Images of the Church

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Investigating Claims of Eroticism in Images of the Annunciation

Investigating Claims of Eroticism in Images of the Annunciation

The kneeling Gabriel does indeed contrast sharply with the standing Madonna in the later Annunciation images, but in the light of the Virgin Mary’s contemporary ascendency in the church as well as in the popular domain, this, rather than the entreaties of a courtesan, can be understood more readily as devout or rapturous religious salutation. It is the earthly nature of the exchange that brings the lives of these saints and other religious figures, their very piety, chastity and devotion to God, closer to that of the devotee. It is highly questionable whether artists would seek to do this by stimulating or encouraging carnal desire.
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"The Wild East" in Contemporary German Poetry: Gerald Zschorsch, Kurt Drawert, Brigitte Oleschinski

"The Wild East" in Contemporary German Poetry: Gerald Zschorsch, Kurt Drawert, Brigitte Oleschinski

täuschen lässt. Ein ermländisches Prosagedicht von Gerald Zschorsch. In: Poetenladen, 10. 03.2007, accessed on 16.02.2013 on http://www.poetenladen.de/adrian-kasnitz-gerald-zschorsch.htm). In his collection of poems, Sarmatische Zeit (Sarmatian Time, 1961), the East German Johannes Bobrowski addresses the common history of the Germans and their “Eastern neighbours”. His Sarmatian landscapes contain memories of his childhood in a multicultural East Prussia and of the crimes committed against members of other ethnic groups by Germans during National Socialism, including himself as a German soldier. He traces this history of German guilt toward their Eastern neighbours back to the colonisation of the East by the Teutonic Knights. This, as well as the inclusion of the Eastern Orthodox Church and Chassidism in his “europäischen Osten”, together with the music of Buxtehude, challenges images with a long tradition in Western European thought, and makes his poems stand out within West and East German post-war poetry. At the same time, also in his texts, the East is juxtaposed with “the Germans”, thus continuing the dichotomy of East and West on this level.
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The church militant? The Church of England, humanity and the future in Doctor Who

The church militant? The Church of England, humanity and the future in Doctor Who

First, it allows an appreciation of the changing ways in which religion has been presented on British television and in wider popular culture from the 1960s until the present day. Doctor Who, with (an admittedly loose) educational remit in its early days, therefore presented images of other cultures to British viewers, inviting them to think through the implications of different behaviours and belief systems. To take one example, the different ways in which Buddhism has been presented in the series suggests something about changing conceptions of non-Christian religion in Britain from the 1960s onwards. The 1964 serial ‘Marco Polo’, for example, saw the titular explorer suggesting that the TARDIS crew might be Buddhists because of their apparently magical blue box. ‘At the Khan’s court in Peking, I have seen Buddhist monks make cups of wine fly through the air unaided and offer themselves to the Great Khan’s lips’, reveals Polo, ‘I do not understand it, but I have seen it.’ While this might seem to invoke Arthur C. Clarke’s ‘third law’, that advanced technology appears indistinguishable from magic, it in fact offers a subtle modification of this. For Polo, advanced technology appears indistinguishable from religious power.
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Swedish Church Art from the Introduction of the Reformation in 1527 until the Synod in Uppsala 1593

Swedish Church Art from the Introduction of the Reformation in 1527 until the Synod in Uppsala 1593

There is one hitherto not much observed passage in the Nova Ordinantia Ecclesiastica that deals with the sacral art in the churches showing that the King had a special feeling towards the old, Catholic art – or was it towards what the images represented? The first part of the passage has the same wording as the corresponding part in the KO (cf. above), stat- ing that if an image of a saint had been subject of worship it should be removed from the church walls. To this has however been added an ex- hortation that instead of throwing these images away one should move them to the sacristy. It is also stated in the NO that apostles, prophets and martyrs may very well be represented in the Swedish churches and also two specific saints, namely St. George and St. Christopher, but only as allegories, St. George as an allegory of the worldly power, “that does not bear the sword in vain” but fights against unbelief and all oth- er kinds of evil that threaten the realm, and St. Christopher, the “Christ carrier”, as a Christian teacher. 46
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Unshackling the Church

Unshackling the Church

These models are not suggested as a panacea for the examination of ecclesiological development in South Africa, nor do we have to stretch the use of a model beyond its limits; however, for analytical purposes, one does not see how they can be avoided as pivotal starting points in the archaeology of ecclesiology in South Africa as they are historical. We all know that whilst there have been some benefits from the missionary initiated churches, ipso facto, benefits from the missionary enterprise, the role of Christianity in the conquest and colonisation of black Africans cannot be disputed. Nonetheless, the distinguishing features of these models are identifiable together with their weaknesses and possible strengths. Their historicity cannot be denied and some contours on how they could feed into one another are also easily identified, whilst there are features that must be rejected, such as racism and economic exclusion resulting in class differences between and in the origins of these models. Ecclesiology in South Africa is thus contested and one simply needs to be transparent about one’s assumptions and presuppositions when this subject is discussed. The systematic articulation of African response to Western Christianity came about in the late 1960s. It is this approach that is rooted in the dungeons of colonial oppression that shapes my reflection, inspired by the paradigm of liberation. For example, Cone generally speaking, argues that the church is not bounded by race and class and constructs an ecclesiology that combines Black Power and Theology, ultimately proposing a model of the church as God’s suffering people. Gutiérrez argues that the task of the church is to struggle for justice and liberation. The church must be a visible sign of the presence of the Lord in the struggle for liberation. One can read Boff, Segundo, Tutu, Boesak and many others to discern this model. An ecclesiology that springs out of the dungeons of colonial, Apartheid oppression sees the church’s role much more differently from the Settler and Missionary Models of ecclesiology. One example is the differentiation of the church in the Kairos Document in relation to the three types of theology identified in this Document, namely State Theology, Church Theology and Prophetic Theology.
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The Sword and the Steeple: A History of Church Property Disputes and an Analysis of Falls Church v. Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States

The Sword and the Steeple: A History of Church Property Disputes and an Analysis of Falls Church v. Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States

14. Presbyterian Church in the United States v. Mary Elizabeth Blue Hull Mem’l Presbyterian Church, 393 U.S. 440, 449 (1969). The Court was operating out of a desire to avoid entanglements that would implicate a First Amendment Establishment Clause issue. The neutral principles approach has the effect of treating the ecclesiastical body as any other corporation, using “neutral” principles of property law. Throughout this Note, the author will attempt to convey that this approach, when applied in such a way that it ignores the ecclesiastical polity of the church, is antithetical to the freedom and independence of the church.
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Church as heterotopia

Church as heterotopia

Paul used the metaphor mirror in 1 Corinthians 13:12 to express his view on relational distortion caused by diversity and nurtured by hegemony. He used this metaphor in a contextual framework where he reflects on the church as the ‘body of Christ’. His ‘heterotypical’ way of referring to the church pertains to a transcendence of simplistic Platonic dualism. The living of concrete love constitutes the chord according to which reconciling diversity is portrayed. The question is whether the institutional church today manifests such a mirror. Maybe the power of the metaphor mirror is more clearly articulated by Harry Potter’s heterotypical world (see Rowling [1997] 2000:143–157). In a magic mirror, the boy Harry Potter sees that he and his deceased parents hold on to each other with joy and laughter. The ‘mirror of Erised’ illustrates the utopia of human desire and dreams. The philosopher Dumbledore remarks: ‘It does not do to dwell on dreams, and forget to live’ (Rowling [1997] 2000:157). Dumbledore is a sage who creates space and time for the marginalised: the house elves who are slaves of the magicians; the half-breeds, such as the centaur who is out of place with regard to both human and animal kind; the mudblood who is stigmatised because of impure ancestry. Like Lili Wilkinson’s (2012) work ‘Nerdfighters, “paper towns”, and heterotopia’, in which she uses Foucault’s mirror metaphor to explain heterotopia with reference to the ‘mirror of Erised’, this article concludes also with the Harry Potter mythos, dreaming of a church that can become a heterotopia of reconciling diversity.
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The Church and Politics

The Church and Politics

The letter entitled Political Responsibility, issued by the Ad- ministrative Board of the United States Catholic Conference in March 1984,' grounded political involvem[r]

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The Chinese House Church Movement in South Africa

The Chinese House Church Movement in South Africa

The rapid expansion of Christianity should be of interest to any student of Christianity and Church History. This is especially true of the expansion of the Far Eastern Church, as it is by most accounts a spontaneous expansion (Grant 2013:6). The purpose of this research is to provide a missiological introduction to the Chinese House Church Movement in South Africa, and to give a brief description of the importance of this new missiological event – for, even though the presence of these churches is well known, little is known about the churches themselves. The object of this study is to understand the potential for a ‘Jesus People’ Movement among the Chinese in South Africa (Grant 2013:6). In this research, Hirsch’s (2006) work on ‘apostolic genius’ – specifically his six elements of ‘apostolic genius’ (Hirsch 2006:78-79) – will serve as dialogue partner, assisting the researchers’ understanding and classification of the Chinese House Church Movement (Grant 2013:4). The researcher will answer the research question: Is the ‘Jesus People’ phenomenon of the Chinese House Church Movement in China being reproduced in the Chinese house churches of South Africa?
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The healing touch: spiritual healing in England, c 1870 1955

The healing touch: spiritual healing in England, c 1870 1955

125-131 The Church of England, 77zeChurch's Ministry of Healing: Report of the Archbishop's Commissionon Divine Healing Westminster: Church Information Board, 1958 The Church of England,[r]

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An examination of current or proposed rites for the ordination or consecration of bishops in the Church of South India, the Church of Christ Uniting (U S A ), the Roman Catholic Church, the Episcopal Church in the U S A , and the Church of England

An examination of current or proposed rites for the ordination or consecration of bishops in the Church of South India, the Church of Christ Uniting (U S A ), the Roman Catholic Church, the Episcopal Church in the U S A , and the Church of England

is strongest, and that is the focus on collegiality, the bishop as a sign of unity among his people and of unity in diversity when he meets in company with other bishops* This may be simply because the Accra document did not have episcopacy primarily in mind since it was intended to discuss the ministry in more general terms. But even when what it says is applied to local pastors (as it intended), there is little if any sense given that they participate in any corporate reality apart from the individual congregations they serve. By ordination they are brought into a ’’new relation" with "the universal Church," but we are not given any indications as to how. "Unity among local churches" is one of the signs of the fullness of the apostolic church, but how is that signified? If it is to be done by the presbytery, even as one aspect, that is not indicated as a part of the ministerial, let alone the episco­ pal, function. It is, at any rate, worth considering that the Accra statement may lack a sense of catholic unity (or the need to express it) because it has adopted a historical and dogmatic stance that is willing to dispense with the "sacramental sign" of the bishop as an individual who is called out from among them to be the servant of the servants of God.
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An Investigation of Dalit Christians Reservation Scheme in Dindigul District - Tamil Nadu

An Investigation of Dalit Christians Reservation Scheme in Dindigul District - Tamil Nadu

This study focuses on the living conditions, discriminations still existing, and the morale of the movement, The committed youth who lead the struggle in 1990 in the catholic church demanding reservation in the education institutions, employment, removing the untouchability practices in the church, in the burial grounds and the participation of leaderships in the church wanted to find out the present situation and devise strategies, The struggle at Eraiyur 2008 (Pondicherry diocese), the high caste Christians who still oppress the marginalized Catholics in Thatchur (Chengelpet Diocese) 2012 are a few examples of the inequalities and injustices still practiced. So this studies relevant to the present problems. The prime purpose of this study was to find out the strengths and weaknesses of the Dalit Catholics, educational status of the Dalit Catholics, employment status, and critical consciousness among the Dalit youth on developmental aspects, existing discrimination and exploitation. This study would be adopted to analyze about the current socio-economic, socio-political and socio- cultural aspects of the Dalit Catholics of Dindigul District.
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The marriage division: a case study on clerical dissension in the United Methodist Church

The marriage division: a case study on clerical dissension in the United Methodist Church

2003; Moss, 2002). Historically, marriage has been recognized by many societies as only a casual act (Coontz, 2004). The traditions of both the licensing of marriage by the state, and the sanctification of marriage by a religious body began in an era much more recent than we might imagine (Coontz, 2004). Marriage definitions and traditions differed greatly between countries, and even religions. For well over one thousand years, the Catholic Church took the position that if a man and a woman exchanged words of consent; the couple was in fact married (Coontz, 2004). Coontz (2004) also describes “the real traditional marriage” over the course of history, wherein emotional attachment was optional and the best investment a woman could make in her future was finding a husband. It is the arrival of love unions which have altered the definition of marriage, and it is now society’s responsibility to “help people in a wide array of different committed relationships minimize their shortcomings and maximize their solidarities” (Coontz, 2004, p. 979). In other words, this is a moment to promote social change.
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Millennials of the Church

Millennials of the Church

all faith traditions, there has been a significant amount of decline in traditional religiosity, church attendance, and adherence to church teaching. Concerning prayer, University of Notre Dame professors Christian Smith and Patricia Snell found that 42 percent of young adults say they pray daily or more, compared to 76 percent of those who are over 75 years old. There is an overall decline among younger generations who pray daily or more. The sharpest decline is among Mainline Protestants and Catholics, followed by Black Protestants, Evangelical Protestants, Catholics, and Mainline Protestants. For those who say they are “strong” adherents of their religious tradition, young adults represent 27 percent, while older adults represent 53 percent. The greatest increases in those who never attend religious services are among Jewish, Mainline Protestants, and Catholics, at 38, 28, and 25 percent, respectively. Among those who identify as “not religious,” young adults represent 20 percent. This number declines as age increases. The oldest adults account for 10 percent of this group. Interestingly, Smith and Snell found that the largest shift from belief to unbelief is among young adults who were Mainline Protestant as teenagers. 13
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The Church and Homosexuality

The Church and Homosexuality

The prevailing view has always been the one outlined in the Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC). The CCC uses language like “intrinsically disordered” and “great depravity” when talking specifically about homosexual acts but makes it very explicit that “They [homosexuals] must be accepted with respect, compassion, and sensitivity.” 29 Always Our Children works with the CCC as a starting point but takes pains to greater realize modern discoveries and point out that homosexuality is not intrinsically evil. It states, “Generally, homosexual orientation is experienced as a given, not as something freely chosen. By itself, therefore, a homosexual orientation cannot be considered sinful, for morality presumes the freedom to choose. It also strives to utilize more inclusive language and terms. This is one of the first documents (if not the first) to use “homosexual orientation” instead of “tendencies” as explicitly stated here: “The meaning and implications of the term homosexual orientation are not universally agreed upon. Church teaching acknowledges a distinction between a homosexual "tendency," which proves to be "transitory," and "homosexuals who are definitively such because of some kind of innate instinct"(Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Declaration on Certain Questions Concerning Sexual Ethics, 1975, no. 8).” 30
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The role of the church in the struggle against  poverty: A Hervormde Kerk in Suidelike Afrika perspective

The role of the church in the struggle against poverty: A Hervormde Kerk in Suidelike Afrika perspective

The role of the church in the struggle against poverty A Hervormde Kerk in Suidelike Afrika per spective Abstract The essence of being a church is love The church as an organization based on love has[.]

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John's gospel and the Johannine church: A mirror of events wifhin a text or/and a window on events within a church

John's gospel and the Johannine church: A mirror of events wifhin a text or/and a window on events within a church

These footnotes change our concept of the image of the church within the text of JG up until this stage. This complicates the matter, since the church is no longer seen as being unfamiliar with the Jewish world and traditions of Jewry. On the contrary, it is assumed that the readers are familiar with Jewish prophetic traditions. If this were not the case, they would neither have understood nor received the message about Jesus as apocalyptic Messiah and their identification with Jesus would have been ruled out.

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Comprehensive Study on Despeckling of PolSAR ...

Comprehensive Study on Despeckling of PolSAR ...

Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar is an extension of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) which is used to create 2D or 3D images in different polarization. It uses motion of radar antenna to the target object to get spatial properties better than other radars. PolSAR image is represented by a scattering matrix because it can send and receive in two polarizations that are horizontal and vertical. PolSAR led to many applications in disaster management, land cover mapping, forest mapping and agriculture. PolSAR is widely used in remote sensing applications. The main problem that arise after extraction of image is noise which degrades the quality of information that can be extracted from the image. This noise can be additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) or granular multiplicative noise i.e. speckle noise. Performance of PolSAR is mainly affected by speckle noise. Speckle noise is a granular noise that inherently exists in PolSAR and degrades the quality of the active radar (SAR). Filtering techniques are commonly used to remove the effects of the speckle noise.
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Enhancement and Feature Extraction of Fundus Images

Enhancement and Feature Extraction of Fundus Images

Various IEEE papers on feature extraction of fundus image are available which use different algorithms. IEEE paper on “Detection and classification of diabetic retinopathy using retinal images” revealed that the proposed method of classification based on area and perimeter of blood vessels and hemorrhages produce motivating results. Sensitivity of 80.21% and specificity of 70.66% is obtained. Preprocessing is done using adaptive, local, and contrast enhancement techniques. They adopted a neural network based

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Bringing the generations together: The role of Appreciative Inquiry in a local church’s transformation for mission

Bringing the generations together: The role of Appreciative Inquiry in a local church’s transformation for mission

The Appreciative Inquiry (AI) process continued on. At this point the church still had underestimated its significance. This is probably because stories of the past tend to be understood as dry history lessons and reminisces of the “good old days.” Stories that were emerging were retold on the cover of the churches weekly bulletin for added emphasis and reinforcement.

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