Hydrogen Engine

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Hydrogen Engine and Numerical Temperature Entropy Chart for Hydrogen/Air Cycle Analysis

Hydrogen Engine and Numerical Temperature Entropy Chart for Hydrogen/Air Cycle Analysis

Hydrogen burns with high flame front speed. This allows hydrogen engines to thermodynamically more closely approach the constant volume heat addition ideal cycle. This resemblance is adequate for stoichiometric mixture, when hydrogen engine runs lean to improve fuel economy and reduce nitrogen oxides, the flame speed slows down. However, it is still very much higher than the gasoline-air mixture flame speed [3] [6]. Flame speed and maximum combustion temperature are of prime concern for thermal efficiency and emissions.

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Design and Development of Oxy Hydrogen Engine

Design and Development of Oxy Hydrogen Engine

The oxy-hydrogen generator is a device that is designed to produce hydrogen and oxygen gas from water by the electrolysis process. The generator setup is of closed container containing electrodes of Titanium which formulates the continuous formation of Oxy- hydrogen gas and being the electrodes are connected to two terminals of the power source, here the electrolyte used is potassium hydroxide which is more reactive with the electric charges, the generator housing is made from low density plastic, with a cover made from the plastic material. The exit valve for the gas is situated at the middle of the cover connected to hose and it to the oxy- hydrogen storage tank and then to the engine with a constant and controlled condition.

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Design and Development of Oxy Hydrogen Engine

Design and Development of Oxy Hydrogen Engine

The oxy-hydrogen generator is a device that is designed to produce hydrogen and oxygen gas from water by the electrolysis process. The generator setup is of closed container containing electrodes of Titanium which formulates the continuous formation of Oxy- hydrogen gas and being the electrodes are connected to two terminals of the power source, here the electrolyte used is potassium hydroxide which is more reactive with the electric charges, the generator housing is made from low density plastic, with a cover made from the plastic material. The exit valve for the gas is situated at the middle of the cover connected to hose and it to the oxy- hydrogen storage tank and then to the engine with a constant and controlled condition.

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Future of Hydrogen Fuel – A Potential Contribution in India Mayur Ishwardas Dhobale

Future of Hydrogen Fuel – A Potential Contribution in India Mayur Ishwardas Dhobale

that very rapid combustion can be achieved. The limit of flammability of hydrogen varies from an equivalence ratio (φ) of 0.1 to 7.1 hence the Engine can be operated with a wide range of air/fuel ratio. The minimum energy required for ignition of hydrogen–air mixture is 0.02 mJ only. This enables hydrogen engine to run well on lean mixtures and ensures prompt ignition. The density of hydrogen is 0.0838 kg/m3, which is lighter than air that it can disperse into the atmosphere easily. Hydrogen has the highest energy to weight ratio of all fuels. The hydrogen can be used to create energy through combustion (combustion occurs within internal combustion engine).The energy density of hydrogen is very low under ambient conditions which prevent greater transportation & storage hurdles than for liquid fuel. Hydrogen produces only water after combustion. It is a non-toxic, non-odorant gaseous matter and also can be burn completely .When hydrogen is burned, hydrogen combustion does not produce toxic products such as hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxide of sulfur, organic acids or carbon dioxides shown in equation below.

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Analysis of Hydrogen Fuelled two Stroke Petrol Engine

Analysis of Hydrogen Fuelled two Stroke Petrol Engine

During combustion the temperature inside the cylinder is extremely high. As the piston expands, this heat evaporates a certain amount of the oil. Observing Figure 7, the contribution of the evaporated and incompletely burned oil to the overall emission can be guessed. Gasoline is a long-chain hydrocarbon and when not completely burned, breaks up into short chain hydrocarbons. Hydrogen is a gaseous fuel and does not conventional fuels. Better lubricating characteristics and longer engine life is obtained. At low speed the gasoline engine is choked and therefore more unburnt hydrocarbons are present in the exhaust gases. The only hydrocarbon emission from the hydrogen engine is due to the above mentioned oil film evaporation.

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Hydrogen Fuelled Internal Combustion Engine: A Review

Hydrogen Fuelled Internal Combustion Engine: A Review

As hydrogen has a low ignition energy limit, hydrogen can be easily ignited using gasoline ignition. Ignition systems which use a waste spark system must not use to ignite hydrogen. These waste sparks acts as a source of pre-ignition for hydrogen engines. The plugs used for ignition of hydrogen engine have non-platinum tips to avoid oxidization with air as platinum as catalyst. A cold rated plug with shorter insulator nose is used which liberates heat from the plug tip to the cylinder head comparatively quicker than a hot rated spark plug. Due to smaller surface area of insulator nose of spark plug, the chances of the plug tip igniting the air-fuel charge is reduced. The hot rated spark plugs are useful only when the carbon deposits accumulate. But hydrogen doesn’t contain carbon, hot rated spark plugs doesn’t serve a useful function in Hydrogen fuelled IC Engine.

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ADVANCEMENT OF HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY IN IC ENGINES- AN IDEA TOWARDS SUSATINABILITY ENGINEERING

ADVANCEMENT OF HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY IN IC ENGINES- AN IDEA TOWARDS SUSATINABILITY ENGINEERING

Carburetion by the use of a gas carburettor has been the simplest and the oldest technique. This system has advantages for a hydrogen engine. Firstly, central injection does not require the hydrogen supply pressure to be as high as for other methods. Secondly, central injection or carburettors are used on gasoline engines, making it easy to convert a standard gasoline engine to hydrogen or a gasoline/hydrogen engine. The disadvantage of central injection in international combustion engine, the volume occupied by the fuel is about 1.7% of the mixture whereas a carburetted hydrogen engine, using gaseous hydrogen, results in a power output loss of 15%. Thus, carburetion is not at all suitable for hydrogen engine, because it gives rise to uncontrolled combustion at unscheduled points in the engine cycle. Also the greater amount of hydrogen/air mixture within the intake manifold compounds the effects of pre-ignition. If pre-ignition occurs while the inlet valve is open in a premixed engine, the flame can propagate past the valve and the fuel-air mix in the inlet manifold can ignite or backfire. In a carburetted hydrogen engine, a considerable portion of the inlet manifold contains a combustible fuel-air mix and extreme care must be taken to ensure that ignition of this mix does not occur. Serious damage to the engine components can result when back fire occurs [4-6]. A schematic diagram illustrating the operation of fuel carburetion method is shown in Fig. 4

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A review paper on the Analysis of Hydrogen
Fueled Engine

A review paper on the Analysis of Hydrogen Fueled Engine

In addition to oxides of nitrogen, traces of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide can be present in the exhaust gas, due to seeped oil burning in the combustion chamber. Depending on the condition of the engine (burning of oil) and the separating strategy used (a rich versus lean air/fuel ratio), a hydrogen engine can produce almost zero emission (as low as a few ppm) to high NOx and significant carbon – monoxide emissions. Saravanan et al conducted the experiment on a single cylinder with manifold and port injection with EGR. Figure 5 shows the variation of Oxides of nitrogen with load for manifold injection, port injection with EGR. The trend shows that manifold injection of hydrogen gives lesser NOx than port injection and engine operated with conventional diesel fuel alone. J. B. Green et al conducted the Experimental study on a S.I engine operation supplemented with hydrogen Rich Gas [17] .Figure 6 shows the NOx emissions as a function of the Coefficient of variation (COV) of IMEP. The plots illustrate the reduction of NOx emissions within acceptable levels of cycle-to-cycle combustion variations (3 to 5% COV of IMEP). The NOx concentration decreases with increase of COV of IMEP. At a COV of 5%, NOx is reduced by a factor of about a hundred by the addition of plasma boosted reformer generated hydrogen at 1500 rpm engine operation.

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Analysis of a hydrogen fuelled internal combustion engine

Analysis of a hydrogen fuelled internal combustion engine

Although more air than required for complete combustion is present in the cylinder (fuel lean operation), the engine is not capable of burning the total amount of fuel. Carbon monoxide emissions are due to incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. It is expected that the hydrogen engine has zero carbon monoxide emissions since hydrogen is a carbon-free fuel. As the results in Figure 7.7.show, some amount of carbon monoxide is still present even with hydrogen. This is due to the burning of the lubricating oil film inside the cylinder. As speed increases, these emissions tend to diminish. A similar presentation of results for carbon dioxide emissions is contained in Figure 7.8. For hydrogen there is practically no emission, only very slight values again due to combustion of the lubricating oil film. During combustion the temperature inside the cylinder is extremely high. As the piston expands, this heat evaporates a certain amount of the oil. Observing Figure 7.9., the contribution of the evaporated and incompletely burned oil to the overall emission can be guessed. Gasoline is a long- chain hydrocarbon and when not completely burned, breaks up into short chain hydrocarbons. Hydrogen is a gaseous fuel and does not dissolve the oil film on the cylinder walls. This is another advantage of it against conventional fuels. Better lubricating characteristics and longer engine life is obtained. At low speed the gasoline engine is choked and therefore more unburnt hydrocarbons are present in the exhaust gases. The only hydrocarbon emission from the hydrogen engine is due to the above mentioned oil film evaporation.

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Computational Investigations On A Four Cylinder Four Stroke Cycle Spark Ignition Engine With Hydrogen And Gasoline Direct Injection

Computational Investigations On A Four Cylinder Four Stroke Cycle Spark Ignition Engine With Hydrogen And Gasoline Direct Injection

Maher A. R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi et. al., conducted computational investigations on the effects of equiva- lence ratio, compression ratio and inlet pressure on the performance and NOx emissions of a four stroke supercharged hydrogen engine. The results were verified and compared with experimental data obtained from tests on a Ricardo E6/US engine. The results showed that supercharging was more effective method to increase the output of a hydrogen engine rather than increasing its compression ratio at its knock li- mited equivalence ratio. Both specific fuel consumption and engine efficiency improved for the hydrogen fuel, lean equivalence ratio and high inlet pressure of charge. Also under some range of operating condi- tions the engine developed power equivalent to its naturally aspirated gasoline version with same level of NOx emissions without any pre-ignition problems. Further it was found that the mathematical model was valid up to 1.8 bar of inlet pressure only as further increase in inlet pressure using the supercharger resulted in engine knock.[8]

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Cataract Detection

Cataract Detection

An increase in thermal efficiency by about 22% was seen in duel injection at low loads and 5% at high loads compared to direct injection [15]. He also observed that in duel injection, the stability and max power could be obtained in direct injection technique in hydrogen engine. Heffel [16] conducted all the experiments at A constant engine speed of 1500rpm and each cycle used different fuel flow rate, ranging from 0.78 to 1.63kg/h. Yadav et. al. [5] conducted experiments with different flow rates of 80, 120, 150g/h in conjunction with diesel at different injection timings, it concluded that hydrogen enriched

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HHO GAS AS A COMBUSTION ENHANCER IN A S.I ENGINE.

HHO GAS AS A COMBUSTION ENHANCER IN A S.I ENGINE.

The use of hydrogen leads to save our fossil fuel which is not a renewable resource. One way to get hydrogen is by electrolysis of water, a method for separating hydrogen and oxygen in water using an electric current. The equipment used is called HHO gas electroyser, which consists of dry and wet type. Electrolysis process at the HHO gas generator will separate the atoms bond. The hho gas is formed in the electrolyser which contains steel plates of grade 316L and it is sandwiched with gaskets in between each plate maintaining a gap of 1.73 millimeters. We wanted efficient gas production therefore we kept modifying the design by reducing/adding the number of plates, until we found the optimal design which gave us max production of gas. The produced gas is then let into the system i.e. after the carburetor, and therefore the mixture of petrol and HHO gas is let into the intake manifold which is then combusted via spark.

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Hydrogen As a Spark Ignition Engine Fuel Technical Review

Hydrogen As a Spark Ignition Engine Fuel Technical Review

Hydrogen engines are associated with less undesirable emissions compared with engines operated on other fuels. There are no unburnt hydrocarbons, oxides of sulphur, carbon di oxide, carbon monoxide, smoke and particulate present in the exhaust. Hydrogen has high octane number over other fuels because of its high propagation ratios. It can be excellent additive with small range to fuels like methane. Higher compression ratio is possible with lean operation, which in turn get higher power output and thermal efficiency and is shown in the following figure 6a and 6b respectively.

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Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Working On Hydrogen Fuel

Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Working On Hydrogen Fuel

In History of internal combustion engine development, hydrogen has been considered at several phases as a substitute to hydrocarbon-based fuels. Starting from the seventeenth century, there have been several attempts to convert engines for hydrogen operation. Together with the progress in gas injection technology, it has become possible to control exactly the injection of hydrogen for safe operation. Since the fuel cell needs certain upgrade before it is widely used in vehicles, the traditional internal combustion engine is to play an important role in the transition. This study examines the performance characteristics and discharge of a hydrogen fueled traditional spark-ignition engine. Minute moderations are made for hydrogen feeding which do not change the basic characteristics of the original engine. Differentiation is made between the gasoline and hydrogen operation and engine design changes are discussed. Few remedies to overcome the backfire phenomena are attempted.

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Accelerating hydrogen implementation by mass production of a hydrogen bus chassis

Accelerating hydrogen implementation by mass production of a hydrogen bus chassis

body and cabin, and install other auxiliary systems. The existing infrastructure of the bus buggy-chassis market can be used to leverage hydrogen technology for mass production. This solution allows developing nations to import a state-of-the-art vehicle, with the possibility for significant local content in the final delivered product, while maintaining the flexibility for innovative technological developments and promoting hydrogen research within the developing economies. Indeed, a modular series-hybrid drivetrain can be made adaptable to a range of primary power sources such as an internal

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A Review on Cryogenic Rocket Engine

A Review on Cryogenic Rocket Engine

Cryogenic originated from two Greek word “Kyros” which means cold or freezing “gene” which means burn or produced [1]. Cryogenic is the study of production of very low temperature nearly about ‘123 k’ in which the material behavior and properties are studied at that temperature. Cryogenic engine is a type of rocket engine designed to use the fuel or oxidizer which must be refrigerated to remain in liquid state [2]. Liquid propellant Rocket engine(LPRE) are commonly used in space technology. Thrust chamber is one of the most important subsystem of a rocket engine. The liquid propellant (i.e.…liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen) are metered, injected, atomized, vaporized, mixed and burned to form hot reaction gas product, which in turned are accelerated and ejected at supersonic velocity [3]. Payload capacity of the space vehicle can be increased with the propulsion system having higher specific impulse, in general liquid propellant engines result in longer burning time than conventional solid rocket engine which result in higher specific impulse [4].

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Effect of LPG/ Hydrogen Substitution in Performance of CI Engine

Effect of LPG/ Hydrogen Substitution in Performance of CI Engine

In baseline diesel mode, the highest value of IP was 4.40 kW; while these values in LDDF mode-IV & HDDF mode- V were 4.37 kW and 4.41 kW respectively. The IP of the engine was lowest with HDDF mode-I, i.e., at lowest supplied rate because the small amount of hydrogen supplied could not mix and burn with air and hence the power output of the engine was reduced. In HDDF mode- V, hydrogen could properly mix with air and burn in sufficient quantities producing more power. Similarly, the IP of the engine in LDDF modes was lesser than diesel mode.

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Modelling of a Three Shaft High BypassRatio Engine Performance and Emission Prediction Using Hydrogen Fuels

Modelling of a Three Shaft High BypassRatio Engine Performance and Emission Prediction Using Hydrogen Fuels

Beside biofuels, liquid hydrogen also has been studied actively. Hydrogen fuel has become attention since it does not emit any particulate and [11]. From the molecular formula itself, it does not contain any carbon molecule unlike kerosene fuel. It has higher calorific value compared to the other alternative fuel and potentially give better performance and result in less emission. Hydrogen has been considered as an aviation fuel from early as 1918 [12]. There are many test engines which run completely using cryogenic liquid hydrogen, . However, conventional aircraft engine has to be modified and redesigned such as fuel supply substructure due to its chemical and physical properties [8]. Figure 2 has shown that hydrogen fuel can reduce fuel consumption as compared to the kerosene fuel. Less fuel consumption potentially reduces the emission. Comparison between conventional jet fuel and liquid hydrogen fuel have shown that gas emission from can reduce toxic emission [8].

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Online Full Text

Online Full Text

Abstract— This paper focuses on the effect of air-fuel ratio on the engine performance of single cylinder hydrogen fueled port injection internal combustion engine. GT-Power was utilized to develop the model for port injection engine. One dimensional gas dynamics was represented the flow and heat transfer in the components of the engine model. The governing equations are introduced first, followed by the performance parameters and model description. Air-fuel ratio was varied from stoichiometric limit to a lean limit. The rotational speed of the engine was varied from 2500 to 4500 rpm while the injector location was considered fixed in the midway of the intake port. The acquired results show that the air-fuel ratio is greatly influence on the performance of hydrogen fueled engine. It is shown that the brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and brake thermal efficiency decreases with increases of the air- fuel ratio however the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) increases with increases of the air-fuel ratio. The cylinder temperature decreases with the increase of air-fuel ratio. The present model emphasizes the ability of retrofitting the traditional engines with hydrogen fuel with minor modifications.

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An Experimental Analysis of IC Engine by Using Hydrogen Blend

An Experimental Analysis of IC Engine by Using Hydrogen Blend

The setup consists of single cylinder, four stroke, multi-fuel, research engine connected to eddy type dynamometer for loading. The operation mode of the engine can be changed from diesel to petrol or from petrol to diesel with some necessary changes. In both modes the compression ratio can be varied without stopping the engine and without the combustion chamber geometry by specially designed tilting cylinder block arrangement.

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