The position/forcecontrol has been receiving considerable attention from the researchers. Impedance control strategy can be used to indirectly regulate the force using a single controller through establishing the dynamic relation between the force and position or velocity. However, the environmental conditions of wire clamps for thermosonic wire bonding are not always certain, which makes it difficult to accurately control the force using the indirectly control approach [12, 13] . Through hybridposition/forcecontrolscheme, the grasping and releasing operations can be implemented by controlling the position of the clamp jaws and monitoring the contact forces at the same time, but the control performance largely depends on the division of force and position subspaces, which requires to accurately identify the environmental constrains  . To overcome this issue, intelligent control methodologies, such as fuzzy and neural network control, have been proposed to control forces [15, 16]
To deal with uncertainty in system dynamics, an adaptive controller was proposed in  where measurement of joint accelerations was used. This requirement was relaxed later in , but the adaptation law was not sensitive to force changing since it did not have force error in its structure. We especially note here that Yoshikawa and Sudou  developed a dynamic hybridposition/forcecontrolscheme to deal with an unknown constraint. The difficulty for considering an uncertain constraint is that the motion and forcecontrol designs are no longer decoupled. In this case, the above developed adaptation law cannot be applied. This led to complex strategies in [12, 13]. In  a systematic adaptive control strategy based on the concept of virtual decomposition was introduced to handle a variety of control objectives. An adaptive synchronized control approach was presented in  to address the coordination problem when the robots are in contact with a frictionless surface with unknown geometry.
Perdereau, V., & Drouin, M. (1994). About kinematic local instability and stabilization of hybridcontrol schemes. In Proc. of ISRAM ’94 (pp. 545–530). Hawaii, USA. Perez-del-Pulgar, C. J., Munoz, V. F., Velasco, J. J., & Gomez, R. (2013). Parallel force- positioncontrolscheme with fuzzy gain tuning for single port laparoscopic surgery. In 2013 13th International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems (ICCAS 2013) (pp. 101–106). IEEE. http://doi.org/10.1109/ICCAS.2013.6703871 Physicians, A. C. of E. (2016). Vital Signs. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from
It can be seen that driving the chariot to the left side causes the pendulum to go to the right. The goals of the inverted pendulum control system are to balance the pendulum in the vertical situation and to x the chariot in the reference point. A combination of F p and F c is force F = F p F c. In this study, all six universes of discourse are divided into ve overlapping fuzzy set values labeled as Negative Big (NB), Negative Medium (NM), Zero (Z), Positive Medium (PM), and Positive Big (PB). The fuzzication in a fuzzy set is determined by dierent types of MFs such as trapezoidal, triangu- lar, z-shape, s-shape, Gaussian-shape [22-26], and bell- shaped MFs. The shapes of MFs of less signicance to the fuzzy inference system, and the number and the extent of changes in MFs are more important. Simplicity in design and desired precision are good
By the current research, a PID tuning procedure is developed to control of an overhead crane. To enable the crane to reach a desired position, a controller design strategy must be used. This work presents a simple and efficient enough approach to control of the overhead crane based on designing a PID controller. Ziegler-Nichols method is used to initiate gains setting for PID controller and a tuning procedure is developed to obtain better results. Tuning design of the PID controller is considered for tracking the response of trolley and minimum oscillation of pendulum. Finally, some simulations are performed to illustrate the capability of the presented method for control of the overhead crane.
Another limitation of the force-positionhybridcontrol method  is that the tests are restricted to stepwise quasi-static loading with a relatively low loading rate (Fujie et al. and related papers listed by Lawless ). Furthermore, velocity-based force con- trol methods  may also have limitations on loading rates subject to the robot jog buffer configuration. To improve the loading rate, Lawless proposed an adapted stiffness velocity-based forcecontrol method and applied it to a hexapod . It is noted that in order to allow a high-rate force-positioncontrol, the structure of the manipulator has to be very rigid and the precision has to be very high, which is often difficult to achieve in commercially available articulated manipulators. Therefore, self-designed mechanisms/ structures are needed [22, 23]. For example, Fujie et al.  developed a robotic sys- tem of rigid body/structure that allows high-rate force-positioncontrol of the knee joint using a velocity-impedance control. The velocity impedance strategy for the continuous servo system used forcecontrol with modified velocity-impedance control, and positioncontrol with velocity control . Self-designed systems with high rigidity and precision enable high-rate force-positioncontrol for the simulation of more physiological condi- tions. Therefore, developments towards more advanced high-rate, precise force-position controls continue to be an important area of study. Nonetheless, industrial robots with force-positionhybridcontrol methods at relatively low loading rate are considered suf- ficient for simulating clinical laxity tests [4, 21, 26], but better strategies are needed for reducing the non-zero constraining forces and moments.
4 The use of pneumatic actuator as an active suspension device is a relatively new concept and has not been thoroughly explored. Pneumatic actuators demonstrate highly nonlinear characteristics due to the compressibility of air, friction and the nonlinearity of the valves. Thus, they are traditionally used for simple position and speed control applications in industry, automation, being a prime example. In recent years, low cost microprocessors (microcontrollers) and pneumatic components are available which make it possible to adopt a more complex control strategy in pneumatic actuator system control (Wang et al., 2001). Hence, investigations have been carried out, employing pneumatic actuators to accomplish a large number of motion control tasks.
Hybridization of the four-wheel-drive (4WD) vehicle is able to provide numerous of the advantages to mankind. Almost half of the energy is dissipated during the braking process for the conventional vehicle which compares to the HEV , . The HEV is adopted by separating the motors at the front wheel and the rear wheel , . Firstly, the HEV is developed to achieve the improvement in fuel economy or better performance in which is collated to the conventional vehicle , , . Secondly, the additional mechanical device such as the propeller shaft and the transfer case that are needed for transferring the engine power to the wheels, can eliminated by adopting separate motors at the front wheel and the rear wheels , . Last but not least, vehicle stability control improved by obtaining the adequate control of the EBD braking system .
The complexity of the human colon and the nature of the remote magnetic actuation arise sev- eral challenges in the development of an effec- tive navigation strategy for capsule endoscopes. In particular, experiments have shown that feedback control of the capsule motion is not adequate to guarantee satisfactory navigation performances in phantoms. For this reason, we developed a simple yet effective strategy to support the clinician during the endoscopic procedure. The implementation of a surfing strategy and overcoming the obstacles by means of spiral motion have shown to be valid approaches to navigate in a silicon phantom char- acterized soft, thin walls, ridges and tight bends. In particular, the proposed approach has shown to enable the navigation of a colon phantom, as opposed to the teleoperation where this task could not succeed. Moreover, the time required to perform a simple straight trajectory in a smooth pipe has decreased from 213s. to 84 s. This constitutes an initial step toward the autonomous navigation of the colon with magnetic capsules, thus providing an in- triguing starting point for the development of more advanced autonomous navigation and locomotion strategies.
In this chapter, a combined controlled scheme for the FLMVPP system has been proposed and designed in MATLAB software using ANN algorithm as a proper technique to optimize the operation of the system. In this regard, selection of input parameters for ANN network is crucial to perform forecast as having errors in a system with ANN based technique is inevitable. In this research study, the aggregated historical real data have been applied to predict the DERs’ generation in the FLMVPP system, so that prediction leads to some errors. However, errors have been reduced to a very small level by properly trained the modelled system to identify DERs generation. Since the generation of the FLMVPP participants keep changing, so estimation must be done to different classes of prosumers rather than one.
In this paper a direct Petri nets control algorithm applied to a flying capacitor converter has been presented and developed. Petri nets are among the powerful tools for modeling and control of such systems which have discontinuities in their mathematical models. The proposed algorithm is based on the statements of floating capacitor, the current reference calculated by the PI and the authorized configurations. Finally simulation results show the convergence of the load current to a neighborhood of the value of the nominal operating current response times over. Furthermore an optimal steady-state trajectory is obtained according to the adjacency rules of the power switches. The simulation results affirm a good performance of the proposed Petri nets control.
Abstract. The lift up or press process with high precision positioncontrol is an important application in various industries. An example of this lift up and press is the process of a rapid prototype machine, powder based and metal-based 3D printer. It is difficult to design the mechanism and controller for base table accuracy, because it needs to control the base position of the system with the weight varying over a large range. Also, the friction in the system would vary accordingly. This leads to a low performance of the system in some range loads. Therefore, the new design system utilizes a DC motor and ball screw and a pneumatic actuator to create a hybrid motor to use for the lift up and press system. This pneumatic actuator is designed to support a heavy load and the DC motor and ball screw are designed to control the position. Thus, the developed hybrid motor can be used to improve the performance of the system. The simulation and experimental results show that the developed system improved the rise time, setting time and steady state error. The time response of the system with a heavy load looked similar to the time response of the system with a light load. Moreover, the developed hybrid motor technique can be used for other applications such as to control the 3D powder painter tank base position and the silicon injection system of the 3D print head, which is a challenge due to the high friction in the tube.
This concept has wide range of applications like VTOL (Vertical Take Off and Landing) aircraft, attitude control of rockets, balancing of humanoid robots, etc. Same concept has been commercially implemented by Segway®  in the field of personal transportation and has been quite a success in Europe and America.
newtons (Figures 7 and 8). The pressure sensor is sheathed in a plastic sleeve for contamination control (Figure 9). The device is positioned on or very near the arch site of the proposed implant (Figure 9). After cajoling the patient into a relaxed normalized jaw position, the patient is then asked to gradually bite down on the sensor with as much force as they can. Patients may not be able to exert their true maxi- mum biting force for various reasons. 11 Several readings may
A hybrid active and passive vibration control ap- proach is developed treating the total power flow trans- mission as a performance index and a hybridcontrol mechanism demonstrated from the viewpoint of power flow. A mathematical model is presented describing the dynamic interactions between machine, passive/active controllers and the dynamics of the supporting structure for a multi-dimensional flexible coupled system subject to multiple excitations. The actuators, collocated with the passive isolators, governed by a proportional force feedback control law are successfully used to produce active force cancellation in the mounts creating a dy- namic stiffness softening effect without diminishing the loading capability of the isolators. Hence, the hybrid active and passive isolation system possesses a much lower resonance frequency than the equivalent passive one. This therefore results in an extended frequen- cy range with better vibration isolation effectiveness. The computational simulations for a simple and a more practical complex hybrid isolation systems subject to multiple excitations demonstrate that this hybrid power flow control method is very effective to reduce power flow transmissions from sources to receivers and to im- prove the overall performance of the isolation system over a wider range of frequencies. Of particular interest is the significant improved control capability provided by the symmetric placement of the mounts with respect to the foundation.
Abstract: This paper proposes a brand new control technique of doubly given induction machines (DFIGs) under unbalanced grid current conditions. The suggested controller features a model predictive direct power control (MPDPC) method along with a power compensation plan. In MPDPC, the right current vector is chosen based on an optimization cost function, therefore, the immediate active and reactive forces are controlled directly within the stator stationary reference frame without the advantages of coordinate transformation, PI government bodies, switching table, or PWM modulators. Additionally, the behavior from the DFIG under unbalanced grid current is investigated. Next, an electrical compensation plan with no need of removing negative stator current sequence is developed. An unbalanced three- phase system could be discomposed to 3 balanced symmetric three- phase system, i.e., the zero sequence, positive sequence, and negative
In order to achieve successful execution of a number of motions where the robot end effector has to manipulate an object or perform some operation on a surface, control of the interaction between the robot manipulator and its environment is crucial. In a constrained motion, the environment sets constraints on the geometric paths that can be followed by the end-effector. In such a case, the use of a purely positioncontrol strategy is not possible unless the tool trajectory is planned extremely accurately and the control ensures a perfect monitoring on this trajectory. The control strategy requires an accurate model of both the robot manipulator (kinematics and dynamics) and the environment (geometry and mechanical features). Manipulator modelling can be known with enough precision, however a detailed description of the environment is difficult to obtain. In practice, consider an example of a manipulator washing a window with a sponge. The compliance of the sponge may possibly regulate force applied to the window by controlling the position of the end-effector relative to the glass. This approach would work very well if the position of the glass is known very accurately or the sponge is very compliant. However, it is significantly difficult to perform operations in which the manipulator presses against a surface if the stiffness of the end-effector, tool and/or environment is high. If there is uncertainty in the position of the glass or any error in positioncontrol, this would ultimately lead to breakage of the glass. This drawback can be overcome by specifying a contact force that is to be maintained normal to the surface. It can be suggested that an enhacement of interaction control performance can be achieved by providing force measurements by mounting the force/torque sensor on a robot manipulator, typically between the wrist and the end-effector and its reading is passed to the robot control unit via a suitable interface [Raibert and Craig, 1981; Burn et al., 2003]. This enhancement is in the form of an outer feedback loop employing compliance or force controller that encloses the inner Cartesian positioncontrol system and will be discussed in detail in the following section.
Abstract: In this paper, we use asymptotic techniques and the finite differ- ences method to study the spectrum of differential operator arising in exponen- tial stabilization of Euler-Bernoulli beam with nonuniform thickness or density that is clamped at one end and is free at the other. To stabilize the system, we apply at the free end, the following shear force feedback control:
Eva Tuba, et.al, (2016), the position estimation is the important part of the wireless sensor network. The node localization is the concept in which the location of the unknown nodes is estimated. The RSSI is the technique in which the distance between the anchor nodes and the sensor nodes are calculated for predicted the location of the sensor nodes. The author proposed node location method which is based on the optimization algorithm called fireworks Swarm intelligence . In this algorithm, the estimated data is collected from the various anchor nodes is given as input to the algorithm. The algorithm work in the three phases, in the first phase, it will compared to location of each node and in the seconds step best location is calculated. In the last phase MSE value is estimated for the node location. The proposed algorithm performs well as compared to other algorithms in terms of accuracy and execution time.