Ilizarov apparatus

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Correction of knee and ankle valgus in hereditary multiple exostoses using the Ilizarov apparatus

Correction of knee and ankle valgus in hereditary multiple exostoses using the Ilizarov apparatus

Preoperative planning was done based on long standing radiographs, in which the mechanical axis of the limb (femur and tibia) was measured. Assembling the Ilizarov apparatus was done preoperatively based on these measure- ments. The operation was performed under a combination of general and epidural anesthesia and epidural anesthesia was continued for 4–5 days to control postoperative pain. The apparatus was constructed of three rings. Two ref- erence Ilizarov wires were applied, one at the proximal ring and the other at the distal ring. In addition, fixation

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Using the Ilizarov technique for the correction of coxa vara

Using the Ilizarov technique for the correction of coxa vara

that some restriction of knee motion was commonly seen while the patients had the external fixator, full knee mobility was achieved within four weeks of fixator removal in all patients. Other workers reported that the Ilizarov technique has potential advantages over commonly used open techniques and provides an available alternative to currently applied methods used for fixation of proximal femoral osteotomies. However, the technique has certain drawbacks including the chance for pin tract infection, the radiation exposure due to using fluoroscopic guidance and the need for experience with the use of Ilizarov apparatus. 9,12
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Sport and physical activity after ankle arthrodesis with Ilizarov fixation and internal fixation

Sport and physical activity after ankle arthrodesis with Ilizarov fixation and internal fixation

apparatus (Group 1) or cannulated screws (Group 2) were used to create compression at the ankle joint. The Ilizarov apparatus for ankle arthrodesis consisted of a proximal ring fixed to the tibia and fibula with 3 Kirschner wires, a distal ring fixed to the tibia and fibula with 2 Kirschner wires, and a U-shaped foot ring fixed to the calcaneus with 2 Kirschner olive wires and fixed to the distal part of the metatarsal bones with 1 Kirschner olive wire. All patients in Groups 1 and 2 were operated on by 3 surgeons. Patients from Group 1 (Ilizarov stabilization) started weight bear- ing on postoperative day 1. The minimum time of wear- ing the Ilizarov fixator was 9 weeks. After the Ilizarov fixator was removed, patients transitioned to a walker boot for a minimum of 6 weeks. Postoperatively, patients from Group 2 remained non-weight bearing for a minimum of 6 weeks in a cast, followed by protected progressive weight bearing in a controlled ankle motion walker (CAM walker) for the next 6 weeks. Usually, by 3 months patients had made a transition to wearing normal shoes. 22
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The Use of 3D Printing Technology in the Ilizarov Method Treatment: Pilot Study

The Use of 3D Printing Technology in the Ilizarov Method Treatment: Pilot Study

A model of the tibia and fibula, acquired from computed tomography imaging, was developed and printed using FDM technology. Printed 3D models of both lower leg bones allow doctors to prepare in advance for the Ilizarov method treat- ment: detailed consideration of the spatial configu- ration of the external fixation, experimental assem- bly of the Ilizarov external fixator onto the physical models of bones prior to surgery and plan individ- ual osteotomy level and Kirschner wires introduc- tion sites (Fig. 8). It is noteworthy that the length of the bone did not exceed 100 mm, and the di- ameter of the diaphysis was approximately 7 mm; therefore, the adjustment of the apparatus on the printed object supported preoperative prepara- tion. The  Ilizarov apparatus consisted of 3  rings: proximal ring fastened with three Kirschner wires (diameter = 1.2 mm), middle ring mounted with two Kirschner wires, and distal ring secured with two Kirschner wires.
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Clinical evaluation of ankle arthrodesis with Ilizarov fixation and internal fixation

Clinical evaluation of ankle arthrodesis with Ilizarov fixation and internal fixation

One of the limitations of our work is the lack of per- formance of CT for the evaluation of ankle union. Nor- mally, we estimated union, based on X-ray examination and clinical examination. We do not routinely performed CT, because of the high radiation dose, the poor quality of the CT image with metal artifacts and the long waiting period for the study. One of the weaknesses of our work is comparing two groups of patients with different intensity of pathology within the ankle joint. It is difficult to collect quite numerous groups of patients with different methods of stabilization after ankle arthrodesis, which is why in our work we evaluated all patients with stabilization with the Ilizarov apparatus. Some of the patients treated with the Ilizarov method had a poor quality of bone and soft tis- sues, and had the initial deformity of the ankle joint. How- ever, some patients treated with the Ilizarov method did not have poor quality of bones or soft tissues, and the ankle joint was not deformed. Also, the difference (24– 108 month) in the time to follow up within the groups can bring insecurity to the study and is a weakness. Surgery for all of the patients performed 3 surgeons. The strong points of this study are the same surgery protocol, homo- geneity of rehabilitation protocol in both groups, and the fact that there are no studies comparing functional results, rate of complications, pain level, and period of hospitalization, after ankle joint arthrodesis with Ilizarov stabilization and internal fixation.
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Factors Associated with Smoking Behaviors among Military Cadets of King Khalid Military Academy (KKMA), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (2015-2016)

Factors Associated with Smoking Behaviors among Military Cadets of King Khalid Military Academy (KKMA), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (2015-2016)

Background: Tibial plateau fractures are common in young age group and present a surgical challenge to orthopedic surgeon. Over the years treatment has been changed from traction to cast immobilization to open reduction and internal fixation. More recently indirect reduction technique with external fixation has been used where skin condition is poor and internal fixation associated with too many complications. The advantages of using Ilizarov apparatus compare to internal fixation are that it provides stability, preserves blood supply and maintains the function of affected limb.
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Ilizarov treatment of humeral shaft nonunion in an antiepileptic drug patient with uncontrolled generalized tonic-clonic seizure activity

Ilizarov treatment of humeral shaft nonunion in an antiepileptic drug patient with uncontrolled generalized tonic-clonic seizure activity

Ilizarov technique has been successfully used for the management of nonunion of the humeral shaft [27,28]. It is a very promising method because it is minimally invasive with low intraoperative blood loss, and minimal patient discomfort. It provides stable fixation, prompt postopera- tive elbow and shoulder mobilization, and has no major complications. It gives postoperative capability for mala- lignment correction and, at the hands of an expert, Ilizarov external fixation is not time consuming [28]. It appears that the Ilizarov apparatus is superior to conventional fixa- tion methods, especially in patients with severe bony defor- mity, limb shortening, and bone loss [29]. In such cases, callus formation can be stimulated by controlled oscillating compression and distraction [5,25]. Long-lasting nonunion may lead to local osteoporosis which is different from osteoporosis due to old age. When severely compromised local bone due to disuse is associated with metabolic bone disorder, internal fixation is technically demanding and plate loosening often occurs. In our patient, severe osteo- porosis due to local and systemic factors was accompanied by mechanical instability of the osteosynthesis because of the frequent tonic-clonic seizure activity. The Ilizarov external fixator was the only system that could simulta- neously provide stable fixation in an osteoporotic bone, externally controlled compression, and interfere dynami- cally with repetitive seizures. Ilizarov does not support the use of bone grafting for the management of nonunions. However, autologous bone graft obtained from the iliac crest was used in our patient with atrophic nonunion in
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Ilizarov bone transport and treatment of critical-sized tibial bone defects: a narrative review

Ilizarov bone transport and treatment of critical-sized tibial bone defects: a narrative review

In conclusion, our review and the current evidence suggest that Ilizarov methods in the treatment of infected or noninfected CSBD resulted in satisfactory effects in bone results and functional results. Radical debridement is the key step in controlling bone infec- tion. However, our review lacks a direct comparison with any other treatment options, and further rand- omized controlled trials are needed to draw more val- uable conclusions. Some studies have declared bone transport using the Ilizarov method for CSBD is the gold standard [32, 36]. The results obtained from this review support this opinion. The most important prob- lem of the classic Ilizarov method is the long duration of the treatment period. Also, PTI, compliance of the patient and the discomfort of the external fixator are other problems that come with this treatment type. Among the modifications made in order to shorten the healing time at the docking site are grafting of the area, and plate and nail application at the site. In order to avoid circular external fixator problems, monolateral fixator usage and bone transport with intramedullary nailing are being used. Although many modifications have been suggested, one of the biggest series consists of classic/traditional applications.
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A novel mechanism for persistence of human cytomegalovirus in macrophages.

A novel mechanism for persistence of human cytomegalovirus in macrophages.

tibodies to the Golgi apparatus-specific marker mannosidase II and either HCMV gB or pp65, the membranes surrounding HCMV-containing vacuoles stained with the Golgi apparatus marker (Fig. 1B and C). These results indicate the Golgi ap- paratus origin of these HCMV-containing vacuoles. Since Golgi apparatus-derived vacuoles enter the endosomal-lysoso- mal pathway, HCMV-containing vacuoles were examined with specific markers for early endosomes (transferrin receptor and rab5; Fig. 1D and E) and late endosomes-early lysosomes (LAMP-1; Fig. 1F). None of these markers were found to associate with the membranes of the HCMV-containing vacu- oles in the cytoplasm of MDM. In addition, progression of HCMV infection also correlated with a reduction in lysosomal marker (data not shown). The results described above indicate that HCMV-containing vacuoles derived from the Golgi appa- ratus evade entry into the endosomal-lysosomal pathway.
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Advantages of Ilizarov External Fixation in an Elderly Patient with Pilon Fracture with Severe Soft Tissue Injury and Severe Osteoporosis: A Case Report

Advantages of Ilizarov External Fixation in an Elderly Patient with Pilon Fracture with Severe Soft Tissue Injury and Severe Osteoporosis: A Case Report

An olive wire was also introduced through the tibial malleolus, first to reduce the fracture tilted in varus and anteriorly and then to compress the fracture site (Figure 3). After restoration of articular congruity, a 1.8 mm Ilizarov wire was passed parallel to the articular surface in the anteroposterior view on X-ray, ap- proximately 15 mm from the joint line in the tibial epiphysis. Additional 1.8 mm Ilizarov wires were inserted in safe corridors to improve alignment and increase stability. Three wires were inserted onto the distal tibial ring. The wires were fixed to the rings of the fixator and tensioned. The foot was fixed in neutral posi- tion to avoid supination and equinus position. Olive wires were used in an op- posing configuration, allowing variable degrees of interfragmentary compression to be achieved. This was of particular benefit in putting transverse compressive forces on a spiral metaphyseal fracture (Figure 4). We treated the patient with an ankle-hinge Ilizarov external fixator to allow early implementation of range-of-motion exercises (Figure 5) [7]. Fourteen days postoperatively, walk- ing with full weight-bearing was permitted. The duration of hospitalization was 28 days. The external fixator of the ankle was removed at 87 days after surgery. Radiographs and computed tomography (CT) showed healing of the fracture at 87 days postoperatively (Figure 6 and Figure 7). At follow-up 3 years after sur- gery, the patient was satisfied with the procedure and was able to walk unaided. Clinical outcomes were measured using postoperative American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society scale ankle/hindfoot scale (AOFAS) score, Short Form-36
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Pathological fracture of the femur in Alagille syndrome that was treated with low intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation and an Ilizarov ring fixator: a case report

Pathological fracture of the femur in Alagille syndrome that was treated with low intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation and an Ilizarov ring fixator: a case report

To the best of our knowledge, no studies have reported use of the Ilizarov frame and LIPUS in diaphyseal femoral fractures in Alagille syndrome. The rationale for this tech- nique is immediate weight-bearing, good knee and ankle motion, and a high rate of a successful union. Further- more, the reported average time that fixators are removed is approximately 55 (range, 38–79) days [13]. Following the original principles of the Ilizarov technique, the closed indirect reduction technique was used under image guid- ance, first using ligamentotaxis to compress the fracture ends [22]. Obtaining perfect reduction and absolute com- pression of the fracture ends were not difficult. Fracture
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Knee arthrodesis with the Ilizarov external fixator as treatment for septic failure of knee arthroplasty

Knee arthrodesis with the Ilizarov external fixator as treatment for septic failure of knee arthroplasty

The fixator is anchored to the femoral diaphysis by three or four 5–6-mm percutaneous half-pins coated in hydroxyapatite and fixed to two Ilizarov arches of the same diameter but different lengths (the distal one is longer). The arches are positioned perpendicular to the long axis of the femur. Four screws are recommended for patients over 60 kg in body weight. The distal arch is connected to a ring with a size proportional to the diameter of the knee and anchored to the distal femur by two Ilizarov wires. Tibial component

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Combinatorial Chemistry: A Review

Combinatorial Chemistry: A Review

They synthesized series of peptide epitopes in an apparatus developed for this purpose.In the multipin apparatus the authors used the microtiter plate introduced by Tak[r]

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A case study of periarticular fractures of the tibia managed with biological plate fixation

A case study of periarticular fractures of the tibia managed with biological plate fixation

There was no need of any sophisticated instrumentation and the method was less time consuming when compared to ilizarov or hybrid fixator The LCP act as internal fixators in a bridging m[r]

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Mechanical properties of dewatered sewage sludge

Mechanical properties of dewatered sewage sludge

Two sets of three triaxial samples were prepared from pasteurized cakes of strongly and moderately digested sludge material. The 38mm diameter samples were set up in the triaxial apparatus to facilitate drainage via the radial boundary and one end of the sample, with continuous measurement of the pore water pressure response. Cell confining pressure and sample back pressure increments were applied until a back pressure of 240kPa was reached. Both sets of samples were then isotropically consolidated until effective confining pressures of 30kPa, 60kPa and 140kPa were achieved at the end of the consolidation stage. Volumetric strain-time plots recorded for the set of moderately digested samples are shown in Figure 4.
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A prospective analysis of bony union and functional outcome of transosseous osteosynthesis with ilizarov external ring fixation system in infected nonunionfracture tibia

A prospective analysis of bony union and functional outcome of transosseous osteosynthesis with ilizarov external ring fixation system in infected nonunionfracture tibia

graft 11 and fibula pro-tibia (transfer of the ipsilateral fibula) 3,12 are several treatment options described for infected non-union with or without bone loss. All have improved results but none has been able to fully solve this clinical situation 13 . Though many methods have been employed to treat this situation, the Ilizarov ring fixator gives an option of compression, distraction and bone transport, and is effective in the treatment of infected non-union of tibia, even where other types of treatment have failed 14 .

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Designing and Introducing a New Artificial Feeding Apparatus for Sand Fly Rearing

Designing and Introducing a New Artificial Feeding Apparatus for Sand Fly Rearing

The idea of the design of sand flies artifi- cial feeding apparatus was inspired by the two previously available equipment (19, 20). The apparatus contains a stainless steel container in a volume of 6L and a steel plate embedded on the top of the container. The steel plate is used as a container for a water bath if needed. To as- sure a constant temperature in the blood feeders, a pair of water outlet and inlet pipes was de- signed for each blood feeder of the apparatus.

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Measurement of small signal variations using one dimensional chaotic maps

Measurement of small signal variations using one dimensional chaotic maps

In a second aspect of the invention there is provided an apparatus to measure the difference between a first and at least a second signal and/or samples of a signal, said apparatus inclu[r]

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Pedobarographic analysis of body weight distribution on the lower limbs and balance after ankle arthrodesis with Ilizarov fixation and internal fixation

Pedobarographic analysis of body weight distribution on the lower limbs and balance after ankle arthrodesis with Ilizarov fixation and internal fixation

In this study we evaluated two balance parameters (path and area of COG). Path of COG was longer in Ilizarov group than in internal fixation group, but this was not sta- tistically significant. Only area of COG was statistically significant different between groups. It’s hard to explain why only one parameter being different (area of COG), ver- sus both of them, represent in terms of balance. Perhaps this is due to the small size of research groups.

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Management of Infected Nonunion of Long Bones by Bifocal Osteosynthesis of Ilizarov's Principle with the Limb Reconstruction System

Management of Infected Nonunion of Long Bones by Bifocal Osteosynthesis of Ilizarov's Principle with the Limb Reconstruction System

All over the globe, in the recent past, a tremendous interest has been shown in distraction osteosynthesis. The clinical fact that distraction can produce new bone formation was showed as early as 1900 by Codivilla. The effect of rhythmical distraction which generates new bone formation was enlightened by Ilizarov from 1951 onwards.

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