Based on the scientific and systematic sampling and testing, using Hydrological Chemical Software (AquaChem4.0), the integrated analysis methods is about descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, ion scale factor and other methods, hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater will be researched by partition. It is seek to clarify the main formation of chemical compositions, in order to reveal the hydrogeochemical and main reaction process in the evolution of groundwater quality.
However, The surface water study in Tibetan Plateau pastoral area was neglected and theory based study is perfect and mature. Xiahe County is not only belongs to Tibetan Plateau and the National Nature Reserve of Three Rivers Source but the runoff-yield area of the Yellow River. consequently, this paper taking Xiahe county as an example to study hydrochemical characteristics and the quality of surface water of the Tibetan Plateau pastoral area. In this research, 69 surface water sampling points were used to analyze the quality of water in Xiahe County while keeping in mind the distribution of major river systems and the characteristics of the surface water distribution throughout the County. For this study, six important water quality indicators were used which include chloride, chemical oxygen demand(COD), ammonia nitrogen, nitrate, fluoride, and sulfates. These parameters are widely used in surface water analysis. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, water quality index (WQI), field research, multivariate statistical methods (such as Spearman’s correlation coefficient), and the piper's trilinear diagram, for comprehensive evaluation were applied to analyze the hydrochemical characteristic and quality of surface water. These multivariate statistical methods have successfully used in numerous studies [31,32] for the hydro-
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There are diverse reports in literature which assess the geochemical characteristics of surface water systems, as well as anthropogenic contamination influenced by fac- tors such as agricultural fertilizers, sewage effluents, evapotranspiration, water–rock interactions and ion- exchange in several parts of the world (Abdesselam et al. 2013; Alaya et al. 2014; Iranmanesh et al. 2014; Kim et al. 2015; Khashogji and El Maghraby 2013; Nandimandalam 2012; Singh et al. 2016). However, in Ghana, there are few such reports (Boateng et al. 2016; Helstrup et al. 2007; Fianko et al. 2010; Yidana et al. 2012). The determination of surface water composition is of extreme significance for the assessment of its suitability for drinking, irrigation and domestic purposes. The primary objective the study has been to evaluate the hydrochemical characteristics of surface water from the Birim River basin assess the eco- logical risk and the suitability for domestic and irrigation uses.
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Assessment of hydrochemical characteristics of the river system is very important for water resources protection and sustainable utilization. The objective of this study was to examine the water quality status through using several physicochemical parameters and to evaluate the hydro-chemical characteristics of river Damodar to access its implication on water quality. Water samples were collected from 14 sampling stations along the river Damodar in premonsoon and monsoon season and analyzed using standard methods. The concentrations of EC, TDS, DO and SO 4 2– ranged from 210–410, 123–254, 5.103–7.694 and 18.628–37.485 mg L– 1 with an overall mean of 336, 204,
Assessment of state and quality of the sea and ocean surface layer waters resulted from binding the data from satellite images and the results of the simultaneously done in situ measurements is the actual direction of modern complex oceanological studies. Further development of this direction the immediate task of which consists in defining hydrochemical composition of water based on satellite data requires selecting the regions in the Black Sea where in situ measurements of water hydrochemical characteristics can be carried out simultaneously with satellite monitoring of the surface water state. The results of analysis of the hydrochemical characteristics’ (main elements of nutrient and carbon cycles) spatial distribution in the Blue Bay waters based on the data of the expeditionary research carried out by Marine Hydrophysical Institute in 2002–2014 are represented. It is shown that this region and the stationary oceanographic platform (SOP) located in its southwestern part constitute a convenient ground for synchronous remote and sub-satellite studies of natural oceanological processes and impact of the coastal anthropogenic pollution sources. The data on hydrochemical characteristics of surface water in the SOP region can be used to study background state of the coastal marine environment as well as influence of intense natural processes (storms and (or) upwellings) upon formation and evolution of hydrochemical and optical structure of surface waters, surface water and atmosphere gas exchange, effect of physical, chemical and biological processes on the sea water quality. Influence of two coastal sources of anthropogenic pollution upon the Blue Bay marine environment was studied using synchronous remote and sub-satellite measure- ments; the results of these investigations provide additional opportunities for developing and certifying the methods of remote study and monitoring of the coastal marine environment state.
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Water quality is the critical factor that influence on human health, it is mostly based on the hydrochemical characteristics which reveals the suitability of water for drinking and agriculture. The beach zone of Red Sea in Egypt is considered as one of the most promising areas for development in the Eastern Desert, especially for the agricultural activities. The underground water would be one of the most important resources for such development process. The underground water in the beach zone is of great importance where it is the unique source for drinking and irrigation water. The main target of this study is to evaluate the suitability of underground water for drinking, domestic, industrial and irrigation purposes. Also, this study is to assist and outline how Egypt will safeguard its water resources in the future, both with respect to quantity and quality and how it will use its resources in the best way from a socio-economic and environmental point of view. To assess the water quality, underground water were collected and subjected to analysis for chemical characteristics. The analysis provides information on physico-chemical properties (pH, density, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, resistivity, total dissolved solids, salinity, alkalinity and hardness) as well as major and minor constituents were also determined for nine water wells selected between Quseir and Safaga cities. The results were compared with the standard permissible limits. In general, data analysis indicates that most of the studied shallow wells require treatment before using it as drinking water or as irrigation water. Different sources of pollution were detected as sea infiltration, decay of organic matter, industrial, agriculture and domestic wastewater.
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geology, degree of chemical weathering of the various rock types, quality of recharge water and inputs from sources other than water rock interaction. Such factors and their interactions result in a complex groundwater quality [11, 12 and 13]. Groundwater is an important water resource for drinking, agriculture and industrial uses in study area (Figure 1). In this study, physical, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical data from the groundwater groundwater system will be integrated and used to determine the main factors and mechanisms controlling the chemistry of groundwater in the area.
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The main scope of this study was to identify differences between dominant processes and system properties for five karst systems of varying size and in different climatic regions in Europe and the Middle East. Using a set of ten hydro- dynamic and hydrochemical system signatures in a process- based karst model, their importance for relating them with karst system properties was explored. During a stepwise analysis the models were calibrated and the parameter sensi- tivity concerning the signatures was investigated. It was pos- sible to show that sensitivity analysis can be used to identify and distinguish processes for different karst systems. More- over, relations were found between signatures concerning water and solute balances, and model parameters that express the recharge area and geogenic contributions of hydrochem- ical compounds (Table 7). It was possible to relate hydrody- namic and hydrochemical karst system signatures to model parameters that represent different properties of the karst sys- tems. The inclusion of hydrochemical information was cru- cial during all stages of the analysis. While hydrodynamic signatures majorly provided information about the ground- water dynamics, NO 3 described the behaviour of soil and
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The chemical characteristics of ground water (well & tube well) in the slum area of Bhoogaon, Wardha district, Maharashtra state has been studied to evaluate the suitability of water for domestic and agricultural purpose. Water samples were collected and analyzed for Temperature, pH, EC, TS, TDS, Turbidity, Total hardness, Total alkalinity, Ca, Mg, DO, BOD, Chloride, Sulphate .The results indicate that most of the ground water samples are of good quality and within the permissible limit prescribed by BIS (1991) for pH, Turbidity, TS, Total hardness, Ca, Mg, Total alkalinity, Chloride, Sulphate.
Abstract: Open cast coal mine Kanhan located in Nagpur district Maharashtra. The chemical characteristics of open cast coalmine Kanhan water ,Nagpur district, Maharashtra state has been studied to evaluate the suitability of water for agricultural purpose. Water samples were collected and analyzed for Temperature, , EC, TS, TDS, Turbidity, Total hardness, pH Total alkalinity, Ca, Mg, DO, BOD, Chloride, Sulphate .The results indicate that open coal mines water samples are of good quality and within the permissible limit prescribed by for pH, Turbidity, TS, Total hardness, Ca, Mg, Total alkalinity, Chloride, Sulphate
The purpose of this hydrochemical study of the water of the hydrogeological AQ1 of the complex of the urban area of Pointe-Black is to identify the chemical facies of water, their degree of potability, as well as their aptitude for the overexploitation of this aqui- fer involving a probability of intrusion saltworks. It also makes it possible to follow the space-time evolution of the physicochemical parameters and to consider their mineral origin. Hydrogeological and physicochemical studies of groundwaters will be integrated and employed to determine the influence of these factors and the mechanisms control- ling the chemistry of groundwaters in the area.
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The north Jordan area between the Zarqa and Yar- mouk Rivers (Figure 1) is a key target zone on the hy- drological map of the country. However, only few re- sults about the hydrochemical of the major water springs have been reported from the area [9,10]. The adjacent mountainous areas of Ajlun and Golan (Figure 1) are the highest elevated lands in the regions east of the Jor- dan Rift Valley. These areas receive high rainfall. The Yarmouk River, which flows along the border between Syria and Jordan, delineates the northern boundary of the study area, whereas the Jordan River represents its western boundary (Figure 1). The Yarmouk River originates from Jabel Al-Arab (Syria) and drains through the Jordanian and Syrian territories.
The Hydrochemical study was carried out in Dwarakeswar watershed area, Bankura and Purulia districts, West Bengal, India, with an objective of understanding the suitability of local groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation pur- poses. Groundwater samples have been collected from different villages within Dwarakeswar watershed area. The sam- ples have been analysed to determine physical parameters like pH, EC, TDS and Hardness, the chemical parameters like Na, K, Ca, Fe, HCO 3 , SO 4 and Cl. From the analysed data, some parameters like Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR),
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from the Chernorechenskiy reservoir down to the place where the river flows into the Sevastopol Bay (Fig. 1), as well as at the entry of some tributaries. The analysis of hydrochemical characteristics was carried out according to requirements of standard methods [7, 8] and regulatory documents (ISO 6059:1984, ISO 6058:1984, RD 52.24.468-2005). The oxygen content was determined by the Winkler method, the one of nutrients (phosphates, ammonium, nitrates and nitrites) – photometrically, the total mineralization – by dry residue . General hardness (dGH) and calcium content were analyzed by complexometric titration according to international standards  and GOST R 52407-2005. Validation of the analysis of the general water hardness and calcium content was carried out using intergovernmental reference standards IRS 0397:2002 and IRS 0399:2002.
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discharge). In winter, the decrease in light and phosphates concentration (Fig. 2, b) and, as a result, the photosynthesis deceleration (not least because of the gas solu- bility increase) provide the maximum of DIC (Fig. 3, a). In addition, bicarbonates make the main contribution (~ 90%) to DIC and its source is the Chernaya River runoff. The increase of its content falls precisely on the high water period of the Chernaya River (December – April). DIC minimum is observed in summer due to active photosynthesis maintaining by additional input of nutrients with domestic wastewater and light activity. During this period the impact of the Chernaya River waters, which are a source of dissolved carbon dioxide and bicarbonates, is mini- mal. The maximum of DIC at the river mouth indicate a significant impact of the River Chernaya waters on the hydrochemical characteristics of the Sevastopol bay. The river waters are not only a source of inorganic carbon but also of fresh organic matter that deposits near the mouth of the Chernaya River and, being oxidized, also makes an appreciable contribution to DIC.
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The heterogeneous nature of upland hard-rock catchments in terms of geology, geomorphology, superficial deposits, soil type and land use gives rise to a range of hydrochemical characteristics in stream waters. This is further complicated by the large and often rapid changes in stream flow typical of storm events. The sources of solutes and flow pathways in hard-rock catchments are still poorly understood, in particular the role of bedrock groundwater. Spatial variations in water chemistry are presented for stream waters, soils and groundwaters in the forested Plynlimon catchment of Wales, UK. The results highlight a large degree of spatial heterogeneity in each of these systems. This has major implications for the application of end-member mixing analysis and presents serious problems for modelling in scaling up from study sites to catchment scale. However, such data provide important constraints on sources, flow pathways and residence times within individual catchment compartments, knowledge of which is essential for understanding how such catchments function. The characterisation of sub-surface waters in upland catchments requires a great deal of care during sampling as well as high spatial and temporal resolution of sampling, and further work is required to characterise the Plynlimon catchments fully. Nevertheless, the presence of an active and highly stratified groundwater system is considered important as a source of solutes and water to streams. It also provides a storage medium that is likely to make a major contribution to explaining the strongly damped rainfall Cl and d 2 H signals measured in the streams.
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isotope hydrograph separation was tested by comparing it to hydrochemical hydrograph separations showing no major differences between these tracers. Hydrograph separations showed that groundwater was the dominant runoff compo- nent for the 2013–2014 wet season. Three component hy- drograph separations suggested a third component that we addressed as the shallow groundwater component. However, further research is still necessary to make a clear distinction between surface runoff and shallow groundwater. A strong correlation between direct runoff generation and antecedent precipitation conditions was found for the studied events. Di- rect runoff was enhanced by high antecedent precipitation ac- tivating saturation excess overland flow. Similar groundwater contributions have been observed in other studies in semi- arid areas (Hrachowitz et al., 2011; Munyaneza et al., 2012; Wenninger et al., 2008). The understanding of runoff gener- ation mechanisms in the Kaap catchment contributes to the limited number of hydrological process studies and in partic- ular hydrograph separation studies in semi-arid regions for the proper management of water resources. Moreover, this study was carried out during the wet season, and in order to gather a better understanding of the hydrological system, further studies focusing on the dry season are still needed, particularly on the dependency of runoff generation on soil moisture and vegetation.
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Four locations were chosen according to geomorphologic and engineering criterion to store the water on the midstream of Tharthar valley, water samples were collected from the four locations to evaluate the hydrochemical properties as indicator to select the more suitable location, these locations are Hatra, Abu-Hamam, Tlol Al-Baj and Al-Sukkariah from the north to the south respectively. Also, the groundwater samples were collected from two shallow wells on the banks. The samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of most common anions and cations in the water Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + , 2 , , Cl – ,
Natural waters, having a contact with different chemi- cal variations of rocks, inevitably gain a specific compo- sition which sufficiently shows in time and space the initial natural mosaic structure of conditions for their formation. In addition to natural factors the hydro- geological and hydrochemical situation in the studied region is determined also by emission of sulfur and heavy metals into the atmosphere by enterprises of non-ferrous metallurgy of the Norilsk mining and smelt- ing industrial complex. Aerosol technogenic (man- caused) emissions are differently accumulated in the catchment area depending on their type, remoteness from the emission source, also on component and aggregate composition of technogenic fluxes, geomorphology of the territory, prevailing wind rose, weather, season and other factors. The processes of intralandscape migration of chemical elements are also developed ambiguously. Geomorphologically subordinate peat and bog ecosys- tems can play the positive role in accumulation and in “damping” of ecologically hazardous technogenic fluxes. Peatlands are a combined geochemical barrier-mechanic, oxygen, biogenic and sorption one where many chemical elements are accumulated . However the buffer “ca- pacity” of hydromorphic complexes has a certain stabil- ity threshold outside of which the degradation of the system itself starts. Therefore under high technogenic loads on environment the problem of protection of natu- ral water resources becomes one of the most important. Meanwhile, bogs in the North-Siberian lowland area are poorly studied from the hydrological point of view.
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3 Groundwater physicochemical profile: Assessment of hydrochemical parameters is essential to evaluate groundwater quality and assign contaminated or uncontaminated nature. Moreover, generated data is employed in investigating various isms responsible for controlling geochemistry of groundwater. Study of water quality is indispensable to understand aquatic ecosystem 15 . Analyzed parameters reported wide variation and range values, figure-2 1, suggesting role of different factors in controlling chemistry of the aquifer systems. Parameters like Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , , TDS and EC crossed the desirable regulatory standards of the World Health Organization 16 and the Bureau of for drinking water at some of the sites, mostly industrial areas, indicating occurrence of influence of made developmental activities on the groundwater quality. As TDS is directly dependent on the concentration of ions, its distribution in groundwater of the area is demonstrated 3. In Pearson’s correlation analysis, table-2, most of the parameters displayed strong association indicating possible interactions between them. Significantly high correlation (P <
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