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Effects of Measurement Conditions on Ignition Temperature of Magnesium Alloys

Effects of Measurement Conditions on Ignition Temperature of Magnesium Alloys

The effects of process parameters such as air flow rate, heating rate, sample surface area per volume (specific surface area), and sample compositions on the ignition temperature of magnesium alloys, both with and without calcium, were investigated by using differential thermal analysis. For magnesium alloys without calcium, increases in the heating rate, air flow rate, and specific surface area all contributed to a de- crease in the ignition temperature, while an increase in the aluminum concentration promoted an increase in the ignition temperature at least under the present experimental conditions used in the present study. For magnesium alloys with calcium, adding 2 mass% calcium contributed to a significant increase in the ignition temperature. The effects of the flow rate, specific surface area and aluminum concentration on the igni- tion temperature qualitatively led to the same tendencies in magnesium alloys both with and without calcium. For the air flow rate, however, the opposite trend was observed. In the present study, the ignition temperatures obtained were much higher than those described in the litera- ture, most likely because of the large differences in the specific surface area.[doi:10.2320/matertrans.L-M2017833]
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Review on Bio Based (Vegetable Oil) Lubricants as an Alternatives of Mineral Oils for Gearing Applications

Review on Bio Based (Vegetable Oil) Lubricants as an Alternatives of Mineral Oils for Gearing Applications

H.M. Mubarak et. al, [7], studied the source, properties, as well as advantages and disadvantages of the bio based lubricant. The second part describes the potential of vegetable oil-based bio lubricants as alternative lubricants for automobile applications. The last part describes the world bio lubricant market and its future prospects. Bio lubricants are potential alternative lubricants because of their low toxicity, good lubricating properties, high viscosity index, high ignition temperature, increased equipment service life, high load-carrying abilities, good anti-wear characteristic, excellent coefficient of friction, natural multigrid properties, low evaporation rates, and low emissions into the atmosphere Bio degradability of some oil fuels are mineral oil 20-40%, Vegetable oils 90–98%, Esters 75–100%, Polyols 70–100%, Trimelliates 0–70%.The world has approximately 1700 small and large lubricant manufacturers. An estimated 300 of these manufacturers are Engine Oils 48%, Process Oils 15%, Hydraulic Oils 10%, and Others Oils 28%, in the world market segmentation by application area. Asia/Pacific 37%, North America 28% ,Western Europe 13%, Rest of World 23% in the World market, the segmentation by geographical area.
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Experimental cross-correlation Nitrogen Q-branch CARS Thermometry in a Spark Ignition Engine

Experimental cross-correlation Nitrogen Q-branch CARS Thermometry in a Spark Ignition Engine

These results reveal that the CTL gasoline-air mixture in the engine has a significantly lower auto-ignition temperature than the corresponding methanol-air mixture. An extrapolation based on polytropic compression of the unburned CTL gasoline-air mixture to the knock point as specified by the pressure curve predicts a maximum pre- auto-ignition temperature of approximately 1,020 K ± 20 K. This is slightly smaller than the maximum pre-auto-ignition temperature predicted for the methanol-air mixture in Section 6.2. The difference of approximately 20 K may be explained by the extra time available to the CTL-air mixture to achieve the maximum pre-auto- ignition temperature as a result of the 1,000 rpm engine speed relative to the 1,200 rpm and 1,400 rpm engine speed for the methanol-air mixtures. The small difference in the predicted maximum pre-auto-ignition temperatures also suggests that the chemical mechanism responsible for hot auto-ignition may be the same for both fuels tested (methanol and CTL gasoline).
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Effect of Temperature on Li-rich Layered Cathode Material 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 Prepared by a Low Temperature Solution Combustion Synthesis

Effect of Temperature on Li-rich Layered Cathode Material 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 Prepared by a Low Temperature Solution Combustion Synthesis

at 0.1 C and the capacity retention rates of 91.1 % after 50 cycles as well as excellent rate capability than that of other samples. The capacity retention rates of the samples ignited at 400 °C, 500 °C and 600 °C are more than 90%, and the sample ignited at 400 °C shows the best electrochemical cycling stability during cycling. It is concluded that ignition temperature has an important effect on the electrochemical performances of Li-rich layered cathode materials of 0.5Li 2 MnO 3 ·0.5LiNi 0.5 Mn 0.5 O 2 .

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Initiation of Ignition of Highly Fuel Particles in The Flow of High Temperature Medium

Initiation of Ignition of Highly Fuel Particles in The Flow of High Temperature Medium

Abstract. An approximate analytical solution of ignition of the fuel porous particles has been brought. The impact of thermal radiation on the characteristics and conditions of the ignition has been considered. The verification of the solution has been obtained by comparing the calculated characteristics (delay time of ignition and the ignition temperature) with similar values obtained using the previously derived formulas.

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A Study of Cotton Dust Mixed with Wood Dust for Bio Briquette Fuel

A Study of Cotton Dust Mixed with Wood Dust for Bio Briquette Fuel

Though the use of cotton dust (CD) material as a source of fuel for substituting material may in the ray of acceptable for producing briquette fuel, as physical and mechanical properties of briquette specimen mixed with CD was concerned. The CD material could not be used as mainly fuel material in a mixture. The production of CD fuel briquette required low in moisture content (less than 11%), less ignition time, low ignition temperature and the longer duration of flame-out time. These could be accomplished by using combination of CD and wood dust (WD) in the ratio of 16:4:20:60 (% by weight). In this study, the CD material showed the best potential, not necessarily with the highest temperature but with the longest burning time. In order to maintain an optimum of heat energy value and the compressive strength which reflect its heat energy release and durability of briquette, it is recommended that 16% by weight of CD can only be added to a mixture. Therefore, it might be best not to use CD and WD material greater than 20% overall by weight. However, an increase in percentage less than 16% by weight of WD in mixture helped to formation of briquette specimen and decrease ignition time. As cassava starch used, a solution type binder, the strength of briquette was moderate. However, this strength increased with time of curing. Therefore, selection of binders mainly depended on cost and environmental friendliness. In order to have dense and solid briquettes, high moisture rates should be avoided. Otherwise, produced briquettes would swell and then break up to several pieces after taking them from the die. As a result, below 11% moisture level was found to be suitable according to the data. The briquette specimen made with ratio of 16:4:20:60 (% by weight) gave the highest compressive strength overall. On the basis of study conducted, the total cost of producing the ton of fuel briquettes from CD and WD was estimated at the level of 1,253.29 baht per ton. As it can be observed in Thailand seems to be an opportunity to increase profitability of Thais agriculture and reduce the land-fill cost of spinning-textile companies. Provided results of study may be a useful source of information in the management of companies involved in the production of agro biomass fuel briquettes.
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Lubrication properties of bio based oils compared with mineral oil and determining the effect of wear

Lubrication properties of bio based oils compared with mineral oil and determining the effect of wear

potential of a bio lubricant based on vegetable oil as an alternative lubricant [4]. Bio lubricants are potential alternative lubricants because of their low toxicity, good lubricating properties, high viscosity index, high ignition temperature, increased service life, high load-carrying abilities, good anti-wear characteristic, good coefficient of friction, natural multi-grade properties, low evaporation rates

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Effect of Benzene and Xylene on Flash Point of Kerosene

Effect of Benzene and Xylene on Flash Point of Kerosene

alkanes and naphthenes (cycloalkanes), which normally account for at least 70% by volume. Aromatic hydrocarbons in this boiling range, such as alkylbenzenes (single ring) and alkylnaphthalenes (double ring), do not normally exceed 25% by volume of kerosene streams. Olefins are usually not present at more than 5% by volume. [10] The flash point of kerosene is between 37 and 65 °C (100 and 150 °F), and its auto ignition temperature is 220 °C (428 °F). [11] The pour point of kerosene depends on grade, with commercial aviation fuel standardized at −47 °C (−53 °F).
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Ignition sensitivity of solid fuel mixtures

Ignition sensitivity of solid fuel mixtures

This study reports on these risks and on the reactivity characteristics of two and three components dust mixtures of coal / sewage-sludge / torrefied-wood-pellet. In particular chemical composition, ignition sensitivity parameters (including minimum ignition energy, minimum ignition temperature on a layer, minimum explosive concentration) and flame speed have been determined. In all cases the measured parameters for the mixtures were within the range defined by the lower and upper value of the constituent. However, the expected values do not agree with the experimentally obtained ones, providing more relaxed values than the ones needed on this facilities.
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Hydrogen and natural gas comparison in diesel HCCI engines -a review

Hydrogen and natural gas comparison in diesel HCCI engines -a review

Hydrogen addition to the HCCI engine is one of the effective waysto control the ignition timing since hydrogen is able to reduce ignition delay time effectively. Furthermore, hydrogen can be produced from the exhaust gases of the engine itself using a reformer, which is called an“on-board hydrogen producer” [7,32]. As the amount of hydrogen was increased, auto-ignition delay time reduced accordingly while the in-cylinder peak pressure increased, ignition temperature reduced and indicated power increased [1]. The use of hydrogen addition does not involve high cost since it uses a lower-pressure fuel-injection system[30]. Hydrogen addition to a diesel engine will retard the heat release rate and delays the temperature rise. Furthermore, the addition of hydrogen is able to increase the engine efficiency by a significant margin[15,20]. By using a catalytic reforming aid in HCCI,the addition of hydrogen in natural gas HCCI engines helps in decreasing the need for high intake temperatures and also is a means of extending the lower limit of HCCI operations[39]. D. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
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Performance Of Four Stroke Compression Ignition Engine Operated On Dual Fuel Mode With Producer Gas And Diesel

Performance Of Four Stroke Compression Ignition Engine Operated On Dual Fuel Mode With Producer Gas And Diesel

Abstract: We intensify our probe on waste biomass found in South India namely Prosopis Juliflora, because of its forceful growth in uncultivated agricultural landfills. To depose the Prosopis Juliflora, biomass gasification is the sufficient thermo-chemical reaction to excerpt useful energy from waste biomass. The fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) was used to gasify the waste biomass Prosopis Juliflora with a feed rate capacity from 5 to 20kg/hr and temperature is in the range of 650 - 950 ℃ with an equivalence ratio of 0.24 - 0.44 was maintained. When the gasifier is operated alone, the flame temperature is lower so that the conversion rate of heat energy will also be lower. If the gasifier is operated with accessories the flame temperature got increased by 40%, the conversion rate of heat energy will also be high in the compression ignition (CI) engine. The brake thermal efficiency of compression ignition engine for both (diesel) single fuel and (producer gas + diesel) dual fuel modes at four different producer gas mass flow rate has been shown and specific fuel consumption(SFC) has improved slightly due to addition of calorific value in the producer gas to the supply to the engine from the gasifier.
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Experimental study on combustion pressure oscillation of soybean bio diesel oil

Experimental study on combustion pressure oscillation of soybean bio diesel oil

With the increase of EGR rate, the peak in-cylinder pressure decreases, but the peak premixed combustion increases and its phase retards; the peak diffusion combustion decrease. As EGR rate increases, both the maximum amplitude of pressure rise rate and pressure rise acceleration increases. It is different with the results of 0.41 MPa IMEP in Figure 6. With the increase of EGR rate, the oxygen concentration decrease, the total specific heat capacity increase, so the mean temperature in the cylinder decrease, the ignition delay increases, the fuel accumulated during the ignition delay period increase, the peak premixed combustion, the maximum amplitude of pressure rise rate and pressure rise acceleration increase, and their phase retard.
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Kinetic Characteristics of Ignition Dispersed Condensed Substance Single Heated to a High Temperature of the Particles

Kinetic Characteristics of Ignition Dispersed Condensed Substance Single Heated to a High Temperature of the Particles

Results [3-10] and theoretical investigation [12-14] can not be directly used to predict the conditions and the ignition characteristics of crushed solid fuels. On the example of wood sawdust [11] established significant differences in the mechanisms of heat transfer layer dispersed CS and monolithic condensed matter. Therefore, the kinetic characteristics of the ignition processes in these two cases may differ materially. Therefore to present day is no information about these characteristics the even for prevalent used in the heat-and-power engineering of solid fuels.

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Heat Release Rate in a Reduced-Scale Model of a Subway Car on Fire

Heat Release Rate in a Reduced-Scale Model of a Subway Car on Fire

In this study, fire propagation phenomena were analyzed by measuring the HRR, mass loss rate, and temperature according to the location of ignition source and combustibility of interior materials by using a 1/10-scale model of an actual subway car. In addition, the HRR was compared with that measured in an actual fire test conducted with a subway car.

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Asteroseismology of red giant stars: The potential of dipole modes

Asteroseismology of red giant stars: The potential of dipole modes

As mentioned above, during the core He-burning phase, the high temperature sensitivity of the nuclear reactions leads to the development of a small convective core. Its size (as during core H- burning) is based on a local convection criterion, generally the Schwarzschild one. As for MS, some observational facts indicate that the extent of the central mixed region during He-B phase should be larger than that determined by local criteria. The nature of the mechanism inducing this extra- mixing as well as its extent are still a matter of debate: is it a mechanical overshooting as proposed by [27], or an overshooting induced by the discontinuity of opacity generated at the external border of the convective core by the conversion of He in C and O (see e.g., [28]) together with a semi- convective layer? The extent of the centrally mixed region has important consequences on the duration of the He-B phase, but also on the following evolutionary phases; for instance, it determines the ratio between AGB and horizontal blanch stars. Moreover, the different chemical profiles of C and O left by different kinds of mixing directly affect the oxygen abundance of later white dwarfs (see e.g. [29]).
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EMERGENCY BURNING OF SOLID ROCKET PROPELLANT: DAMAGE RISK ASSESSMENT TO PEOPLE IN THE WORKPLACE

EMERGENCY BURNING OF SOLID ROCKET PROPELLANT: DAMAGE RISK ASSESSMENT TO PEOPLE IN THE WORKPLACE

The constructed numerical model was used to assess the potential risk of thermal damage to peo- ple in the shop where the solid rocket propellant of Thunder-2 rocket is located. In the event of emer- gency that leads to the burning of solid rocket pro- pellant inside the shop, there may be a «domino» effect – the ignition of the propellant of a neigh- boring rocket engine.

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Thermionic Energy Converter System Using Heat Flux in Divertor Region

Thermionic Energy Converter System Using Heat Flux in Divertor Region

the potential di ff erence is zero. To simulate a tungsten emitter in this experiment, the collector was biased by ap- proximately + 2 V with respect to the emitter. Thoriated tungsten was used instead of pure tungsten to increase the emission from the emitter by decreasing the work func- tion. If the emitter is made of pure tungsten, its temper- ature should be raised to approximately 2300 K to obtain sufficient output current. We used thoriated tungsten for the emitter, and the emitter temperature was increased to approximately 1800 K. The electrodes are circular, 8 mm in diameter, and 0.5 mm thick. Dielectric parts were made of boron nitride (BN), which is durable under high heat flux conditions.
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Influence of varying timing angle on performance of an SI engine: An experimental and numerical study

Influence of varying timing angle on performance of an SI engine: An experimental and numerical study

function of timing angle. Advanced timing angle caused higher cylinder peak pressure. This higher pressure pushed more fuel- air mixture into the crevices (most significantly, the space between piston crown and cylinder walls) in which the flame was quenched and the mixture was left unburned. Additionally, temperature late in the cycle, when the mixture came out of these crevices, was lower at more advanced ignition timing. The latter temperature meant that hydrocarbons and oxygen did not react, which increased concentration of oxygen in the exhaust and unburned hydrocarbons.
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Combustion characteristics, performance and emissions from a diesel power generator fuelled by B7-ethanol blends

Combustion characteristics, performance and emissions from a diesel power generator fuelled by B7-ethanol blends

The tests were performed with diesel oil-ethanol blends using anhydrous ethanol (99.8% purity) concentrations, in weight basis, of 0% (B7E0), 5% (B7E5), 10% (B7E10) and 15% (B7E15). The blends were prepared using a digital balance with a resolution of ±1g. Table 2 shows the values of density, viscosity and water content for each blend. Three tests were conducted for each load applied to the engine, varying from 0 kW, to 37.5 kW, at the constant engine speed of 1800 rev/min. The readings at each load were performed only after the exhaust gas temperature and the coolant temperature were stabilized, to assure that the steady state condition was reached. A fuel filter assembly was used for each blend in order to prevent changes in results by contamination with the fuel used in the previous test. The load power and fuel consumption results were corrected to standard conditions according to ISO 3046- 1:2002 standard [14].
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Effect of Thermal Radiation on Ignition Time and Critical Temperature of a Single Sodium Droplet

Effect of Thermal Radiation on Ignition Time and Critical Temperature of a Single Sodium Droplet

The present study addresses the problem of ignition of a single sodium droplet, which is an important issue for the nuclear facilities safety. The study follows the approach of previous works and extends the results of those papers to the case of radiative heat loss. The contribution of the thermal radiation is taken into account based on the P-1 approximation for thermal radiation transfer. An extension of solutions of the existing model is obtained in the presence of radiative heat loss for ignition time and critical temperature by exploiting the sensitivity of the process to large chemical activation energy. Different qualitative effects of varying the dimensionless convective heat loss parameter with ignition time and critical temperature are presented in the graphs. The results show that the inclusion of additional heat sink mechanism, that is, radiative heat loss, causes significant delays in the ignition time and reduces the critical temperature with respect to results of previous studies.
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