleaning and flashing. However, Eco-san can effectively contribute in safely transforming human urines and faces into high-potent organic fertilizers for eco-friendly agriculture and producing qualitative nutrient food-crops. Human urines are contained with high level of Nitrogen (75%- 87%), Phosphorus (45%-50%) and Potash (50%-54%). On the other hands, human faces contain 10% Nitrogen, 40% Phosphorus and 12% Potash. The general perceptions of people on ECOSAN were found encouraging. Almost 80% of the users apply these resources in their field. Similarly, due to lack of agricultural land, 12% of them shared with the neighbours once the urine collection tanks are full while the remaining 8% used to throw it down the drain. On the other hand, 72% of the Eco-san users had experience of increment in production, 19% noted little difference, and 9% found no change in production at all. Therefore, Eco-san toilet protect public health, prevent pollution and at the same time return valuable nutrients. This recycling of nutrients helps to ensure food security. The basic objective of this paper is to share the status of Eco-san toilet towards demonstrating sustainable sanitation for environment, health and development in Bangladesh.
wastewater  and recreational water . There are also reports of simultaneous detection of Cryptosporid- ium in livestock and people associated with them such as farmers, shepherds and slaughterhouse workers, suggest- ing zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. from animals to humans [22–25]. However, most of the studies focused on humans and animals with diarrhea. Although livestock can play a major role as a source of human cryptosporidiosis, not all of the infected livestock show clinical signs such as diarrhea . Moreover, cross-con- tamination of raw meat with animal excreta in the process of slaughtering is a risk factor for human cryptosporidi- osis [27, 28]. To date, there is no information about infec- tion of ruminants with Cryptosporidium in Yazd Province, Iran. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use molecu- lar tools to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. in livestock (sheep, goats and cattle) at a local abattoir.
Coupled with the vaccination effort is a very effective surveillance network that looks for polioviruses in both sewage-contaminated water (Environmental Surveillance [ES]) and children below the age of 15 years diagnosed with AFP. The ES strategy searches for enteroviruses in sewage-contaminated water due to the fact that all en- terovirus infected individuals shed the virus in large amounts in faeces for several weeks and in turn into sewage and/or sewage contaminated water  . There- fore, ES is very sensitive and can detect enterovirus iso- lates from both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. The demerit of ES based strategy is that, alone, it cannot differentiate which isolates are associ- ated with clinical manifestations and hospitalisations. On the other hand, AFP surveillance finds enteroviruses associated with a clinical manifestations and consequent hospitalisation. However, considering that AFP surveil- lance detects only the <10% of enterovirus infections with clinical manifestations, the inability of AFP surveil- lance to see beyond the tip of the iceberg is the strength of the ES surveillances strategy. Therefore, combining both strategies better illuminates our understanding of the epidemiological and evolutionary trajectory of en- teroviruses, particularly with respect to pathogenicity. Hence, the reason the ES-AFP surveillance strategies are combined by the Global Polio Eradication initiative (GPEI) in some countries [11, 12].
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