Abstract:- Decentralization to the village demands that village financial management be accountable. This study aims to determine the effect of human resource competencies, commitment and society participation on the accountability of village financial management with Makassar’s Bugis culture as a moderating variable. The population in this study is the village community who participated in overseeing village financial management in Sinjai District. The sample selection method used is purposive sampling, so that a sample of 134 villagers was obtained. The data obtained were analyzed using absolute difference values. The results of this study indicate that (1) the human resource competencies have a positive effect on the accountability of village financial management, (2) the commitment has a positive effect on the accountability of village financial management, (3) the society participation has a positive effect on the accountability of village financial management, (4) Makassar’s Bugis culture can be moderate the effects of human resource competencies on accountability of village financial management, (5) Makassar’s Bugis culture can’t be moderate the effect of commitment on accountability of village financial management. Therefore, the government should consider these aspects of formulating strategies to support the accountability of village financial management.
12 Read more
In the generic/behavioural competency category, only two competency domains were significant namely the “relationship building and process drivers” and “personal credibility and attributes.” In the business competency category construct, the two competency domains significant were namely the “entrepreneurial and business acumen” and “essential performance enablers.” In the technical HR competency category, only two competency domains were significant namely the “resourcing and talent management” and “employee relations and compliance.” The study shows that both the competency categories: generic/behavioural competency category and the technical HR competency category influenced the HR practitioner competency model. The business competency category however was not significant as determined through SEM procedures and therefore it does not influence the HR practitioner competency model. The study found that the business competency category did not have a direct and positive relationship with the HR practitioner competency model. Thus the hypothesis was rejected. The researcher is of the opinion that the business competency category is however important and the HR practitioners should also place emphasis on those competencies. Further research on the “business competencies” is suggested. The study is comprehensive as it covers a broad spectrum of competencies (i.e., the generic / behavioural, business and technical HR competencies). The established HR practitioner competency model can be used by other researchers to develop ontology and pragmatic models. This will useful for the HR consultants, academia, HR practitioners and HRD practitioners. The study resulting in empirically tested HR practitioner competency model complements the work done by other researchers in the USA or Europe. As it is done in a local Malaysian cultural setting, it should benefit the HR practitioners, HR consultants, the academia, organisations and other related individuals in Malaysia. It is proposed that further research should be extended widely to include the CEOs, Directors, General Managers, Line Managers, peers of HR practitioners, academia and all customers of the HR practitioners.
The initial programme theory to be explored was developed through an on-going iterative process that in- volved consultations with research team members and the investigation of some relevant literature . The overall initial theory was phrased as ‘to achieve equitable and quality rehabilitation services for persons with dis- abilities in less resourced settings, the workforce should be available and/or strengthened at the community level’ , this being developed through and supported by salient literature [6, 27, 29]. We considered there to be several benefits in this approach. Notably, it considers the lack of knowledge or clear definition of what is a rehabilita- tion worker , and the severe shortage of such workers in less resourced settings . It also con- siders more vulnerable populations of people requiring health-related rehabilitation; less resourced settings with the fewest human resources; issues of decentralisation and equity of access to services; issues of community involvement and ownership of rehabilitation programmes; and making the workforce more disability-sensitive [25, 44]. Six ‘framework themes’ were pre-identified, which were aligned to the sub-questions, relevant to the workforce, and thought to best contribute to and organise arising data (Table 2).
14 Read more
need for HR to acquire and demonstrate projector facilitator competency has become crucial (Scotts, 2008). This study, therefore adds the project facilitator competency to the above list to make certain that HR professionals play their strategic partner role adequately to ensure organizational performance. This competency has indeed become imperative for HR and the consolidated banking sector in Nigeria owing to the fact that new projects are being developed continuously because of the dynamical competition in the sector (Mugarvin, 2012). In order to execute these projects adequately, on time and within budget, HR professionals need to know and acquire the techniques of project facilitation, which will help develop the skills of project facilitators and project team members in the consolidated banking sector (Edmonds, 2010). The competency of project facilitator will enable HR professional to schedule, cost, quality control, ensure customer satisfaction, planning, control and risk management (Clark and Cooling, 2005). Consequently, these competencies will ensure enhanced productivity in the massive recruitment, training, benefit, compensation and payroll processes in the consolidated banking sector in Nigeria (Scotts, 2008).
69 Read more
In today’s competitive business world, sustainable competitive advantage is the fundamental factor for achieving organizational strategies. The human resources function plays an important role in developing a sustainable competitive advantage through using people efficiently and effectively as a resource. To develop a competitive advantage, it is imperative that companies leverage the workforce as a competitive weapon. Individuals’ knowledge, skills and understanding have long been recognized as essential for maintaining organisational economic competitiveness and enabling growth. This paper is a critical review on issue at both organisational and national level over the past decade regarding ’failures’ to determine why Third Party Logistic (3PL) agreements may fail. One area that is suggested needs additional research is the mismatch between the 3PL as service provider’s promises to service user and its actual capabilities and performance. That is, how service users of 3PL expect them to manage and utilize their intangible asset which is human capital as internal strengths in order to maintain a competitive advantage to attract the support of existing and potential clients research focused on identifying and understanding of how the right knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) of employees in third party logistics (3PL) service companies are matched to their clients’ expectations. Reviews from previous studies were compiled involving logistics sectors that were outsourced to the Third Party. The finding reflects the needs of the service user, illustrating performance areas in service providers companies (3PL) that can be improved and suggesting aspects of company performance that can be used best for marketing them to potential service users.
If there are good sides to a practice, they have to face certain drawbacks as well. For example, if the management of a company is centralized in nature, the unity of command, the unity of direction and properly organized structure of management is achieved. But job satisfaction is not guaranteed and work becomes monotonous. Hence even if the job is well paid, employees are unwilling to work in such situations. On the other hand, in Decentralized Management, flexibility exists and people are guaranteed freedom and the right to think and put forward new and innovative ideas. Although in Decentralized Management unity of command and unity of direction may be compromised. The research paper by John T. Delaney suggests that productivity of a company can be greatly increased by improving or working on areas like betterment of employees and providing them equal rights and opportunities such that they equally feel responsible for the success as well as failures of the organization. The paper also stresses the importance of training the employees and performance- based incentives. I totally agree with all the points stated by the research paper. This is because I feel it is very important to keep the employees motivated and happy if the higher officials have to get their work done and all the aspects suggested by Delaney and Huselid help the organization achieve this goal. Often, small things like these are overlooked by the Human Resource Management department of a company.
The table above gives an overview of changes in the Generalizability coefficient for various compositions of sample sizes P, R, and I. For the physics teacher competency assessment component P x (I: R) Design - Random, R Fixed (D study design number 00 3 -001 with P = 3 0, R = 4 and I = 1). Then the level or coefficient of understanding and agreement (reliability in the G coefficient) is 0, 41364. That means the assessor has a level of understanding and agreement on the use of the construct of the assessment instrument used by 41 %. If the assessor uses two indicators (design D study)number 00 3 -002, with P = 3 0, R = 4 and I = 2) namely indicators / competencies 1 and 2, then the level or coefficient of agreement and agreement with total 0.58521 ; and so on for the draft 00 3 -003 coefficient of 0.67910. Based on this fact, it can be said that to achieve understanding and agreement that meets the level of observation which accepted for broader facets, namely > 0.70, the assessor must use indicators 1, 2, 3 and 4 because in this context if 4 indicators are used they will the understanding coefficient and agreement reached 0.73834 or 74 % (> 70%) . The use of generalisability theory in assessing the reliability of the development of the instrument has been widely used. It includes research conducted by Retnowati , which examines the development of assessment instruments to measure the learning outcomes of children's painting. Another study was conducted by Guntur, Sukadiyanto and Mardapi  who developed a valid and reliable assessment instrument to measure the physical education learning outcomes of sports and the health of
The interrelationship of human and organizational capital has the empirical and theoretical foundation. The human resource system as organizational processes and element of organizational capital contribute significantly to worker’s role behavior, as element of human capital (Arthur, 1992; Arthur, 1994; Sun et al., 2007; Biswas et al., 2007; Nishii et al., 2008; Uen et al., 2009). The impact of human resource system’s investment to organizational performance can be bridged through human capital (Ulrich, 1999). Individual behavior is an important mediator through which human resource system contributes significantly to organizational performance (Becker et al., 1997; Pfau & Cohen, 2003; Wrigth & Haggerty, 2005; Biswas et al., 2007; Nishii et al., 2008; Harris, 2009; Messersmith et al., 2011; Piening et al., 2013). Employees will provide a different attribution to organization’s human resources system, which then manifests in their work behavior (Sun et al., 2007; Nishii et al.). Worker’s attribution to an organizational human resource system can leverage positive behavior of employees, whether in-role or extra-role behavior. Policies and practices of human resource management which are concerned with worker’s commitment, quality of work and welfare of workers were able to bring psychological bond inside workers, which in turn is realized in the form of role behavior, leading to organizational effectiveness. On the contrary, causal relationship between elements of intellectual capital empirically validated (Wang & Chang, 2005). There is an interrelationship between human and organizational capital. Human capital as the most important element of Intellectual Capital has a significant effect on organizational performance through the organizational capital.
14 Read more
The researchers were motivated to conduct this study since previous research has not significantly founded a complete and conceptual framework of entrepreneurial competencies integration in microenterprises. The results of this study indicate that there are six key entrepreneurial competencies i.e., opportunity exploration, opportunity exploitation, organizing, strategy, relationship, and commitment with substantially empirical evidences and literature support provided by Baron and Ensley (2006), Bartlett and Ghoshal (1997), Karra et al. (2008), Man et al. (2002), and McGregor et al. (2000). According to Timmons Model (1989), the entrepreneurial process considers the exploration and recognition of opportunity, the decisions regarding the exploitation of the opportunity, competencies to organize and acquire any adequate resources and strategies to strengthen the development of team in order to execute the new business. For the theoretical and entrepreneurial contributions of the study, this study has explored the link between Timmons Model of the entrepreneurial process and the six entrepreneurial competencies concluded in this research and also found that they respond to each other.
26 Read more
In businesses and other fields human resource is an important source to gain benefits over the competitors and it is also the one on the basis of which an organization progress over the years. Human resource main contribution is to maintain and keep the pace through the use of development competencies that are specific to the firm in which they give their services. These resources need some polishing from time to time so that they can match up with the changed scenario. The changes that take place in the market make it mandatory for Indian Industry to look after for the development of their human resources. The objective of my research study is to define the need of human resources and also the opportunities and challenges faced by industries for the development so that they can give their contribution in the progress of the nation.
10 Read more
Qualitative research is a method of inquiry appropriated in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in the social sciences, but also in market research and further contexts. Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making, not just what, where, when. Hence, smaller but focused samples are more often needed, rather than large samples.
1.1 Prior Studies on Human Resource Management Ferris et al., (1990) made one of the first major attempts to examine how effective management of human resources might contribute to positive organizational performance. In their study of 2,236 firms from the U.S. construction industry, the Ferris group addressed the roles played by three important organizational functions and activities on firm performance: the status and importance of the HRM function, the role of unions and strategic planning. They found that firms that had HRM departments were generally high performers (i.e., larger total sales volume), firms that had a higher percentage of their workforce unionized also performed better than firms with a lower percentage and, finally, firms performed better when they engaged in more formalized strategic planning.
Earlier the most common reasons to outsource used to be reduction of cost and headcount. McFarlan and Nolan (1995), argued that, until the 1990s, the major drivers for outsourcing IT were primarily cost-effective access to specialized or occasionally needed computing power or system development skills, avoidance of building in-house IT skills and skill sets in small or low-technology organizations, and access to special functional capabilities. Others argue that the growths in indirect overhead costs, which represent “non-core competencies”, are increasingly being outsourced (Chalos, 1994; Branda, 1999). Many scholars and practitioners, during 1990s period, argued that global competitive pressures have positioned large organizations to adopt greater market discipline, dropping their product range and reducing their vertical links in the production process (Grant, 1995; Domberger, 1998). As a result, corporations have „divested peripheral or supplementary‟ businesses in order to focus upon their `core' business and, in turn, have vertically „de-integrated‟ by increasingly outsourcing their requirements for components and business services'' (Grant, 1995, p. 318).
15 Read more
Human resource planning in the organization is of utmost importance and priority, the main goal is that by taking the best interests of the individual and the organization's future human resource requirements and plans for the elimination of discrepancies obtaining. Human resource planning can reduce the costs of absenteeism, turnover of staff size, low productivity and a training program will be imposed on the organization fruitless. More specifically, it can be said that human resource planning, some key processes such as the following will facilitate within the organization (ABBASPOUR, 1382, 119).
The postulation founding the practice of HRM is that employees are the firm‟s most important resource and organizational performance mostly depends on them. Hence if proper assortment of HR policies and processes are developed and implemented effectively, then HR will register a huge impact on organizational performance. A great deal of the previous research work in the field of HR has attempted to answer two fundamental questions: First whether SHRM practices create a positive impact on organizational performance; second, whether they have any impact when applied. The second query is the more imperative one. It is not sufficient to give reason for HRM by proving that it is a good practice. It is important to establish what can be done to ensure that it is a good thing (Voorde et al., 2010).
156 Read more
Strengthening Human Resource (HR) practices and adopting HR technologies such as Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS), that can collect, store and report workforce data are often described as a potential solution to this problem. Indeed, examples from other industries show that HRIS can help to launch or manage, as well as provide ongoing insights concerning the whole career cycle of an employee. However, few of the existing studies that discuss technology or its impacts on the future of work have focused on health organizations, and those that do have not received sufficient attention in health literature. Furthermore, such contributions as there have been have either prioritized a particular type of technology or focused mainly on the effect of automation on health professionals ’ work. They have thus overlooked the full range of possible uses of these technologies and, specifically, have neglected the topic of HR for Health (HRH) management in health organizations. The primary aim of this paper is to address this lacuna, with specific reference to the existing categorization of HR technological disruptions. To conclude, health organizations and the health and HR professionals who work within them need to use HRIS responsibly, finding a balance between the drive for innovation, productivity and efficiency and respect for all potential legal, ethical and compliance issues, as well as taking account of the importance of HRH wellbeing and satisfaction.
At a political and economic level, globalization is the process of denationalization of markets, politics and legal systems i.e. the use of the so-called global economy. Globalization refers to an extension beyond national borders of the same market forces that have operated for centuries at all levels of human economic activity (village markets, urban industries, or financial centers). It means that world trade and financial markets are becoming more integrated. Growing internationalization of business has its impact on HRM in terms of problems of unfamiliar laws, languages, practices, competitions, attitudes, management styles, work ethics etc. It has an effect on employment patterns worldwide. It has contributed to a great deal of outsourcing which is one of the greatest organizational and industry structure shifts that change the way business operates (Drucker, 1998). Globalization is also seen as changing organizational structures where expenses can move up or down as the business climate dictates (Garr, 2001). As a result HR managers have to confront with more heterogeneous functions and more involvement in employee's personal life. Workforce Diversity :
Since the inception of organizational human resources, HRM practices have aimed at the acquisition, development, and motivation of employees as a key to attaining SOP. Barney (1991) argued that human resource practices are the key to attaining SOP and that HRM practices should, there- fore, be treated as a central part of organizational strategy. Many theories in the extant literature support this notion that staff are to be treated as an integral resource of any organiza- tion; most importantly, the resource-based (RBV) and knowl- edge-based (KBV) theories have both presented this argument, and weighted human resources equal with other organizational resources in generating SOP. 2 Organizational managers have responded over recent decades by adopting a range of human resource practices to support their business performance, including in the areas of employee staf ﬁ ng, performance management, staff development, and compen- sation and bene ﬁ ts. 3 Analysis of these highlighted HRM practices has provided many insights for the ﬁ eld of strategic management, and led to developments in the economics of organizations, ﬁ rm competitiveness, and the working dynamics of employees.
17 Read more
The operational variables are human resource competence – according to George Klemp (1980), it is an underlying characteristic of person which results in effective and/or superior performance job. Labour laws number 13 year 2003, competence is each individual’s skill covering aspects of knowledge, skill, and attitude which are in line with the determined standard. Good governance, as quoted in World Bank reveals several characteristics such as strong, participatory, and open-minded citizen formation, predictable policy maker, responsible executive, and professional and law obedient bureaucracy. UNDP sees
2001). Intrapreneurial competencies are deeply rooted in a person’s background that can be acquired at work or through training and education. Trains and develops human capital has a reputation for valuing employees and, consequently, increase the quantity and quality of the pool of candidates. Intrapreneurial and intrapreneurial competencies are perceived as similar in many aspects. Entrepreneurs and intrapreneurs distinguish themselves as leaders with an impact on the organizational culture, being innovative and expressing the need to move from their current position to a higher platform (Hisrich, 1988).
24 Read more