When a route breaks due to node mobility or node failure, flat routing protocols like DSR and AODV typically discard the whole original route and initiate another round of route discovery to establish a new route from the source to the destination. When a route breaks, usually only a few hops are broken, but other hops are still intact. Thus, traditional approach wastes the knowledge of the original route and may cause significant overhead in global route discoveries. An optimization of Protocol is based on shortest and reliable path to destination and local repair of path during link break due to mobility of nodes. For this initialize data transfer with further specifications: = Delay with nodes; ∆ε = Energy consumption in general; P = Packets in network.
Like other networks such as wireless mesh net- works, peer to peer networks use a variety of tech- niques such as network coding for data sharing in order to enhance the routing effectiveness [13–15]. Various methods have been used to improve routing in VANETs. Some routing protocols draw on the top- ology of the middle links  (occurring between the source and destination nodes) to find the optimal route while some other use the geographical position of vehicles to design a routing protocol . The lat- ter focuses on the location of connections and predicting the next locations of the vehicles to find the appropriate route [18 – 20]. Fuzzy logic is very ef- fective as well for the introduction of routing proto- cols [21, 22]. A number of researches apply bio methods for appropriate routing. These methods are very effective for large-scale VANETs and at the same time offer low-complex solutions to computation prob- lems [23 – 25]. However, and as it was mentioned in re- search , there is no routing protocol in VANET that can satisfactorily perform in every scenario and com- pletely fulfill all routing protocols objectives. Thus, a hy- brid method could prove very effective. In order to
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EMOR protocol shows how packet delivery ratio and end-to-end delay affect in random waypoint mobility model, random direction mobility model and manhattan mobility model . Hybrid routing scheme performed in both strong and weak mobility regimes with infrastructure support. When the mobility is strong, both ad hoc routing and cellular routing are available to achieve multicast scenario. . GLC mobility model shows the interference prediction and improve the performance using three mobility models that are 2D Brownian Motion, 2D Brownian Motion with Inertia and UCM in 3D space . Opportunistic routing algorithms shows the analysis of mobility models with mobility trace in different scenarios like conferences, university campus, public places to study the movement pattern of human, wildlife and vehicles .Three hop algorithms shows how location popularity affect the performance in terms of delay-capacity and buffer size .
Abstract- Wireless S ensor Networks (WS Ns) is one of the most rapidly evolving scientific domain, which is mainly due to the development of advanced small and low-cost sensor nodes with capability of sensing various types of physical and environmental conditions, data processing, and wireless communication. WS Ns have many sensor nodes which have restricted battery power and these nodes have to transmit sensed data to the Base S tation which dissipate high energy of these nodes. Therefore reliable routing of packets from sensor nodes to its base station is the most important task for these networks. There are many routing protocols developed for the efficient use of energy resources to improve the network lifetime. Along with some conventional Energy-Efficient routing protocol, some hybrid routing protocols are also proposed for different applications. In this paper, we give a survey of hybrid routing protocols for Wireless S ensor Network and compare their strengths and limitations.
Abstract: Many of limitations and issues in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) arise mainly because of the limited availability of energy or processing and storage capacity. Due to this limitation all the operations in the WSN aims at conserving the energy by reducing the consumption in the network and must much of energy is spend in general to send data packets from the cluster heads and receiver station in a cluster-based routing approach. This paper focus on proposing an efficient routing technique aimed at balancing the energy expenditure in the network. The proposed routing approach follows a hybrid routing strategy where a hierarchical clustering scheme divides the network in to clusters and data packets are received by the cluster head from the sensor nodes and then they are forwarded to the base station using a multi-path routing scheme. The sensor nodes belonging to a cluster sends their sensed data to cluster heads present with in the same cluster via a one-to-one communication. The data from head node to the control or base station will be forwarded through intermediate cluster heads. The multi-path routing scheme estimates multiple routes between a cluster head and base station. Then selects an optimal path based on multiple factors including total remaining energy available in the intermediate cluster heads, count of data packets already waiting in the forward and send buffer and the hop count between the head node and control station. The overall performance of the routing approach is found to be better when compared to the single path routing.
Routing Protocols  are generally classified into three types such as Proactive (Table Driven), Reactive (On Demand) and Hybrid based on route discovery process and their mechanism. The Proactive routing protocols select the routes to all destinations at beginning and maintain using periodic update process based on their mechanism. e.g. DSDV. The disadvantages of these algorithms are to update the routing tables often which take a large amount of memory, bandwidth and power. But, in the reactive routing protocol, there is no need to maintain the routing data in routing table by each node. The routes are selected and maintained only when they are required by the source for data transmission during route discovery process and the routing overhead has been reduced. e.g. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Adhoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV). The merits of both proactive and reactive protocols are combined and form a hybrid routing protocols e.g. ZRP, TORA. Trust on the behavior of the element of the network is key aspect of WSN. Trust management system for WSN could be very useful for detecting misbehaving nodes and for assisting the decision making process. Trust is an important factor of social and computing network environment. The success of trust is depending on the adopting of the correct approach for trust management system of WSN . Trust management system can be classified into two categories: credential-based trust management system and behavior-based trust management system. Trust management improves the security of WSN.
It is difficult for the quantitative comparison of the most of the ad hoc routing protocols due to the fact that simulations have been done independent of one another using different metrics and using different simulators. This paper does the realistic comparison of three routing protocols AODV, TORA and DSDV. The significant observation is, simulation results agree with expected results based on theoretical analysis. As expected, reactive routing protocol DSR performance is the best considering its ability to maintain connection by periodic exchange of information, which is required for ZRP and DSDV based traffic. DSDV performs predictably. Meanwhile DSDV was very good at all mobility rates and movement speeds. Compared the On-Demand (DSR) , Table-Driven (DSDV) routing protocols and hybrid routing protocol (ZRP) by varying the number of nodes and measured the metrics like end-end delay, dropped packets, As far as packet delay and dropped packets ratio are concerned, DSR performs better than DSDV and ZRP with large number of nodes. Hence for real time traffic DSR is preferred over ZRP and DSDV. For less number of nodes and less mobility, DSDV and ZRP’s performance is superior.
In this survey paper, we try to inspect the security issues in the mobile ad hoc networks, which may be a main disturbance to the operation of it. First we introduce the basics of the mobile ad hoc network. We then discuss some typical and dangerous vulnerability in the mobile ad hoc networks. Then various routing protocols are surveyed and the comparison of them is illustrated in Table 1 above. Proactive protocols are not suited to large networks as they need to maintain node entries for every single node within the routing table of any node. Periodically updating the network topology and route entries exhaust the batteries of the nodes as they always have to be active, increases the bandwidth overhead, unwanted redundant route entries. The Reactive or on demand protocols do not find the routes unless demanded hence do not update themselves to the route changes. Due to lack of awareness of the changing topology, the routes may expire after certain duration of time. Hybrid Routing Protocol is not an appropriate choice for small networks. The afore mentioned routing protocols are tactical and smart enough to deal with constraints like power consumption, low bandwidth, high error rate, and unpredictable node movements. The effectiveness of these protocols is evaluated on the basis of some quantitative performance metrics like, average end to end delay, throughput, packet delivery ratio, route acquisition time etc. The current researches have tried to emphasize on the threats, vulnerabilities and attacks, a MANET is prone to. The efforts are still going to produce much energy efficient, cheaper, and more capable mobile nodes, performance. The future of the ad hoc networks can be foreseen as a much cheaper, easily deployable, anytime, anywhere so that it may turn out to provide us with much improved network, large scale wireless network which will be able to serve a variety of applications to a variety of users.
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Zheng et.al demonstrate the concept of hybrid cellular mobile ad hoc network (hybrid cellular MANET) to extend wireless coverage by showing a fully functioning microblogging system for smart phones and tablets without requiring modifications of the existing wireless infrastructure in an emulated disaster area. Participating devices connect to each other through WiFi radio to form a hybrid cellular MANET, relaying data off the MANET through the nodes that have sufficient cellular forwarding capability. The system has a self- organizing, mobility-aware, multi-path routing protocol (HMANET) to control the data forwarding in the hybrid cellular MANET. Thesystem compares its performance with the classic Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) used in the IEEE 802.11s standard in the built microblogging system. The experimental results show that the HMANET protocol statistically outperforms the HWMP protocol in terms of adaptiveness to role change and mobility in the hybrid cellular-MANET.
A long routing path can cause high overhead, hot spotsand low responsibleness. Thus, Distributed multipath routing protocol which is shown in fig.3 tries to use more paths. It uses one hop to forward the sections of amessage during a distributed manner and uses another hopto find high-capacity forwarder for high prime performancerouting. As a result, Distributed multipath routing protocol limits the issuesof long-path multi-hop routing within the ad-hoc networks. Specifically, within the transmission routing, a supply node at the startdivides its message stream into variety of segments,then transmits the segments to its neighbor nodes. Theneighbor nodes forward segments to BSes, which willforward the segments to the BS wherever the destinationresides.Different applications could have totally different QoS needs, such as potency, throughput, and routing speed. We tend to use a bandwidth metricto replicate node capability in turnout and quick knowledgeforwarding. The metric is that the ratio of a node’s channelbandwidth to its message queue size.
As compare to Infrastructure Wireless Networks MANET are low reliable and appropriate for solely transmission of native knowledge. In Infrastructure Wireless Network nodes communicate with each alternative via base stations. Infrastructure Wireless Network provides high data transmission responsibility and channel access potency however suffers from the drawback of upper power consumption on mobile nodes and single purpose of failure. This paper proposes an algorithm for fault node detection and fault node recovery which will increase the lifetime of HWN in context of low power consumption and high efficiency. An important component which affects the strength of wireless network in data transmission is routing protocol. When some of the sensor node fails down then using of this algorithm results in detecting the fault node and also will replace the same with another high capacity node. Thus the algorithm increases the lifetime of the HWN and reduces the impacts occurred due to the faulted node. Following subsection describes the algorithms used in Distributed Three hop Routing protocol:
5.2.3 Light-weight Mobile Routing (LMR) The LMR protocol is based on the concept of link reversal algorithm. LMR addresses the issue of partitioned network by providing a link erasure mechanism. LMR requires two passes to re-establish and converge to an alternate route, if one exists. LMR can erase invalid routes and detect partition in a single pass. It is designed to reduce the control message propagation in highly dynamic mobile networking environment. Due to this shortest hop paths are given only secondary importance and this protocol fits under the stability criteria. The benefit of this protocol is that routes will be found rather quickly and broken links will have only local affect. It has good performance if the network connectivity is high, i.e., in the case of dense network. Routes may be redundant.
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ZigBee is the most powerful standard for wireless sensor network.Pre-emptive Distributed Address Assignment (PDAA) Mechanism used to improves Zig-Bee address assignment and PDAA Mechanism Presents an auto-routing mechanism which doesn’t store any information into routing table. There are two types of devices such as router and end device. But in ZigBee & PDAA mechanism has a problem that there is parent & child relationship i.e. packet follow Tree topology to forward the packet from source to destination and second problem is address reuse mechanism.
ABSTRACT: Wireless networks have evolved from network Adhoc concept. A concept where nodes, devices communicate with each other without any standalone system setup facilitating mobile communication. This technique assists in data transmission in hard terrain area and is easy to setup. As such mobile adhoc network have been major research domain with technology deployment numerous challenges arise such as path discovery, routing overhead and security. Routing overhead has been major concern in MANET. Numerous procedures have been implemented in MANET. Protocols like DSR, AODV have been found to satisfy QOS (quality of services) for network. Still major challenge in defining a scalable routing protocol is current research need. This article surveys existing articles on MANET and different routing protocol approaches, for finding a better routing protocol type which help in reducing routing overhead and eliminating path discovery.
HyBR is a hybrid protocol which applies a topology-based routing approach when the network density is high (e.g., city- based VANET) and applies a geography-based routing approach when the network is not dense (e.g., highways). Using GPS devices, outdoors or through other means, each node saves the position information of all VANET nodes in a table called a positions table which is updated whenever the network topology changes. Moreover, each node possesses its own routing table which contains the various routes toward the desired destination. Only the next hop toward the destination is indicated. It has two categories as mentioned below:-
 C. Blum, “Ant colony optimization: Introduction and recent trends,” Ant colony improvement may be a technique for improvement that was introduced within the early 1990’s. The inspiring supply of hymenopterous insect colony improvement is that the forage behavior of real hymenopterous insect colonies. This behavior is exploited in artificial hymenopterous insect colonies for the search of approximate solutions to distinct improvement issues, to continuous improvement issues, and to special issues in telecommunications, like routing and cargo equalization. First, we have a tendency to contend with the biological inspiration of hymenopterous insect colony improvement algorithms. we have a tendency to show however this biological inspiration may be transferred into AN rule for distinct improvement. Then, we outline ant colony improvement in additional general terms within the context of distinct improvement, and gift a number of the days best- performing hymenopterous insect colony improvement variants. When summarizing some necessary theoretical results, we have a tendency to demonstrate however hymenopterous insect colony optimization may be applied to continuous improvement issues. Finally, we offer samples of a
This phase is carried out by each node in the VANET environment and aims to inform the node of its neighbours and update its active links. This phase also helps to estimate the road safety requirements such as the available bandwidth and the measured end-to- end delay of each link. In their transmission range, most of the nodes intermittently transmit the packets. When a neighbour node receives the beacon packet, all entries in its routing table about the sender will be considered as valid. The routing information in the routing table is marked as invalid if a node does not get information from the node’s neighbour for a specified amount of time. Consequently, the other nodes are informed of this unavailable link using an error packet.
DSR is an on demand routing protocol in which a sender determines the exact sequence of nodes through which a packet is propagated. The packet header contains a list of intermediate nodes for routing. Route cache is maintained by each node which caches the source route that it has learned. The major components of DSR are “Route Discovery” and “route Maintenance” which work together for determining and maintaining routes to arbitrary destinations . It is designed to restrict the bandwidth consumed by control packets in ad hoc wireless networks by eliminating the periodic table update messages required in the table-driven approach. A route is established by flooding Route Request packets in the network. .
The Ad-hoc on demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV) is taken to be a routing protocol with a link disjoint that serves as an extension to the Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) that determine several of the other paths. The Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) has been now extended for the determination of multiple paths like the Split Multipath Routing (SMR). These node-disjoint paths further guarantee failure independence and this may not be possible by the link disjoint paths. At the same time, the node disjoint paths are not able to guarantee transmission independence. Such types of transmission independence will now refer to a transmission that did not have interference of the packets from the source to the destination. Furthermore, there are some more parameters that have to be taken into consideration to guarantee transmission independence that is coupling and its correlation. For making this multipath routing much more efficient, controlling of traffic in different paths which is needed. Multipath routing has been chosen since it has the ability to be the one which is well-suited in the MANET since it has a high level of its node density.
Distance Routing Effect Algorithm For Mobility. This is one of the first protocols that incorporated position information within a routing protocol. Each node maintains a position database that stores information about all other nodes in the network. Here it involves a distance effect that uses the fact that the greater the distance between two nodes, the slower they appear to be moving with respect to each other. Accordingly, location information in routing table can be updated as a function of the distances separating nodes without compromising the routing accuracy.