The legal and illegal trade in wild animals and their products is a multi-billion dollar industry that threatens the health and well-being of humans and animals alike. The management of the wildlife trade is a crisis-driven area, where decisions are made quickly, and, often, inefficiently. In particular, the regulation and control of the illegal wildlife trade is hampered by a dearth of formal quantitative analysis of the nature of the trade. This thesis represents a preliminary attempt to rectify that knowledge gap. It describes an investigation into the factors that support and promote the trade and is based upon information in two databases: CITES (the legal trade) and HealthMap (the illegal trade). The study 1) quantified the relationship between the illegal wildlife trade and several key factors thought to contribute to the illegal wildlife trade, namely road development, unemployment, and Corruption Perception Index (a score related to the perceived level of corruption); 2) measured the extent to which the product types, origins, destinations, and trade routes in the legal and the illegal wildlife trade are alike; and 3) identified locations to place resources to (a) restrict trade by causing the greatest network destabilization and (b) disseminate an educational message that would cause the greatest impact to the network. Several key factors and the legal trade were associated with the magnitude of various indices of the illegal trade at a country-level, but no generalizable findings can be asserted at this time. With regard to the best placement of regulatory resources, China was key with respect to network disruption and information dissemination targets. This thesis has begun the urgently needed analysis of the complex relationships of the illegal wildlife trade and identified specific ways to bring about change using network science. These findings offer hope for regulatory and enforcement agencies, NGOs, and governments that it will be possible to find more effective ways of combating the illegal wildlife trade and problems it brings with it.
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here, stereotypes about Asian cultures intersect with other matters of human-animal relations as well (e.g. Neo, 2012). Claire Jean Kim ’ s (2015) research on the politics of animal rights and live animal markets in San Francisco shows how ‘ ethnic ’ Chinese food markets were tar- geted and represented diﬀerently by politicians, animal rights activists, and the media compared to Fisherman ’ s Wharf, an upscale live animal food market popular with tourists in the 1990s. Lassiter et al. (2002) describe tendencies of collapsing cultural diﬀerence in their analysis of the racialization of Filipinos in Los Angeles in relation to the use of dogs as food animals. Treating dogs as food animals is speciﬁc both to par- ticular sectors and classes of Filipino society, as well as geographic regions in the Philippines (2002). They describe how the Filipino community in LA experienced discrimination as a result of dog eating traditions because it was perceived, by the Anglo community, as an o ﬀ ensive cultural practice shared by all Filipinos (Lassiter et al., 2002). Academia is also of course not immune to such injurious stereotyping and prejudice: the second author (ethnically Chinese and born and raised in Hong Kong) was questioned by a European social science re- searcher about whether she eats dogs upon learning her research is based on studying the illegal wildlife trade.
The trade in illegal flora and fauna would not be flourishing intensively if not for socio-cultural elements and infective policies. Because of its availability and cultural demands, poverty and deprivations, the growing incidence of Illegal wildlife trade hauls in billions of dollars [54, 37]. For that, the obsession with the illegal traffic in wildlife products serves the life style of individuals and communities as enshrined in their socio-cultural norms. Notwithstanding the prohibited marketing of live animals and products emanating from them, the place of culture and traditions still trumps the laws and policies as wildlife is merchandized as skins, leather materials, foodstuff or ethno medicine and; as pets, and in several additional forms [17, 36]. The trade in wildlife business also extends to the illicit logging of protected forest areas to sustain the needs for glamorous woods for the decoration of opulent homes in the Orient and the plundering of elephant populations to drive up the demand for ivory products. Just as the global outcry over the widespread poaching of African rhinoceros has intensified, the request for their horns surged repeatedly in the Asian continent for socio-cultural practices. Because of those needs, deep in many areas of the Asian continent, rhino horn serves as an integral part of ethno medicine delivery systems based on its use as remedy in the treatment of different health disorders. Aside from the lack of empirical proof to back such assertions, the intense increase in poaching to sustain local demands in Asia is driving rhinos near the verge of disappearance. Whereas the point in all these is that poaching and smuggling of ivory tusk and rhino partly occur to finance the life styles and socio-cultural practices of other people miles away from the decimated elephant ranges in the SSA
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Rather than work to raise the profi e of p ants within the IWT arena as wildlife, an a ternative approach suggested in the expert workshop was to embrace distinguishing illegal plant trade as a sep arate phenomenon with distinct particu arities and prob ems unique to p ants However as part of ongoing efforts to combat the perva sive prob em of p ant b indness in societies writ arge we suggest that it is more important to consider p ants as wi d ife Given the increasing body of research high ighting simi arities rather than dif ferences between anima s and p ants in their capacities to sense adapt and interpret their environments it seems critica to connect p ants with the more evocative sensibi ities wi d ife connotes in the pub ic imagination High ighting p ants as wi d ife draws out the ways p ant b indness works into accountings of wi d ife as strict y anima which we argue has resu ted in a ack of attention to p ants in IWT po icy and research to date
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Another aspect of eco-global criminology is its departure from mainstream criminology’s focus on only that which is defined as criminal as opposed to that which may be legal, but harmful. There are several aspects of the illegal wildlife trade involving Mexico and the EU that are made visible from the harm-based perspective of an eco-global criminology. While the incidents documented here are crimes, often the conditions that lie behind their perpetration are ‘lawful but awful’ (Passas 2005). The reptile leather industry, in which Mexico and the EU are key players, provides examples of such harms. For example, skins of reticulated pythons are still taken largely from individual snakes living in the wild (such as from Indonesia and Malaysia) (Kasterine et al. 2012; Natusch and Lyons 2014). When snakes or lizards are taken legally from the wild, the biggest (usually males) are targeted. Over time, this negatively affects the populations by possibly skewing the sex ratios (if males are the species most often removed) and decreasing the health of the overall population by only taking the strongest and/or biggest (Barkham 2007). The decreased range and small overall size of python populations in Indonesia and Malaysia are thought to be signs of species decline (Barkham 2007). Unless strict guidelines outline exactly how non-human animals can be taken from the wild, these harms are all legal.
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A prominent example comes from the poaching of the pangolin in N. E. India. The pangolin is an insectivore that is now one of the most trafficked non-human animals in Asia because of the demand for their exotic meat and traditional medicines made from pangolin scales (Pantel & Anak, 2010). One pangolin eats as many as 70 million ants and other insects annually, so is essential in balancing the ecosystem as well as controlling ‘pests’ within farming regions as per record of World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA, 2011). With the loss of the pangolin throughout much of its range, it is predicted that pest levels will rise in the area and more crops will suffer damage, resulting in financial losses and the threat of food scarcity. Lack of food or damage to the environment that limits its ability to support life because of over exploitation of a species within that ecosystem is further proof of wildlife traffic king’s link to environmental security issues. This raises concerns for businesses, governments and people. Human impacts: As discussed above, there is the potential that wildlife trafficking can impact upon the revenue of businesses and governments. This of course has a personal impact upon individual people as well. So, human well-being can be damaged economically through the illegal wildlife trade. Additionally, though, from the environmental impacts, human well-being and security can also be physically threatened through the introduction of zoonotic diseases from unregulated wildlife, such as SARS from civet cats and Ebola from monkeys. Physical well-being and security can also be threatened by the violent nature of some of the black markets of wildlife.
Sukarno et al (2012, 2103 and 2014) also have examined the problem of urban illegal habitation and illegal businesses in the city of Surabaya with the result, among others, that they (the urban illegal habitation and illegal business): (i) general (80%) do not know the regulations (policy government) relating to the illegality of occupancy and the business they do, (ii) almost all (92%) experienced enforcement officers (Satpol pp) were sporadic and 75% of them feel treated non persuasive even policing is judged to be impartial to the urbanit, and (iii) most (85%) felt they did not obtain a satisfactory solution after demolition. Dissatisfaction in handling is also experienced by the authorities, because most (over 75%) mainly urban illegal business back to a place that banned the case of these two last things that the search for solutions proper, thorough, and is fundamental to urban mainly urban illegal attempt to be achieved through this research
A cosmic array of drugs are produced, sold and used by the people of the world for profit and their pharmacological effects. Although their contributions to cultural practices and social life should not be overlooked or undervalued (Klein 2008), certain drugs are widely acknowledged to be the direct and indirect cause and consequence of a great many problems and are without doubt a seriously harmful threat to society (Caulkins and Reuter 2009; UKDPC 2009). Owing to a complex combination of liberal governance, moral entrepreneurship, paternalistic concern and fear, over the past century drugs such as heroin, cocaine and cannabis have been labelled a s ‘ dangerous ’ and thereby set within the criminal law framework of almost every country (Seddon 2010; Young 1971). Ever since the onset of prohibition, however, the illegal drug trade has proven to be resistant to formal controls, has become one of the largest and most profitable sectors of the informal economy, and is now deeply embedded within the socio-economic context of many towns and cities. Yet despite the apparent failure of policy initiatives and policing interventions to adequately regulate the market, remarkably few social scientists have endeavoured to examine the drug control activities of the police and so the subject area is under- researched and therefore under-theorised (Babor et al. 2010; McSweeney et al. 2008). Scholars have, in particular, neglected to study the specialist detective units licensed to police drug markets by detecting, investigating and ultimately prosecuting drug dealers. Drawing on the findings of a novel ethnographic study conducted by the author (Bacon 2012), this article makes an original contribution to knowledge by offering an insight into the world of police detectives and the policing of drugs.
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Sometimes, due to checks and balances on the route as well as the import of non-commercial items and the strictness of the government of Pakistan, the legal trade increased signi Þ cantly but most of the time, the illegal trade dis- courages the legal activities. For example, the bilateral trade between the two countries was increased from 830.2 million USD in 2006-07 to 2.5 billion USD in 2010-2011 due to trade of non-commercial goods but then it declined in the following years. It means that informal and illegal trade is higher than formal legal business between the two countries. The illicit trade between Afghani- stan and Pakistan is a long-standing concern on the Pakistani side. A study conducted by a government department in Pakistan pointed out that many of the high-tariff products and commodities including expensive vehicles, ciga- rettes and electronic goods were being illegally re-entered from Afghanistan to Pakistan. The report also revealed the highly vulnerable fraud and corrupt practices by various actors involved in the transit of goods to Afghanistan (Suddle, 2011). The Pakistani of Þ cials estimated that three quarters of all goods smuggled into Pakistan were imported through the APTTA to Afghanistan. On other hand, due to many dif Þ culties Pakistan so far could not have smooth trade with Central Asia (CA) via Afghanistan.
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For millennia, wild capture fisheries were often viewed as inexhaustible resources. Today, scientists believe that the global fishing fleet reached its “peak catch” in 1996 at 130 million metric tons (MMT), with subse- quent harvests declining by about 1.2 MMT each year . Others have challenged the idea that global fisher- ies collapse is as imminent as predicted, and authors of both competing views found a patchwork of recovery and decline in different fisheries and regions around the world . A combination of factors is driving many (but not all) fish stocks to decline, including: increased human demand due to population growth and rising incomes; overfishing; use of better technology to catch seafood by large fishing fleets; illegal, unregulated, unreported (IUU) fishing; poor management decisions in some fish- eries; and the impacts of climate change (e.g., increasing ocean acidification and ocean temperatures) and biodi- versity loss [13–17]. Humans have entered a new epoch, the Anthropocene, where human influence permeates the planet and decreasing wild harvests affect global food security [12, 18].
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The semi-structured interviews of 12 people with specialist knowledge and/or direct experience in responding to the puppy trade included interviews with six NGOs, two veterinarians, three government employees and a breeding standards organisation. Data and quotations stemming from these interviews were coded EI (for expert interview) 1 through 12. Simultaneously, from October 2016, all online advertisements for puppies in Scotland in seven key websites (Craigslist, Dogs & Puppies UK, Epupz, Freeads, Gumtree, Pets for Homes, and Pets Viva Street) were monitored for 12 weeks. Where possible, data was collected on the Local Authority (LA) location, breed, number in the litter, sex of the puppies, price per puppy and in total, phone number, name of the seller, KC registered, LA registered, and any other information. To supplement the online advertisement data and to further understand the economics of the puppy trade, prevalence data from the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) TRACES database and from Trading Standards Scotland were analysed. TRACES data provided insight into the legal movement of dogs for commercial purposes (including rescues) and identified transgressions within this trade. Further, Trading Standards Scotland data detailed recorded complaints from puppy purchasers.
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With the acceleration of economic globalization and trade liberalization, illegal logging and timber trade, which are closely related to the ecological environment and climate change, have aroused extensive concern within the international community. Based on the authors’ long-term expe- rience and accumulated knowledge, as well as extensive field investigation, this article offers a range of observations. Firstly, it analyzes the worldwide significance and annual changes of China’s forest products trade; secondly it reviews China’s legal timber logging, transport and management systems and major challenges; thirdly, it compares timber legality verification schemes and me- thods around the world and summarizes experience of their implementation; fourthly, it proposes countermeasures and suggestions on strengthening the timber legality management in China; fi- nally, the paper discusses the practical feasibility of timber legality verification work in China. The results of the authors’ research show that strict forest logging quota management means the risk of illegally logging in China is relatively low, that legality verification in China can meet the inter- national market demand for legal timbers and that launching timber legality verification work in China is therefore feasible. This would make a significant contribution to breaking through green trade barriers, enhancing China’s position in negotiations, and promoting the standardization of the timber international trade.
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There are managerial and policy implications. First, consumers need to be edu- cated about the direct and indirect consequences of consuming a wide range of illicit goods. For example, consumers need understand that consuming illicit goods can destroy the lives of vulnerable people, especially those in the sex trade. The consumption of illicit goods also can destroy fragile ecosystems putting the lives of everyone at risk. Furthermore, the consumption of illicit goods diverts cru- cial resources away from legitimate businesses and governments that, in turn, threaten their stability and the wellbeing of the consumer. In most cases, these illicit flows also launder money and find their way to criminal and terrorist organizations worldwide. The education of consumers on the consequences of purchasing illi- cit goods needs to be done in a way that can change subjective norms. Indeed, by changing subjective norms, consumers can put pressure on other consumers not to partake in the trade of illicit goods.
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The smuggling is caused by geographical location to neighboring countries where the prices of cigarettes are substantially lower than in the EU. On the agenda of the EU institutions there is a legitimate protection of the cigarette market by reducing smuggling. Smuggling interacts with different types of processes, so tax and customs experts are looking for new and more effective methods to curb the flow of illegal cigarettes. The legal protection of the tobacco market, the limitation of illegal trade, the fight against smuggling, the abolition of illicit manufacturing and the cessation of counterfeit products are the priorities of the tax administration for the coming years.
into the air. A study was carried out which by using remote sensing data and field inventory found out that the rise in the groundwater level inside the drained peat swamp forest could decrease the emission of CO 2 . China in 1998 faced immense flooding along pearl, Yangtze and Songhua rivers. Due to which thousands of people died and millions became homeless. Though the cause was heavy rainfall, what basically triggered the disaster was huge deforestation and decreased control of water runoff. 1800 people were killed in a landslide in the Quezon Province of Philippines in 2004. It was found that deforestation played a major role in this disaster. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) put forward the tree species which are found to be in danger are Afrormosia (Pericopsis elata) in Africa, bigleaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in the Americas and Ramin ( Gonystylus spp .) in Southeast Asia. In Honduras, the species at risk are Tropical Cedar and Mahogany Reboredo . Tanjung Puting National Park in Indonesia is considered to be Southeast Asia’s biggest protected area of swamp forest. The tree species it contains are Ramin ( Gonystylus spp ) and Meranti ( Shorea spp.) and the most popular Orangutan.
“The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order” points out that the rise of China will make it be the largest economy of the world in early 21 st century, which is the basis of theoretical hypothesis of “Chinese Hegemony”. The US-led western countries, for a long time are in an attempt to split China territorially, subver- sive China politically, contain China strategically, and thwart China economically (Huntington, 1998). Some scholars put forward recently, illegal logging is a new word constructed by developed countries and their con- trolled IGOs and NGOs. If China will make itself enter into the present political discourse system of illegal log- ging, it is bounded to harm national interests (Liu, Long, & Tu, 2014). Such concerns have a point, but China, as one of the six major powers in the international system at the end of the cold war (Henry, 1994), state member of inter-governmental organizations mentioned above and international treaties of forest resources protection, in the face of illegal logging and related trade on a global scale bringing to the negative impact on social, economic and ecological sustainable development, shall fully perform the obligations of international law, set up the image of a responsible big country and rationally tackle with illegal logging and related trade issues (Figure 2). China is known to the world in view of its vast painting, large population and rapid economic development. Based on these characteristics, at present in the field of timber consumption, China has become the largest importer of ti- mer and the second biggest importer of forest products in the worldwide, which undoubtedly makes China be- come a big country due to its large scale of forestry products trade. On the contrary, China is also a country of its per-capita forest area, stocking volume lag and forest coverage rate far behind from the world’s average level. Accompanied with the lack of forest resources problem, for a long time, China is suffering attention and criti- cism on the issue of illegal logging and related trade. However, as a big country, China is conducting the effec- tive plans and programs to relieve the severe situation of timber utility. No matter what to be implemented to combat illegal logging and related trade, strategy of sustainable development should be followed up to guide different actions. How to unremittingly persist in the route of forestry sustainable development? China has found out a solution to promote it, that is, rule-of-law concept and principle, which also corresponds to Chinese na- tional governance policies today.
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While still assuming that individuals make rational deci- sions about how to act based on an evaluation of informa- tion available to them, social psychologists use different types of predictors from economists. Social psychologists highlight interactions of internal (e.g., attitudes and val- ues) and external (e.g., other people and availability of resources) influences on behavior by measuring these cognitive components (Manfredo et al. 2009; also see Litchfield 2013). One influential approach is the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen 1991). This theory states that a person’s behavior can be predicted by 3 factors: attitude, subjective norms (perceived social pressure), and per- ceived degree of control over performing a behavior (e.g., availability of required knowledge, skills, and resources). The relative importance these factors have on people’s behavior differs from one behavior to another. For exam- ple, Williams et al. (2012) show that training could en- courage people to cultivate xat´ e (Chamaedorea ernesti- augusti) in Belize rather over harvest wild plants. The training focused on increasing technical knowledge and developing a perception that individuals could succeed in cultivating it; attitudes and norms barely influenced this behavior. In contrast, attitudes and norms were both important predictors of landowners’ intentions to con- serve forest in the agricultural frontier of South American Gran Chaco (Mastrangelo et al. 2013; also see a study on illegal killing of jaguars [Panthera onca] by ranchers [Marchini & Macdonald 2012]). Identifying which factors most strongly relate to people’s intention to engage in behaviors of conservation concern (e.g., illegal wildlife hunting) can provide valuable insights when one seeks to influence behavior.
Fencing has emerged as an alternative conservation and management strategy to control and regulate interactions between natural landscape resources and surrounding communities. Most conservation areas in Sub-Saharan region have diversified plants and animals and are partially or completely fenced to control the movement of wildlife out of the protected areas and unauthorized people into the areas . Most of times fencing and conservation of protected areas tend to be planned so as to separate natural landscapes from threatening human activities like illegal logging and poaching [13, 29]. There are different types of fencing as described by . Fencing has been implemented to meet multiple benefits and objectives ranging from ecological and protection of the habitats [5, 22] achieving management objectives like controlling the spread of invasive species ; controlling
The patterns of and motivations for poaching, the illegal taking of wildlife, vary across social, cultural, religious, and economic situations. For example, Kahler (2012) found that the main reason that people poach in Namibia is to generate income and food, while Ayling (2013) reported that in southern Africa, organized crime plays a key role in rhino poaching. Because the drivers of poaching vary from country to country, it is important to assess the situation in a particular region before developing a response for that region. In Afghanistan, three decades of wars have had devastating impacts on the social and political systems, the infrastructure, the economy, and the environment, and thus it has been difficult to conduct research on any of these topics. As a result, there is very little literature on the status of and threats to the wildlife in Afghanistan. In particular, researchers dispute the role of national and international black markets in driving the poaching phenomenon.
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Firefish are a key species in the aquarium fish trade in Calatagan. They were mentioned in three of the four categories in fisher interviews: most commonly caught (ranked 2 nd ), most desirable to catch (ranked 1 st ), and easiest to catch. Of the 97,635 fish documented from receipt collection, 40,358 (41.3%) of the fish belong to one species, the fire dartfish or fire goby (Nemateleotris magnifica). Therefore, it would be logical to assume that the firefish would be one of the most vulnerable species to overfishing at the local level. According to the PSA, the firefish was calculated to have a low vulnerability and there are a few reasons to account for this. Fishers are only able to dive to a limited depth to collect fish and firefish may be found at depths ranging from 6-70 meters (Froese and Pauly 2017). Second, not much is known about the reproduction of most species within the family Microdesmidae, including the fire dartfish and blackfin dartfish (P. evides), and therefore the PSA used similar taxonomic data as a proxy. As a result, a couple attributes for these two species could not be included in the PSA due to lack of data, although this was accounted for in the data quality score. This gap in data could partially explain why the fire dartfish received a low vulnerability score in this analysis, and should be considered when evaluating the legitimacy of this result. However, until 1986, firefish were classified as gobies and blennies (Brough 2015), which have known high rates of fecundity. Therefore, it would not be surprising if firefish do indeed have a high fecundity and are reproducing faster than they are being collected for the Calatagan fishery.
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