Purpose of the study, was to compare effectiveness of the physical modeling and com- puter animation implemented with social constructivist and traditionally designed instruc- tion on 10th grade students’ understanding of humanreproductivesystem, motivation to- wards learning biology and types of achievement goal orientation. Design of the study was quasi-experimental with 125 students from six intact classes in a private high school in Ankara. Three groups for both experimental and controlled groups were randomly as- signed. Students in experimental and control group were exposed to computer animation and physical modeling implemented with social constructivist instruction and traditionally designed biology instruction with respectively.
Based on the results of this study concluded that mind map learning media can improve student learning outcomes on the topic of the humanreproductivesystem. The gain score is moderate and high. This is because mind maps can help students in learning that requires a lot of understanding of concepts. The recommendation of this study is to further
Therefore to study the alpha tocopherol status in humanreproductive disorders, a spectrophotometric method for plasma vitamin E determination, a high performance liquid chromatography procedure for alpha tocopherol assay and a colorimetric method for total lipid measurement were used. No significant differences were found in the levels of alpha tocopherol or alpha tocopherol/total lipid ratios between normal men and male patients with oligospermia, impotence or sperm agglutination, or between normal women and females with premenstrual syndrome.
Every human being posseses a reproductivesystem. The reproductivesystem helps him/her to reproduce another human being. We are product of reproduction. As you do the activities in this module, you will be able to find out and identify the male and female reproductivesystem and their major parts. You would be able to relate also the structure of a male and female reproductivesystem to its function in reproduction.
conferences in Mexico City (1975), Copenhagen (1980), Nairobi (1985), and especially in Beijing (1995), and at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo (1994). Women and their supporters, led in large measure by women from the developing south, have gone to great lengths to amplify the initial language so as to move women’s reproductive issues into the ethical spotlight. As a result of such pressure, many countries have made progress. this can be moni- tored against the benchmarks set up by the meeting documents so that it is possible to gauge progress. the Vatican, several Latin American nations, and several Islamic fundamentalist countries presented enormous opposition both at the meetings and in the subsequent efforts to implement the action plans that included planks relating to women’s reproductive justice. 4 the role of religion, whether fundamental- ist Christianity led by the Vatican or fundamentalist Islam, was key in the work that went into changing hearts and minds. Due to the efforts of Catholics for a Free Choice and its sister groups around the world, it was impossible for the Vatican to claim to be the exclusive voice of the Catholic community. Feminist theologians and ethicists offered religious arguments in favor of reproductive choice, promi- nently the notion that women are moral agents with the right to bodily integrity, the formulation of Presbyterian theo-ethicist beverly Wildung Har- rison (1984).
Abstract: Microfluidic-based technology attracts great interest in cell biology and medicine, in virtue of the ability to better mimic the in vivo cell microenvironment compared to conventional macroscale cell culture platforms. Recent Organs-on-chip (OoC) models allow to reproduce in vitro tissue and organ-level functions of living organs and systems. These models have been applied for the study of specific functions of the female reproductive tract, which is composed of several organs interconnected through intricate endocrine pathways and communication mechanisms. To date, a disease and toxicology study of this system has been difficult to perform. Thus, there is a compelling need to develop innovative platforms for the generation of disease model and for performing drug toxicity/screening in vitro studies. This review is focused on the analysis of recently published OoC models that recreate pathological and physiological characteristics of the female reproductive organs and tissues. These models aim to be used to assess changes in metabolic activity of the specific cell types and the effect of exposure to hormonal treatment or chemical substances on some aspects of reproduction and fertility. We examined these models in terms of device specifications, operating procedures, accuracy for studying the biochemical and functional activity of living tissues and the paracrine signalling that occurs within the different tissues. These models represent a powerful tool for understanding important diseases and syndromes affecting women all around the world. Immediate adoption of these models will allow to clarify diseases, causes and adverse events occurring during pregnancy such as pre-eclampsia, infertility or preterm birth, endometriosis and infertility.
While components of the ECS have been identified in female reproductive fluids and in plasma , the major- ity of our knowledge about the effects of cannabinoids on ovarian function is derived from in vitro and animal studies, as well as studies in cannabis users. In 2009, El-Talatini et al reported the presence of the entire ECS within the ovary . Using immunohistochemical stain- ing, CB1, CB2, FAAH, and NAPE-PLD were shown to be localized within human ovarian follicles. They also presented data which suggests that AEA acts by auto- crine mechanisms in the follicular cells to stimulate changes that have yet to be determined . Interestingly, CB2 was present at greater levels in the ovarian follicles as compared to CB1 . This finding may suggest a greater immunological role for the ECS in ovarian func- tion. Moreover, FAAH and NAPE-PLD were found to be expressed in the secondary and tertiary follicles, the cor- pus luteum and corpus albicans, which suggests that AEA may be produced by developing follicles, but not from oocytes, thus serving a role in folliculogenesis .
nanocapsules, and nanosized lipid emulsions in specific locations in rodent ovaries. This phenomenon was further characterized by ex vivo fluorescence imaging and confo- cal laser scanning microscopy. Based on extensive in vivo and ex vivo studies, the enrichment was size dependent. Larger particles seemed to accumulate to a greater extent than smaller ones. Because this accumulation was limited to special regions in the ovaries, the toxic risk for human beings could be rather low. 59 Some reports have also suggested that
The study on apigenin investigated whether apigenin had any toxic effect on the reproductivesystem in adult male mice. Intraperitoneal injection of apigenin for seven days to mice led to no obvious change in their body weights. The relative weights of testis and epididymis showed no marked changes as well, when normalized with the whole body weights.
ECtHR’s reproductive rights jurisprudence, we use the term citizenship in a fairly loose and broad sense to describe a person’s status and belonging: who is included and who is excluded from decision-making, from being a full and autonomous subject. Women have been historically excluded from full legal citizenship—from being able to vote and run for office, to having property rights, educational opportunities, and parental authority. The status of women in Europe began to formally change only in the twentieth century, and is indeed enshrined in the European Convention. Yet gender stereotypes—generalized views or preconceptions concerning sex, sexual characteristics or qualities, and sex roles 13 —continue to be embedded in some national laws as well as practices, and to limit
ICSI biases sex ratio towards females, because decreased SSR was observed even in the study group with non-male factor infertility (31). Irrespective of the mechanisms involved, this and prior studies collectively indicate that infertility forms part of the panoply of medical conditions (e.g. (49)) that directly influence human sex ratios.
Abstract Crasiella diplura from Sweden and Crasiella sp. from Italy were studied alive and with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The two species are simulta- neous hermaphrodites and share the same reproductivesystem lay-out: paired ovaries extend along the posterior part of the intestine and join mid-dorsally, while bilateral, club-shaped testes lie at the sides of the anterior gut, extending as deferentia that fuse on the mid-ventral plane and open into a single pore; gametes mature in a caud- ocephalic and centripetal direction. The bulky, sac-like, frontal organ is lined by a simple epithelium and lies dorsolaterally to the intestine, on the left side of the body. The spindle-shaped caudal organ is musculo-glandular and is located ventrolaterally to the gut on the right side. It is characterized by the presence of a roughly Y-shaped internal channel that opens into two pores close to each other, which function for the intake and outlet of the (auto)sperm, respectively. The spermatozoa, which are peculiar and similar in the two species, are characterized by a long and complex acrosome consisting of four ultra- structurally distinct regions, three of which find
The reproductivesystem determines evolutionary inheritance of populations by establishing patterns of gametes union to originate the next generation. The objective of this study was to investigate the mating system of Mimosa scabrella Benth. (bracatinga), a Brazilian tree species with socioeconomic and ecological importance, in a population of the mountainous region of Santa Catarina state, in two consecutive reproductive events. The analyzes in the 2015 and 2016 reproductive events were lead with isoenzymatic markers and the mating system characterization was performed based on mixed crosses and correlated crosses models, and the means of each parameter were statistically compared. Among the results, the multilocus outcrossing rates (t m(2015) : 0.925 and
In spite of the clarity of international conventions that place women’s empowerment as central to sexual and reproductive health, within many countries, Ireland included, debates remain as to who holds the responsibility to ensure that sexual and reproductive rights are fully realized. Petchesky (2003) outlines three characteristics of the global environment in which women’s health NGOs are working to develop and implement policies that place women’s empowerment and equality at the center of rights discourse, which itself has the potential to overlook women’s empowerment. These are: 1) macroeconomic policies aimed at growth, free trade and minimal safety nets rather than eradicating poverty, creating conditions of social justice and increasing human well-being; 2) weakened capacity of institutions at the national level responsible for health and development relative to those responsible for policing security; 3) a dominant approach to health reform that emphasizes cost effectiveness and aggregate statistics about ‘life years’ over better lives for women and girls (Petchesky, 2003, p. 188). Global environments characterized by the aforementioned qualities impede women’s empowerment and perpetuate inequality. This is in spite of claims that integrating women into the global capitalism economy is a potential pathway toward equality. Within the context of a global capitalist culture that focuses on the freedom of the market, weakening of the state through austerity measures, and prevalence of profit-making ideology, reproductive health non-governmental organizations, like the IFPA, face a tremendous challenge to ensure that the conditions necessary to realize women’s rights are being protected.
and further mutations are unnecessary for the latter [18, 19]. Ample evidence indicates that the dissemination of cancer cells to the bone marrow starts very early in the cancer ontogeny . For most primary cancers, tumor initiation requires only a few mutations to revive the embryonic transcription network . Most of the muta- tions and other genetic abnormalities detected in cancer are incurred from collateral damage during its ontog- eny. This notion of setting aside prime MICs from can- cer initiating cells (CICs), and then sending them off to the bone marrow dovetails nicely with the phenomenon of early selection of primordial germ cells from the toti- potent embryonic cells and their subsequent migration to the genital ridge. It is therefore postulated that MICs are selected and dispatched to the bone marrow during the initiation of primary cancer as an act of reproductive instinct. They are unlikely the product of random muta- tions acquired through a Darwinian selection as stipu- lated in the linear hypothesis.
PGE in decidua is a major suppressor factor and may be 2 necessary for fetal survival in vivo.24,27 Matthiesen et al,21 also reported that PGE2 mediated suppressor activity during pregnancy. On the other hand, Clark et al. 6,7 reported that the predominant suppressive molecule at the murine feto maternal interface is an active form of TGF � which can suppress the cytotoxic activity of the natural effector system including macrophages and NK/LAK type cells. Production ofTGF � 2 by decidual large granular lymphocytes in early human pregnancy has also been reported.9 Large granulated lymphocytes increase during the menstrual cycle and account for more than 70% of the leucocyte population in early pregnancy decidua,2,18 hence it is possible that the increase in immunosuppressive activity is related to this population and their releasing factor. _
as godly spouses prayerfully covenant with God about the growth of their families. While there are important ethical issues in determining to have a family, the prevention of pregnancy is understood to be qualitatively different from the termination of pregnancy since the sperm has not fertilized the ovum and human life has not yet begun. The biological processes themselves teach us that in God’s creative design not every sperm or ovum is intended to survive and unite. It should be remembered, however, that some methods commonly regarded as contraception, such as the IUD and the morning-after pill, are actually agents that abort, rather than prevent, pregnancy.
9. Locate each of the following male reproductive organs on the diagram below, discuss the structure of each organ, and name a major function for each organ: testes, scrotum, epididymis, vas (ductus) deferens, seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, urethra, and penis