Hybrid Wireless networks are the next generation of wireless networks that extends the coverage of the wireless infrastructure networks and provides the scalability of the MANETs. By directly adapting resource reservation based QoS routing in MANET, it gets invalid reservation and race conditions problem. To surmount this, Ze Li et al. wished-for a Quality of service Oriented Distributed Routing protocol to improve the QoS support in Hybrid Wireless networks. Normally, a hybrid wireless network has extensive base stations. In hybrid wireless networks, the data transmission occurs in two features: First, a base station can be a source or a destination to any mobile nodes and next, the transmission medium between a mobile node and an AP is limited. The first feature permits a flow to have any cast transmissions beside multiple transmission paths from to destination through the base stations. The second feature enables a source node to connect to a base station through the intermediate nodes. By using the two features, the QoD protocol converts the packet routing problem into a dynamic resource scheduling problem. The QoD protocol incorporates five algorithms:
SSAR formulates the data forwarding process as a multiple knapsack problem. In which a node only forwards packets for those with social ties, and it gives priority to packets received from those with stronger social ties when these are not enough resources. Since each node only forwards packet for part of the nodes, it is affect the routing performance. To achieve high performance, SSAR consider both user willingness and contact opportunity when selecting relays. It combines the two methods through mathematical modeling and machine learning technique and obtains a new metric to measure the forwarding capability of a relay with SSAR, a packet will most likely be forwarded to the relay that has strong willingness to forward as well as high direct or indirect or transitive contact opportunity with the destination improve the performance SSAR formulates the forwarding process as a multiple knapsack problem with assignment restrictions. It provides a heuristic based solution that forwards the most effective packets for social selfishness and routing performance. SSAR can achieve good performance with low transmission cost. In DTNs nodes have limited bandwidth and computational capability each node maintains a table that contains its willingness values for other nodes in the network. The value of willingness is a real number within [0,1] where 0 means unwilling to forward and 1 means most willing to forward.
Ucan: A Unified Cell and Ad-hoc Network architecture : This paper represents Unified cellular and specification to extend the outturn of cells. A mobile consumer in UCAN has 3G cellular link and IEEE 802.11 based mostly peer to see links. The 3G cellular base stations sends segments to destination station with low channel quality towards proxy shoppers. The proxy shoppers use multihop unexpected network created of alternative mobile nodes and IEEE 802.11 wireless links to send the segments to the destinations station. This paper represents secure packet transfer for alternative nodes. in depth simulation with IEEE 802.11(b). They tend to show that the UCAN design will offers separate user’s output by up to eightieth and also the mixture outturn of downlink by up to hr.
As a future work, we plan to realize the protocol using hardware implementation in a real time wireless based network, due to the low cost nature of Arduino based wireless nodes, the hardware realization can be done in a closed lab environment. We also intend to research more into the QOS improvement of the wireless networks by incorporating more parameters into our machine learning protocol, and also adding Q-Learning and deep nets into the routing algorithm, which can adapt to the network patterns and select the most optimum route intelligently and in real time, with minimum on-the-fly complexity.
As compare to Infrastructure Wireless Networks MANET are low reliable and appropriate for solely transmission of native knowledge. In Infrastructure Wireless Network nodes communicate with each alternative via base stations. Infrastructure Wireless Network provides high data transmission responsibility and channel access potency however suffers from the drawback of upper power consumption on mobile nodes and single purpose of failure. This paper proposes an algorithm for fault node detection and fault node recovery which will increase the lifetime of HWN in context of low power consumption and high efficiency. An important component which affects the strength of wireless network in data transmission is routing protocol. When some of the sensor node fails down then using of this algorithm results in detecting the fault node and also will replace the same with another high capacity node. Thus the algorithm increases the lifetime of the HWN and reduces the impacts occurred due to the faulted node. Following subsection describes the algorithms used in Distributed Three hop Routing protocol:
ABSTRACT -A hybrid wireless network is efficient and reliable data routing for protocol is a critical component that affects the throughput capacity of a wireless network in data transmission. The routing protocols in hybrid wireless networks combine the cellular transmission mode (i.e. transmission mode) in infrastructure wireless networks and the ad-hoc transmission mode in mobile ad-hoc networks. A challenge here is if we can coordinately develop an efficient routing algorithm and effective cooperation incentives for reliable routing. The protocols used in the multi-hop routing to forward a message to the mobile gateway nodes that are closest to the base station or have the highest bandwidth to the base stations. The widespread base station, the mobile nodes have a high probability of encountering a BS while moving. Existing Two-Hop Routing protocols are produce High overhead and Low Reliability. Taking advantage of this feature, we propose a Distributed Three-hop Data Routing protocol (DTR) and a peer-to-peer (P2P)-based Market- guided Distributed Routing mechanism (MDR). MDR takes advantage of widespread base stations to coordinately realize highly efficient data routing, and effective reputation management and trading market management for reliable data routing. In DTR a source node divides a message stream into a number of segments. The proposed protocol compares to Two-Hop Routing protocol improve the Network Efficiency and reduce the Overhead.
ABSTRACT: Intrusion Detection System is an important technology in business sector as well as active area of research. It is an important tool for information security. An intrusion detection system is used to detect attacks or intrusions and report these intrusions to the user in order to take evasive action. Most of the existing commercial NIDS products are signature-based but not adaptive. Our paper proposes an Adaptive NIDS using K-Means clustering techniques of Data mining approaches. Definite behaviour of network traffic is precisely captured using Data mining approaches, and the set excavated differentiates between “normal” and “attack” traffic. Current researches comprise of single engine detection systems, whereas our proposed system is constructed by a number of Agents, which are totally different in both training and detecting processes. Using k-means clustering algorithm, respective type of packets is clustered under respective Agents formed after clustering. Each of the Agents is responsible for capturing a network behaviour type and hence the system has strength on detecting different types of attacks as well as ability of detecting new types of attacks. The experimental results show that the network traffic pattern used as reliable agents outperforms from traditional signature-based NIDS.
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Nowadays, Health monitoring systems are used in nursing home setups to display the patient health record to their doctors and relatives. This is achieved with the help of the wireless network that has been established for such environment. These systems are developed in such a way that they show the essential health-related data of the patient uninterruptedly, which is helpful in cases of emergency as it establishes a way to analyze the patient health data without any time lapse. The main task of the researchers is to develop a method which is secure and fast for the transferring of such critical and life saving data. While refining the method one has to pay attention to certain determinants such as, power utilized by the sensor, estimated time that the to and fro of data will take, and the energy expenditure in these tasks. In the transmission of such health data from sensor to the coordinator, radio channels are used. The biomedical sensor is attached to the patient’s body, which reads the physiological aspects of health and convert it into a signal. This signal, with the help of wireless monitoring devices is sent to the doctor. This method of monitoring clinical data of the patient possess many advantages, such as in the case of emergencies and the time saved by both the patient and the doctor. The doctor can examine more than one patient at any given time, whereas the
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks can accumulate decisive and precise information in inaccessible and precarious environments, and can be utilized in Military Affairs, National Defence, Environmental Monitor, Industrial Control, Traffic Management, Smart Home, Medical Care, and many more. The sensors whose resources are inadequate are inexpensive, and rely upon the battery for supplying electricity, so it is very important for routing to conveniently make use of its power. Earlier, for wireless sensor networks an energy- efficient SHAC (Single-Hop Active Clustering) approach was proposed. This algorithm has mainly three parts. First, a timer mechanism was introduced to choose tentative cluster-heads. Second, a cost function was proposed for balancing efficiently energy of each node. Lastly, active clustering algorithm was proposed. During both numerical results and theoretical analysis, it is depicted that with such algorithm the lifetime of the network can be increased considerably compared to the other clustering protocols namely LEACH-C and EECS. Single Hop Active Clustering may extend the lifespan of the network by up to 50 percent as compared to EECS.
N3. Therefore, the packet delay is around two intervals. On the other hand, if we assign N1, N2 and N3 with the same channel, and use 802.11 to resolve contention in this sub network, the packets can be transmitted from N1 to N3 within one interval. In Fig.2 (b), assume N1 has some data to both N2 and N3, with the aggregate traffic rate of less than R. We can see that MMAC still needs two intervals to complete the transmission, while it can actually be done in one interval by assigning the same channel to all the three nodes. N1 just needs to alternatively data to be transmitting N2 and N3 to avoid collision.
Each of the experiments, we specify how the different applied scenarios were derived from it. We consider a network of 40 nodes that move in a rectangular area of 800m × 800m. It is an open area. Limit node mobility or signal propagation. Node movements are defined according to the RWP mobility model. Under this model, each node starts from a randomly chosen initial position in the area, and independently chooses a random speed between a given maximum speed, and a random destination. Then, it moves at the chosen speed towards the chosen destination in a straight line. Upon arrival, it remains static for a fixed pause time, after which it chooses a speed to destination. We use a maximum speed of respectively 10 and 40m/s, and a pause time of 1.0s. Each experiment has duration of 100s, and is repeated 4 times, using different random instances of the same scenario. Data traffic is generated by constant bit rate (CBR) sessions: 5 data sessions are run between randomly chosen source and destination nodes. By observing the performance of the network under mobility we can test the stability of design in real time scenario with varying Maximum Speed. Data rate of 2Mbps is used [6, 9].
Mobile robot is generated to collect the information from partitioned/isolated child nodes. Single mobile robot navigation method is insufficient and may leads to increase the burden of MR for the large network scenario. To avoid this deficiency multiple mobile robot can be used. In this approach two or more mobile robots are generated. For the large network analysis, multiple mobile robot is effective but there may conflict that where to collect the data in the available area. So the entire network is sub-divided in to regions in which mobile robots are allotted to collect data from pre -defined regions. This method helps for multiple robots implementation by region based approach with hybrid based scheduling (HBS).The regions are assigned based on available nodes in the network. Mobile Robots are generated based on allocated regions.
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Jalal Al-Muhtadi et al.  Reported Mobile control has been a long-standing concern in mobile wireless sensor networks and especially in the sense of cyber physical systems; its ramifications are enormous. It is the wringer of current approaches to mobility management by assessing them against a set of criteria that are substantially inherent in the characteristics of such systems, which are expected to deliver the winning performance of such approaches. F. Ishmanov et al.  Previously reported routing is one of the most critical operations of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) as it applies to data transmission to wiring stations. Routing attacks will cripple hands and dethrone the activity of WSNs dramatically. Current security mechanisms, such as encryption and empty label, can not cope with some of the routing assaults, as they mostly come from compromised nodes. Recently, a trust system has been put in place to improve protection and modernize communication between nodes. In routing, the trust mechanism avoids / includes nodes in routing operations based on the value of non-scientific trust. Most trust-based routing protocols are introduced to protect routing, which they find to be a variation of routing assaults. Kavita Devi et al.  reported that the methods, finding and applications of the distinctive routing protocols are designed where energy sensation is considered as essential diamond issue. The main objective of routing is to enhance the lifetime of the network by selecting towardly route. The routing
The communications sector is undergoing significant changes, with the emergence of a number of platforms available to provide a different range of services. Some of these platforms are complementary to each other, while others are competitive, or can provide a valid substitute for some of the services provided. Up till now, the most important communications platform in most of the developing countries has been the public switched telecommunication network (PSTN) which provides access to all households and buildings. This universality in providing access has also meant that the network has generally been designated as one for universal service.
There are many possible solutions in order to reduce the power consumption of the wireless sensor nodes such as enhance the storage systems energy density, improve a technique to distribute the power among the nodes, and produce a mechanism to make the nodes scavenge their own power . The clustering algorithms play an important role in not just organizing the network but also control the performance of the network organization. There are several key limitations in wireless sensor networks, that clustering schemes must consider are Energy, Lifetime of Network , Application, Accuracy, Receiver Sensitivity, Type of transmitting signal , Distance ,response time, cluster stability, cluster overlapping, location awareness, QoS support and node mobility .
DOS Level 2 (possibly DDoS) attack which blocks a safety net for the goal of the network segment in which the origin of the attack would mean a launch. In distributed attack or IP header alteration (depending on the type of security behavior). The attack networks completely block the Internet, but without a system crash.
A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a collection of nodes organized into a cooperative network. Each node consists of processing capability which acts as transceiver. Packet dropping is a compromised node which drops all or some of the packets that is supposed to forward. Packet modification is a compromised node which modifies all or some of the packets that is supposed to forward. Packet dropping and modification are common attacks that can be launched by an adversary to disrupt communication in Wireless Sensor Network
dust or on wireless sensor networks. Sensor and process-type, autonomous, very low-powered electronic devices transmit data from one node (mote) to another in an ad-hoc network by transmitting the environment variations. The smart dust subsystems generally include analog (AI) interface, analog-to-digital (ADC), digital signal processor (DSP), digital-to-analog (DAC), and power management and communication transceiver. A clock less EDADC system is presented using the technique of CT delta modulation (DM). The ADC output is digital, time-controlled, data token. The ADC uses a DAC feedback, which is area efficient and segmented resistor string. There is a study of various R-string DAC architectures. A comparison of a component reduction to a prior art indicates that the DAC and D flip-flops in 8-bit ADC bidirectional register have reduced resistors and switches by nearly 87.5 percent using the proposed segmented DAC architecture. SNDR is 22.696 dB, 30,435 dB and 55.73 dB respectively, for the 3-bit, 4-bit and 8-bit systems, and interest ranges are as high as 220.5 kHz.
ABSTRACT: For wireless applications, significant research has been devoted to support real-time transmission with better quality of service requirements. For next generation, a wireless hybrid network that integrates a MANET (Mobile Adhoc Wireless Network) network has been proven to be a better alternative. Guaranteeing of QoS in hybrid networks remains an open problem. In this paper, we propose a new SCS protocol to enhance the QoS Support capability of hybrid networks. This SCS protocol incorporates four algorithms: 1) Path Selection Algorithm to identify the neighbouring node at shortest distance to reduce the delay 2) Routing Algorithm for hopping of data packets via different nodes.3) Mobility Algorithm to decrease the transmission time.4) Multipath Selection Algorithm in order to improve the QoS. Analytical and simulation results of SCS can provide high QoS performance in terms of delay, average delay, throughput, packet delivery ratio. The main objective of our project is to implement the routing protocols in NS2 and to compare simulation parameters like delivery ratio, end to end delay, packet drop, packet sent using SCS, AODV and DSR protocol to provide quality of service in wireless ad hoc network.
The directing principle with static sink can be arranged into various hierarchical-based, multipath-based, and location-based and hybrid routing. The network nodes in the hierarchical structure are categorized into two parts; one brains the atmosphere and other work for data collection and then sends it to the base station. The available path between a sensor and the sink purposes the multipath routing to offer the reliability to the network. In the location based routing, the sink knows the area of the source node. The sink sends the question to a paying attention location to obtain the data. The mixture of two or more above routing protocols can be identified as the hybrid routing protocol. The multipath routing is alternate routing technique to transmit the data packets from the source node to the destination node that elects more than one route. The source node to the destination node allows the sensor nodes to create the numerous paths. Because of path repetition feature, the multipath routing suffers from various issues such load balancing and the less reliability etc. So many multipath routing approaches has been projected the traditional multi-hop routing protocols had been developed with an objective to cop up with the resource limitation and load balancing of the sensor nodes with the less energy in the network. The