time series analysis and multinomial logistic regression, our approach allows us to (a) empirically test theoretical propositions on the determinants of human perception of climate change, (b) statistically unpack the compositional, physical and geographic factors triggering public perception of climate change and (c) provide direction to planners and policymakers on how to garner public support for government initiatives meant to reduce the adverse changes associated with climate change. It has been argued that validation of experiential knowledge is essentially political (Agarwal, 2002). Some studies have used meteorological data to validate human perception of climate change (see Chaudhary & Bawa, 2011); we do not adopt this methodology because we situate the two approaches in distinct but complementary paradigms although we also model times series of temperature and rainfall data in this study. Furthermore, in the discussion, we compare the two approaches but only because we seek to demonstrate diversity in acquiring knowledge on the humanenvironment and not to validate one approach (climate change in the people’s minds) with the other approach (descriptive statistics of meteorological data).
Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986) will be used to understand the relationship between first-hand experience of extreme climate events (floods, storms and droughts) and household energy conservation behavior. According to Redding et al. (2000), Social Cognitive Theory is the most comprehensive model of human behavior yet proposed because it takes into account of environmental and social factors in addition to individual attributes. It emphasizes the reciprocal interaction between humans and their changing environment and how people learn and behave in response to this change in the environment. Social Cognitive Theory distinguishes among three modes of agency: direct personal, proxy and collective (Bandura, 2001). While proxy agency relies on others to act on one’s behest to secure desired outcomes, collective agency is exercised through socially coordinative and interdependent effort. Direct personal agency is the focus of this study as it addresses the link between previous experience and behavioral responses to the changing environment (see Paul, 2012). Direct personal agency uses individual’s past experiences, which influence reinforcements, expectations, and expectancies, as key determinants of whether and why individuals engage in certain behaviors. Past
composition is essentially uniform across different body sites, there are substantial differences between infants according to delivery route. Whereas the microbiota of vaginally delivered infants is similar to that of the mother’s vagina, the microbiota of infants delivered by cesarean section is similar to that of the mother’s skin. Although this observation may not be entirely surprising, when we consider the high level of specificity in the composition of the microbiota from different adult body regions, its implications are significant. Any factors that alter the maternal microbiota on the skin or vagina around the time of birth could have a profound impact on neonatal colonisation. Furthermore, these changes cannot be assumed to be uniform. Maternal antibiotic use, for instance, may have a different effect on vaginal microbial populations than on those of the skin, whereas the skin micro- biota may be more susceptible to change based on environmental contact. Achieving a more detailed description of human microbial ecology will thus be a prerequisite to understanding the factors that influence the early infant microbiota and its effect on subsequent disease. Section delivery has been associated with a higher risk of allergic disease and particularly food allergy in some individual studies, but the balance of evidence suggests no correlation between mode of delivery and incidence of allergic diseases.
Saturation or species-area curves are presented in Fig. 7 for the Holocene and Pleistocene units, with the exceptions of SU12 and SU11. The plateaux signify the number of fragments that need to be identi ﬁ ed in order to suf ﬁ ciently represent the diversity of the archaeological assemblage and evaluate the adequacy of the sam- pling strategy (Chabal et al., 1999; Scheel-Ybert, 2002; Lepofsky and Lertzman, 2005; Byrne et al., 2013; Dotte-Sarout et al., 2015). The SU1 e 2, SU7 e 10 assemblages reach plateaux; with the Holocene curves stabilising between 150 and 160 fragments, and the Pleis- tocene units stabilising by 130 fragments. These numbers of iden- ti ﬁ able fragments per context are relatively small sample sizes when compared to tropical (400 fragments, see Scheel-Ybert, 2002; Dotte-Sarout et al., 2015) and even Mediterranean ﬂ ora (200 frag- ments, see Chabal et al., 1999; Delhon, 2006). In addition to the saturation curve giving an indication of how well the assemblage represents the original deposits in terms of taxonomic diversity, Gini-Lorenz concentration curves were produced for SU1 e SU10 (Fig. 8) to test the validity of the sample sizes in relation to diversity and frequency of taxa as compared to known measure for extant vegetation communities (cf. Chabal, 1992; Scheel-Ybert, 2002; Byrne et al., 2013; Dotte-Sarout et al., 2015). The Pareto Indices produced by the Gini-Lorenz curves range from 26:74 (SU7) to 29:71 (SU9), with a median ratio of 27:73 (SU2, SU8, SU10). On average then, 27% of the taxa from the assemblage comprise 73% of the individual fragments observed, the range of Scheel-Ybert (2002: 10)'s “ normal ” modal classes (c. 25:75). The ratio of 28:72 for SU1, where disintegration of charcoals is lower than the older units, shows that 300 fragments is the minimum number of iden- ti ﬁ able fragments that need to be observed to represent the di- versity of the assemblage. This is probably because despite the low diversity of woody taxa in the region, a high number of fragments (300 e 400) need to be sampled in order to adequately represent each of the vegetation units that people targeted for fuel wood (savanna, riparian, dry rainforest) (Fig. 7).
ABSTRACT. Grass-root feedback to public agencies’ policies for coping with global change threats is poor and reactive. Concurrently, human population becomes more urban, isolated from nature and unable to take personal decisions about it. Therefore, helping societal involvement and proactive behavior towards nature is a crucial challenge nowadays. This paper intends to explore the role of emotions in support of a positive interaction in human/ environment systems, to assess their evolutionary changes and ways to eventually readdress its trend. For that purpose, the latest neuroscientific findings are applied to disentangle the nature impact on the human emotional system by comparing the present people’s attitudes to those from pre-agrarian cultures. This knowledge allows drawing guidelines to improve people´s concern to care for the environment.
In the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), the term addressing affective may contribute to various meanings, depends on that particular affective roles and functions within the HCI. Some of the meanings are such recognizing user affect, adapting to the user's affective state, generating affective behavior, modeling user's affective state, or perhaps generating affective states within an agent's cognitive structure (Hudlicka, 2003). Some degree of user affective modeling may be involved within the recognition process of users’ affective state, which can be the subset of users’ motivational-behavior across different types of contexts. The emotion effects of the users’ affective state can be classified into four categories, which are somatic-physiological, cognitive- interpretive, motivational-behavioral, and experiential-subjective (Clore and Ortony, 2002).
HCI is an interdisciplinary field that inter-relates with different disciplines such as psychology, computer science, cognitive psychology, engineering and recently other disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, art sciences etc  and the utilization of technology has been a shared key concern between IS and HCI researchers. Determining whether some HCI design is good or not and what makes this design more acceptable is mostly subjective and context dependent. Prior research in HCI has shown that socio-cultural context influences user interface design , web design  and usability evaluations . The Activity Theory (AT) approach to HCI focuses on the context of use and its acknowledgment of the influence that culture plays on the use of technology. AT provides means by which to take into account the social and cultural context in which people use technology. Ford  in the context of HCI defines culture as the patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting that influence the way in which people communicate among themselves and using technologies like e- commerce sites. According to Hall , culture is a set of learned and shared behaviours as well as a way that people communicate understand and relate to each other and to the world. Culture controls the way that people organise their life, their thinking, their attitudes and their understanding of family, government, society and even human kind. Ito and Nakakoji  model of Interaction plots out the influence culture plays at every stage of interaction. Ito and Nakakoji proposed a “Two Mode” model for the interaction of user with computer, where the first mode is Listening Mode (information is presented from the computer to the user) and the second mode is Speaking mode (users provides information back to the computer) and culture affects all phases of Listening and Speaking modes, but has the least influence in listening mode (affordance perception) of interaction. According to a study by Oshlyansky , as seen in the Ito and Nakakoji’s Interaction model the two dimensions that span the wide spectrum of interaction are Perceived Affordance and Technology Acceptance.
In the presence of diverse and unpredictable environmental conditions, it is important to study the tangle of the genotypic responses of the various genotypes in specified environments. The use of justified model and its analysis is required to analyze the complex rootlets with or within the triple frame of genotype, environment and their interaction. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt is made to investigate the situation in which the experimenters want to study phenotypic value of the genotype in a particular environment receiving different treatments in 𝑚 × 𝑚 Latin Square layout and its respective stability measure.
Nowadays business environment is changing very fast; the organizational threats came largely from a few domestic competitors due to the information preparation, product life cycles and competitive advantages. The changes in technology like e-business and e-commerce have created a quantum leap information availability and control of doing business. With the impending move toward globalization and liberalization of economic, organizations should prepare and cope with the rapid changes in the business dynamics. Each organization must submit and varying demands of changes in the workplace environment . Changes within an organization take place in response to business and economic events and to processes of managerial perception, choice, and actions where managers see events taking place that indicated the need for change . The corporation had „delivered‟, throwing off entire levels of management and it was „disaggregated‟, ridding itself of its extraneous operations; it embraced „flexibility‟, making it easier to replace career workers with (zero-benefit) temps and „disinter mediated‟ with new technology system.
In case of a system consisting of a quark in a state of arbitrary colour and its environment (QCD stochastic vacuum) the interaction between the quark and the vacuum in the limit of large RT leads to the emergence of a mixed state with equal probabilities for all the colours and disappearance of the non-diagonal terms in the density matrix. E ff ectively, the interaction leads to the transition of density matrix ρ in → diag(N c −1 ) .
particle-protein complexes, particles adhered on red blood cells or red blood cell mimic nanoparticles remain in the blood circulation unless there are large shear forces and cell–cell interactions. Therefore, we investigated the adhe- sion properties of curcumin particles in whole human blood. The adhesion process occurred after nanoparticles had interacted with plasma proteins in the blood. Adhesion of curcumin nanoparticles on red blood cells was determined by curcumin fluorescence using flow cytometry in channel 1 (488 excitation, blue laser, 530 ± 15 nm, fluorescein isothio- cyanate/green fluorescent protein, Figure 3C). The order of adhered curcumin nanoparticles on red blood cells was found to be PLGA . nanogel . β -cyclodextrin . cellulose . den- drimer curcumin nanoformulations. The dendrimer exhibited very low adherence on red blood cells due to strong binding with plasma proteins, findings which are consistent with the above protein study.
is very common in TCM prescriptions and the dose is often small. The severity of interaction is related to the dose but the reminder system checks only the herb name without the dosage. We selected highly significant interactions initially to avoid too many annoying pop-up windows. In the future, more items such as licorice and ginger will be included after the discussion in committee.
COLLOCATIONAL GRAMMAR AS A MODEL FOR HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION COLLOCATIONAL GRAMMAR AS A MODEL FOR H I NAN COMPUTER INTERACTION W R a n d o l p h F o r d P r i s m A s s o c i a t e s ? 7402 York R[.]
There has been considerable progress in our understand- ing of the role of both genetic and environment factors in the development of obesity. Findings to date indicate that behavioral changes such as improving diet and physical activity can substantially offset obesogenic effects of risk alleles, which has much broader clinical and public health implications. In the near future, individuals may be able to obtain their comprehensive genetic information and thus a knowledge of their genetic predisposition to obesity and other chronic diseases. Nutritional genetics studies have made slow but steady progress in examining gene and dietary intervention interactions for weight loss and main- tenance [8,23,24,41], but there are still many challenges. Continued progress will depend on appropriate study design; more accurately measured environmental factors, and very large sample size. Further investment in studies of GEI for obesity holds promise on several grounds . First, GEI studies may help us better understand disease mechanisms by providing biological insight into the func- tion of novel obesity loci and pathways and interplays between the genes and environment. Second, GEI investi- gation may identify high-risk individuals for more efficient and targeted diet and/or lifestyle interventions. Finally, the integrating of genomics with other “ omics ” such as tran- scriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics can provide greater insights into how diet and lifestyle alter the expres- sion or ‘ manifestation ’ of our genomes and the interplays between genes and environments on obesity development and progression. This approach, termed “ systems epide- miology ” , has tremendous potential to advance our understanding of obesity etiology and to help achieve the goal of personalized nutrition for obesity prevention and management.
Study of perception features of Р2М positions in Ukrainian cultural and business-environment conducted from positions of the project stakeholders’ interaction. In  it is shown that any mechanism of the project and program management must envisage the components related to interaction. In the conditions of knowledge economy the role of interaction as swiftly rose as a success factor of projects. The analysis of base concepts and positions of Р2М methodology from these positions testifies that it already distinguished interaction management contextly in a separate administrative function [11, 12]. Thus an object of management is not process of stakeholders’ interaction, but environment of their interaction with the aim to form common vision of the project, id est an environment of interaction. It is examined as self-controlled object (system) in that stakeholders a priori sent to the fruitful dialogue, openness, respect, tolerance, and able to show centripetal activity despite possible difference in values, vision of the project. Id est if stakeholders demonstrate these properties, that match the requirements of the interactionenvironment platforms, the process of interaction is not examined as an object of management. From data of annual researches (for example [13-15]), swiftly rose also a problem of interaction and interaction management in projects. Principal reasons of problems with a project are: manager’s ability to work with problems, diminishing risks; to be a strong leader able to negotiate with top management and justify expectation in resource management. Thus complication of manager’s communications is related to the necessity to convince the customers of necessity to accept changes at the terms of bad connection and lack of clarity and trust, opposite policies and priorities. Id est one of principal reasons of problems with projects is ability of manager to interact and manage interaction of other stakeholders. For this reason the project manager became a key success factor of projects.
in stem cell delivery for treating some neurological disorders. Singhal et al 41 reported that NP-mediated CAT delivery can mitigate the oxidative stress in human neurons. Song et al 42 divulged that CAT-loaded nanoshells can be used as bio- nanoreactors and enzyme delivery carrier for increasing radio- therapy. Song et al 43 showed that liposomes can be employed as excellent candidates for intracellular delivery of CAT. Li et al 44 also suggested that some kind of nanosomes can be utilized as potential delivery and for increasing the bioactivity of CAT. In fact, as CAT delivery can be used to treat several diseases such as cancer therapy, 45 ischemia/reperfusion, 46 and vascular oxidative stress, 47 the applications of NPs as ef ﬁ cient carriers can be used to deliver CAT to the target tissues. However, before application of NPs in delivery of therapeutic proteins or stem cells, the structure of proteins or cell viability should be evaluated in the presence of NPs. For these applica- tions, the interaction of NPs with CAT should be investigated in order to explore the conformational changes and corre- sponding activity of CAT in the presence of NPs. In this paper, we demonstrated that SiO 2 NPs did not signi ﬁ cantly
In AMMI model, principal component analysis is based on the matrix of deviation from additivity or residual, while pattern analysis employs both classification and ordination techniques. In this respect both the results of AMMI analysis, the genotype and environment will be grouped based on their similar responses (Gauch, 1992; Pourdad and Mohammadi, 2008). GEI was further partitioned by principal component analysis (Table 2). Ordination technique using an approximate F-statistic (Gollob, 1968) revealed high significant differences for IPC1, IPC2 and IPC3. In this study, the first three multiplicative axis terms explained 87.78, 12.22 and 2.63% of GEI sum of squares, respectively. The first three interaction principal components (IPC1, IPC2 and IPC3) retained by Gollob’s F-test accounted for 99.6 % of GE interaction. Corrected grain yield can be obtained by AMMI1, AMMI2 and AMMI3 for each environment and used as selection criteria in breeding programs. The three IPCAs accounted for 99.6% of the total interaction, the remaining 0.4% being the residual or noise, which is not interpretable and thus discarded (Purchase, 1997). The IPCA scores of genotypes in the AMMI analysis are an indication of stability or adaptability over environments (Gauch and Zobel, 1996; Purchase, 1997; Martin and Alberts, 2004). The greater the IPCA scores, the more specific adapted is a genotype to certain environments. The more the IPCA scores approximate to zero, the more stable or adapted the genotype is over all the environments sampled.
The wide occurrence of genotype x environmentinteraction (GEI) is the basic cause of difference between genotypes in their yield stability, or in other words: ranking of the genotype depends on the particular environmental conditions where it is grown. Numerous stability parameters have been developed to investigate GEI . Among them Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis  is particularly effective for depicting adaptive responses [1, 7]. Parametric stability statistics obtained by linear regression models [9, 11, 23] are mathematically simple and biologically interpretable; however, few researchers use statistical measures of yield stability in their breeding programs. To maintain improved agricultural productivity, the development of varieties with high yielding potential is the ultimate goal of plant breeders in a crop improvement program. In the recent years of haricot bean breeding in Ethiopia, special focuses have been paid to develop varieties with improved grain yield, good seed color and size as well as, resistant to major diseases. In addition to high yielding potential, a successfully developed new cultivar should have a stable performance and broad adaptation over a wide range of environments. However, frequent variation experienced both from season to season and from place to place within a shorter distance is among the most important features of the Ethiopian environmental conditions . The objectives of this study were therefore to identify the most stable bean lines across the studied environments.
Flavonoids are the most common group of polyphenolic bioactive compounds which are present in the human diet and ubiquitously occur in edible and medicinal plants. Predominantly, are derived from vegetables and fruits, chocolate, beverages (tea, coffee, red wine) as well as from herbal preparations. Daily consumption of flavonoids ranges from tens of milligrams to over one gram . The absorption and distribution of flavonoids is still not well understood, and their bioavailability is the center of interest .
Besides that, based on Table 4, the contributions for position, argument, response, and acceptance of response types of peer interaction dominated the online discussion. This implies that knowledge exchange occurred to show the students’ interest in their learning. Most of the questions proposed for the online discussion were of the opinionated type of question for which everyone would have different answers. Thus, the students’ feedback was more towards giving suggestions and opinions for solving the issues that had been raised in the discussion. As Liu, Lin, Chiu and Yuan  proposed, when students are asked to offer feedback to peers, they progress beyond their cognitive processes for the completion of a given task as they must now "read, compare, or question ideas, suggest modifications, or even reflect on how well one's own work is compared with others.” The following gives the example of a question from the facilitator and the feedback from the students for the topic of “Static and Dynamic Website”: