ICT applications such as radio, television, and interactive media computer software are necessary tools for teachers of English in this 21st century and can use to teach language skills and other aspects of the EnglishLanguage. Interactive media computer software, for instance, provides real-life situations in learning and teaching of the EnglishLanguage. They combine sounds, images, pictures, and texts which draw the learners' attention to listen, watch, and become engaged in the lesson. Subsequently, the interactive media application made available in the classroom will foster the students to comprehend diverse texts, which will give the students a solid background in the tasks and content of Englishlanguage courses, as it amid to improve the students' English proficiency. Since ICT tools are now technology integral part of the teaching curriculum, students learningEnglishLanguage must become proficient in exploring and using electronic resources. The study describes how information and communication technology tools should be implemented to facilitate the teaching and learning of the EnglishLanguage in large classes.
science provide "opportunities to create well-designed, learner-centered, interactive, affordable, efficient, flexible e- learning environments" (Khan, 2005, p.168). For this reason, it could be suggested that; going through internet is an alternative way to study English. Web based technologies and powerful internet connections provide various new possibilities and latest trends for teachers and learners. In fact as the electronic media as internet and the use of cyber space in education are the inseparable elements of education in the global atmosphere today, special attention must be paid on how to use the information communication technology (ICT) and virtual learning environments (VLE) to meet the demands of the era as information and communication technology has become a crucial part of the modern world. Now most of the countries emphasize learning and applying the information and communication technology as the base of their educational systems. The main idea this essay is concerned which is considering the practical applications of ICT and VLE in learningEnglishlanguage and literature, moreover it is tried to evaluate quality based on a systematic approach too The rapid technological progress in the last years has heralded a new era in our understanding of promoting literacy and presented some of the advantages of using ICT and VLE in the classroom in the present era of information explosion in which many aspects of our lives have undergone dramatic changes. According to Grabe and Kaplan (1996): " today we are drowned in the deluge of information"(p.298). Huge changes have occurred in the pedagogy of teachingEnglishlanguage and literature. In fact ICT, CMC and VLE have initiated new possibilities into the classrooms. The bridge between education and internet technology has made a deep impact on perspectives about teaching and learning. In fact, as a result of the application of ICT, CMC and VLE not only "the relationships between teachers and students have undergone a phenomenal change" (Barad, D. P. 2009, p.10), but also the role of the teachers, the nature and context of learning, as well as the function and relative importance of the contents of courses have all been challenged and redefined. In a broad sense IT includes the technology used to communicate information that Eisa Amiri, Lecturer, Lamerd Branch, Islamic Azad
The historical development of CALL shows that there has been a significant development in ICT utilization in the field of LTL. At present, sophisticated technologies, equipped with a wide range of applications, enable a variety of innovative LTL activities. However, it is important to bear in mind that ICT adoption in LTL, as Bax (2003) pointed out, has not yet reached its maximum potential. In some contexts, the use of ICT has been limited to only simple applications of a computer, due to the minimal accessibility of facilities as well as to low literacy in using the technology applications (L. Li & Walsh, 2010). In another context, learners have been able to produce complex language use, surrounded by multi-media applications covering web- based environments and various in-built tools (Vallance et al., 2009). In other words, ICT in LTL is now in a transition period. It has been used quite widely but not entirely optimally. It has featured in language classrooms, with learners and tutors aware of its necessity, and is currently being explored to maximize learners‟ ability to acquire second language competencies (Bax, 2003).
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is perceived as a part of the core of education in this21st century-learning. Experts have explored the integration of pedagogical ICT in teaching and learning recently. But none of them explored the teacher’s competence to integrate pedagogical ICT as they assess the extent to which ICT integrated by the teacher in teaching. This research aims to investigate the teacher competence levels to use ICT and the extent to which the ICT integrated by the teacher in Englishlanguageteaching. Classroom observation and interview were used as data collecting technique to reach the objectives. To produce an in- depth description, this case study focuses on the description of the individual teacher as the target of the investigation. Teacher’s ICT competence levels were classified using professional framework rank ICT competence level (UNESCO, 2011). While SAMR model was used as the data analysis tool to determine the extent to which ICT integrated by the teacher in the Englishlanguageteaching. The results of this research indicate that the teacher's competence to use ICT was still beginner. It means that the teacher is dominant with the use of basic features of presentation, word processor software such as PowerPoint and Microsoft word and other digital resources. It is also reported that teacher’s ICT integration level with the domination at the substitution level and augmentation level. These findings reflect the ability of the teacher in integrating ICT in teaching. The teacher is considered only be able to use basic function in a limited number of computer application with only little change and improvement.
benefits in languagelearning (Darasawang & Reinders, 2010). First, such learning media help promote students’ learning autonomy. Multimodality by combining various learning modes – aural, visual, verbal, online – will possibly enhance students’ awareness on self-regulated learning involving metacognitive skills to establish, manage, orient, and maintain their learning progress. It also indirectly affects their motivation in the process of either obtaining the lessons or developing their language skills (Tri & Nguyen, 2015). Second, such ways of learning will likely enable active learning styles, maintain good classroom interaction, enhance self-control, and introduce positive practical knowledge experiences for students. This leads to the development of critical thinking and higher-order- thinking skill since textbooks are not the only source of learning, and meaningful practical engagement is appropriately suited to both the objectives and students’ characteristics (Hidayati, 2016). To the extent of teaching process, ICT may help teachers gain access to a wide range of authentic materials, which are also underlined in 2013 Curriculum (Tri & Nguyen, 2015). Internet availability and supporting softwares and hardwares can be maximally employed to create materials enabling students’ communicative ability and digital literacy like using computer programs or online learning platforms. This leads to a “more contextualized and pedagogically relevant feedback” (Hidayati, 2016, p. 50). Isisag (2012) also argued that ICT opens some opportunities for teachers. It allows them to adapt the materials based on the circumstances and students’ needs and characteristics in which authentic materials can be properly employed in the classroom. Directly, they can organize and sequence how those materials boost up the students’ engagement and interest. Because of its flexibility, then, teachers may possibly integrate the four language skills meaningfully.
The concepts of technology integration and technology use in education are separated in some ways. However, although it is sometimes seen in literature that these concepts are used interchangeably, it cannot be said that this is a correct use. The use of ICT in teaching and learning is limited to some extent, along with being a general concept. In other words, the use of every ICT form for teaching and learning does not mean technology integration or does not make significant contributions to the teaching-learning process (Gunuc 2016). Technology integration is a process that requires a systematic approach. One of the main reasons why ICT use cannot always make significant contributions to education is that ICT use is unplanned and unintentional, but also not routinely done. ICT can provide great contributions to the learning and teaching process when it is planned and integrated into the course for a specific purpose. However, the use of ICT in the class is generally used as a teaching tool which is temporary, spontaneous, non-focused learning. For this reason, in particular, the process of integrating ICT has been considered in this study. Integration of ICT in education is used in foreign language discipline as well as in many areas and provides some contributions. Through the integration of technology in foreign language education, students can learn by practicing and being entertained without memorization. Students can develop their language skills (i.e. reading, listening, writing and speaking) via various software in the classroom as well as easily accessible tools and technology-based materials outside the classroom through the Internet.
Tinio (2003) mentions that ICT is defined as sort of technological tools and resources used to communicate and create, store and manage information. It includes some medias that used for supporting teaching and learning. Technologies are mentioned such as audio-visual tools, projectors, smart boards and various technologies for use in education, development. The application of ICT gives more opportunities for communication among learners: they can exchange information in real time, they can participate on different projects, exchange emails, search for information etc. by using the real material provided by the internet it will have a better imminent whose language we study (Padurean & Margan, 2009). Moreover, audio, video program of the particular lesson can provide students with extra opportunities to do meaningful languagelearning tasks. ICT has applied in education, are those technologies including computers, the internet technologies. These technologies have been identified as an important tool for realizing a new standard of learner-centered education that better supports learners’ needs through differentiated and personalized instruction (Watson & Watson, 2011). The mechanism such as providing effective remediation, assessing learning are critical elements in digital technology that is able to support learner-centered teaching for different learners (Bush & Mott, 2009)
There has since been the introduction of computer awareness at the junior secondary school level and most of the junior schools have a computer laboratory. However, the computer as an ICT tool has not yet been integrated into the school lessons nor is it part of the examinable subjects in the Junior Certificate (JC) examinations. Thus, at this level, most students have exposure to use of the computer by joining the schools’ computer clubs that are normally run as part of extra- mural activities which take place outside class time. At the senior secondary school level, Computer Studies as a subject is part of the school curriculum and it is an examinable subject which is only offered as an optional course and not as a core course. Because of the mindset of students who normally associate and categorize computing as a difficult subject (like Math and Science), most students do not opt for Computer Studies at the senior secondary school level. Consequently, when these students are admitted into UB, they face numerous challenges; first, with integrating into the university system in general, and then with the teaching and learning approaches that are different from their previous learning experiences. One of the challenges that these students face is that of reading and writing using ICT tools such as the computer and the use of LMSs such as Blackboard and Moodle that are part of ICT
Kern (2006) emphasized the importance of a pedagogical approach to technology enhanced multimedia instruction by stating that “technology-based languageteaching is not a method but is integrated into various pedagogical approaches” (p. 200). Technology allows for multimedia instruction and a multisensory learning environment. Research has shown that using technology-enhanced multimedia instruction in the classroom helps to tailor instruction to students with different abilities (Wu & Zhang, 2010) and facilitates quick sharing and building of knowledge within the participatory environment (Asselin & Moayeri, 2011). Technology features viz. interactivity, capacity, flexibility, speed, novelty and numerous automatic functions promote learning and creativity amongst students (Allen, 2003; Loveless, 2002). Visual aids, when integrated into the lesson plan through media, attract students´ attention to the topic presented in the class, enhance and facilitate comprehension of grammar and language, increase students‟ motivation as well as help students memorize the new vocabulary and structures thereby expanding their syntactic and semantic repertory. To render the acquisition of language more meaningful for the students, teachers must bring the real world into the classroom.
ICT integration was also done at primary level, most of the teachers in primary level believe, ICT gives better strategy by proving more interactive technology multimedia in that suitable with the characteristic of young leaners. (Loveless, 2003; Levin and Wadmany, 2006; Cernochova, 2010; Safitry, et al, 2015). However, there is still limited study on teachers perspective on ICT and other online learning application such as social media and other technology-assisted languagelearning (TELL) at higher education levels. (Dashtestani, 2014; Silviaynti, 2014; Inayati, 2014). It is assumed that teachers in higher education setting have better ICT literacy than secondary school teachers and elementary school teachers. Other researchers also investigated the impact and result of teachers’ professional development in ICT and TPACK. They found that the program helped the teacher to improve their technological skills as well as their understanding of ICT for enhancing education quality. (Goktas et al, 2008; Kalogiannakis, 2010; Zhao et al, 2016; Olofsson, 2017). Specific training is also done in comparing teachers attitude before and after ICT training for EnglishLanguageTeaching. (Hismanoglu, 2012). Teachers’ perspective of ICT studies were also done in the context of subject teaching beside English, like science and math English (Hennesy, Ruthven and Brindley 2002; Barak 2006; Kafyulilo and Keengwe 2014).
Literacy in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is fundamental to life in our modern technological society. To equip students to be literate lifelong learners and global citizens of the 21 st century we must successfully integrate ICT into both the English curriculum and English pedagogical practice. It is a valuable tool to enhance teaching and learning. For teachers ICT is a professional resource: a mode of classroom delivery, a source of valid and valuable text types. For students, provides opportunities to communicate more effectively and to develop literacy skills including skills in critical literacy. It is a valuable tool for, researching, composing and responding, viewing and representing in English. The use of ICT in education is a relatively new phenomenon and it has been the educational researchers' focus of attention for more than two decades. Educators and researchers examine the challenges of using ICT and think of new ways to integrate ICT into the
Answered by: Baroness Williams of Trafford | Party: Conservative Party I totally agree with the noble Lord. A person who comes to this country unable to speak the language has difficulties with everything from making a doctor’s appointment to inquiring about their children’s education in school. The additional language funding that I spoke about earlier will mean that all adults arriving through the scheme anywhere in the UK will receive an extra 12 hours a week of tuition for up to six months.
Placement training has gone through a dramatic evolution in the recent years and the onus of the learning has shifted predominantly to the learners. The primary focus is on oral communication activities to provide authentic and meaningful practice of the target language. In any group communication tasks, the learners must make multiple usages of the target language in order to develop both accuracy and fluency. The learners are required to negotiate meaning drawn from their own resources rather than merely reproducing and absorbing language. Language training by the placement trainer can sometimes differs greatly from the language teachers in the perspective colleges. An informal atmosphere has been maintained throughout the training program. Students are free to interact with the trainer and with the students‟ participants. In the communicative situation, the students are free to define the context and elicit responses. Emphasis is on real, meaningful communication rather than activity topics and artificial situations. The learners are encouraged to use more and more English while interacting with their classmates and friends. To establish a relaxed and informal relationship among participants the use of mother tongue can be allowed during the initial few days. Almost everything that will be done in the classroom is done with a communicative intent during placement training.
Language is dynamic and is arbitrary. To teach literature is an easy task while teachinglanguage to a learner is a real hard task. For humans, language is not innate and human language has discrete, distinguishable sounds so they depend on various sources to acquire a language. The only way of acquiring a language is through learning. Learning is facilitated by different factors. A learner acquires the target language from his surroundings, media, from the people he interacts but top of all classroom learning plays a pivotal role in learning a language. Classroom learning is a mutual process in
enormously increased interaction between nations which have made borders almost vanish. English that is spoken by many people is thought as a second language in many countries around the world. Speaking English has almost been mandatory, and this path seems to be irreversible as the world gets smaller and becomes coined as a “global village”. Thus, use of a common language occurs to be the first and foremost need of today’s world. A world replete with international organizations, multinational companies, NGOs and many other platforms that bring people with different languages together makes it indispensable to gather under an umbrella of one language that would be second one to many. Needless to say, social networks like Twitter and Facebook are the most current phenomena in this connection. Learning a new language is just an implication of expanding the education, social interaction, diversifying cultures, broadening the psychological view and putting in function the conceptual thinking of the youth. On the other hand, the importance of integration for the states to the international society is obvious. And this is not only to be measured by statistics or trade numbers. Societies with high number of educated people who speak multiple languages are more prone to adopt any changes or development happening out of their countries—which is an indication of integration. Moreover, know-how, new inventions and technologies could only be transferred through these educated people. Corollary of the facts mentioned above, English has also been a language mainly spoken in all western Balkan regions. English is taught to students starting from primary school in this geography. Furthermore, teachingEnglish has been a major criterion for schools to be chosen by students and speaking English has been the main requirement to be recruited by prestigious institutions or to hold a high administrative position at work. More importantly, students who
to which learners are considered as “reactive beings” either accepting or rejecting the material offered by the teacher. Constructivists, he holds, postulate that learning is a process which is highly subjective, autonomous, and active, and can be achieved by dint of process-action-oriented methodology including cooperative learning, active, and interactive forms of work as well as teaching by projects. It is evident that the principles of methodology and procedure discussed above reflect the general consensus of TESOL theorists in the ‘90s as well. However, bringing the various principles, procedures, and strategies under the one roof of ‘constructivist TESOL’ reflects a form of novelty which offers coherence and a superstructure for the various concepts of learning and teaching involved in the field (Reinfried, 2000). McGroarty (1998) argues that the most productive future directions theory building and research in applied linguistics derive from the extent to which the field’s practitioners take insights from constructivist scholarly approaches.
A general introduction to ways of working in a language classroom and some milestone concepts open the book’s discussion through the first chapter, Starting Out. Four classroom snapshots followed by comments in this chapter challenge the readers with the type of classroom at work and set the scene for mapping the teachers’ role in the next section. Here, the author distinguishes three kinds of teachers, namely: ‘the explainer’, ‘the involver’, and ‘the enabler’. The third, Scrivener believes, is the aim of his book: to bring up teachers who not only know about the subject matter and methodology but also have an awareness of how individuals and groups think and feel within their classes. To the end of this chapter, some hints and strategies are outlined to make the first lessons more fruitful. The reviewers found this part extremely impressing, full of ideas one may know as a professional but taken for granted!
However, these findings on ‘women’s language’ are currently being con- tested. For example, Crawford (1995:34) argues that ‘women’s language can- not be adequately understood by counting features and assigning them to fixed categories of meaning’. This is because these differences may be relative and influenced by situational aspects. Connell (2002:51) also affirms that ‘language use is situational and is shaped by relations of power.’ To learn a language is ‘a species characteristic which underpins the whole culture—including the ideo- logy of gender difference’. As noted by Phillips (1980:541), ‘gender differ- ences in speech in our own society vary, depending on the social context of speech’. In Bugis society, for example, gender is an important aspect in men and women communication. However, some other aspects besides gender also take parts such as social status and age differences and also situations or the settings of conversations. In Bugis society, ‘gender is not the sole factor influ- encing men and women’s communication. Rather, social status for Bugis women in fact influences their gender performance in language’ (Mahmud, 2008a, 2009a, 2009b).
Mayer’s cognitive theory of multimedia learning presents the idea that the brain does not interpret a multimedia presentation of words, pictures, and auditory information in a mutually exclusive fashion; rather, these elements are selected and organized dynamically to produce logical mental constructs. Furthermore, Mayer underscores the importance of learning (based upon the testing of content and demonstrating the successful transfer of knowledge) when new information is integrated with prior knowledge. Design principles including providing coherent verbal, pictorial information, guiding the learners to select relevant words