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Self forming TiBN Nanocomposite Multilayer Coating Prepared by Pulse Cathode Arc Method

Self forming TiBN Nanocomposite Multilayer Coating Prepared by Pulse Cathode Arc Method

Novel multilayer structured TiBN coatings were deposited on Si (100) substrate using TiBN complex cathode plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition technique (PIIID). The coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microcopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and ball-on- disk test. XRD results reveal that both samples of TiBN coatings have the main diffraction peak of TiN (200) and (220). Cross-section TEM images reveal that these coatings have the character of self-forming multilayer and consists of face-centered cubic TiN and hexagonal BN nanocrystalline embedded in amorphous matrix. Because of the existence of hexagonal BN, the friction coefficient of the new TiBN coating in room temperature is obviously lower than that of the monolithic TiN nanocrystalline coating.
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Antibacterial potency of different deposition methods of silver and copper containing diamond-like carbon coated polyethylene

Antibacterial potency of different deposition methods of silver and copper containing diamond-like carbon coated polyethylene

In this report the antimicrobial effects of Ag- and Cu- incorporated DLC coatings on PE manufactured with different techniques are described. The coatings and films were deposited by two methods of IBAD (plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) and conventional ion implantation (II)). Bactericidal potency of DLC speci- mens enriched with Ag or Cu was studied on the surface and the surrounding fluid medium. This study provides valuable information for determining the suitability of DLC-PE enriched with Ag or Cu. Ethics approval for this study was not necessary according to the institutional review board (TU München).
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Enhanced Biocompatibility and Corrosion Resistance of Plasma-Modified Biodegradable Magnesium Alloy

Enhanced Biocompatibility and Corrosion Resistance of Plasma-Modified Biodegradable Magnesium Alloy

Surface modification techniques, which are widely studied in recent years in order to reduce the corrosion rate of magnesium and its alloys, are believed to be necessary for Mg and its alloys as biomedical implants, and is also beneficial to improve the bioactivity [3,5,9-14]. Among these techniques, the plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is an excellent surface modification technique to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys by forming a stable passive layer on the surface. Several studies, associated with the ions implanted into magnesium and its alloys, have revealed that the implanted Mg alloy exhibited certain degrees of corrosion resistance enhancement [12-14]. Nevertheless, more ions implantation need to be developed to meet the stringent requirements of the implants. Fluoride, in the surface coating can improving the resistance of the Mg alloy, is one of the few know agents that can stimulate the osteoblast proliferation [15,16]. However, the effects of PIII with fluoride on the corrosion behavior of Mg alloy have been seldom explored.
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Hierarchical micro/nanostructured titanium with balanced actions to bacterial and mammalian cells for dental implants

Hierarchical micro/nanostructured titanium with balanced actions to bacterial and mammalian cells for dental implants

Abstract: A versatile strategy to endow dental implants with long-term antibacterial ability without compromising the cytocompatibility is highly desirable to combat implant-related infection. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been utilized as a highly effective and broad- spectrum antibacterial agent for surface modification of biomedical devices. However, the high mobility and subsequent hazardous effects of the particles on mammalian cells may limit its practical applications. Thus, Ag NPs were immobilized on the surface of sand-blasted, large grit, and acid-etched (SLA) titanium by manipulating the atomic-scale heating effect of silver plasma immersion ion implantation. The silver plasma immersion ion implantation-treated SLA surface gave rise to both good antibacterial activity and excellent compatibility with mammalian cells. The antibacterial activity rendered by the immobilized Ag NPs was assessed using Fusobacterium nucleatum and Staphylococcus aureus, commonly suspected pathogens for peri-implant disease. The immobilized Ag NPs offered a good defense against multiple cycles of bacteria attack in both F. nucleatum and S. aureus, and the mechanism was independent of silver release. F. nucleatum showed a higher susceptibility to Ag NPs than S. aureus, which might be explained by the presence of different wall structures. Moreover, the immobilized Ag NPs had no apparent toxic influence on the viability, proliferation, and differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. These results demonstrated that good bactericidal activity could be obtained with very small quantities of immobilized Ag NPs, which were not detrimental to the mammalian cells involved in the osseointegration process, and promising for titanium-based dental implants with commercial SLA surfaces.
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DLC Film Fabricated by a Composite Technique of Unbalanced
Magnetron Sputtering and PIII

DLC Film Fabricated by a Composite Technique of Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering and PIII

DLC multilayer films were deposited on an AISI 304 stainless steel substrate by the composite technique of unbalanced magnetron sputtering and plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). Structure characterization was performed on the films by Raman spectroscopy (RS) and Glancing X-ray Diffraction (GXRD). Composition analysis of the surface layer on the implanted substrates was carried out using auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The mechanical properties of the films were evaluated by nanoindentation. The results showed that the Raman spectra were divided into a “D” disordered peak and a “G” graphite peak with the integrated intensity ratio between them (I D /I G ) being 1.30.
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Ag-plasma modification enhances bone apposition around titanium dental implants: an animal study in Labrador dogs

Ag-plasma modification enhances bone apposition around titanium dental implants: an animal study in Labrador dogs

Abstract: Dental implants with proper antibacterial ability as well as ideal osseointegration are being actively pursued. The antimicrobial ability of titanium implants can be significantly enhanced via modification with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). However, the high mobility of Ag NPs results in their potential cytotoxicity. The silver plasma immersion ion-implantation (Ag-PIII) technique may remedy the defect. Accordingly, Ag-PIII technique was employed in this study in an attempt to reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance osseointegration of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) dental implants. Briefly, 48 dental implants, divided equally into one control and three test groups (further treated by Ag-PIII technique with three different implantation parameters), were inserted in the mandibles of six Labrador dogs. Scan- ning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used to investigate the surface topography, chemical states, and silver release of SLA- and Ag-PIII-treated titanium dental implants. The implant stability quotient examination, Microcomputed tomography evaluation, histological observations, and histomorphometric analysis were performed to assess the osseointegration effect in vivo. The results demonstrated that normal soft tissue healing around dental implants was observed in all the groups, whereas the implant stability quotient values in Ag-PIII groups were higher than that in the SLA group. In addition, all the Ag-PIII groups, compared to the SLA-group, exhibited enhanced new bone formation, bone mineral density, and trabecular pattern. With regard to osteogenic indicators, the implants treated with Ag-PIII for 30 minutes and 60 minutes, with the diameter of the Ag NPs ranging from 5–25 nm, were better than those treated with Ag-PIII for 90 minutes, with the Ag NPs diameter out of that range. These results suggest that Ag-PIII technique can reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance the osseointegration of SLA surfaces and have the potential for future use.
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Ion Implantation As A Route To Enhancing Osseointegration On Modified Titanium Surfaces

Ion Implantation As A Route To Enhancing Osseointegration On Modified Titanium Surfaces

SIMS uses highly energised particles ( 1 - 1 5 keV). These are mono energetic and are generated in the primary ion source to bombard the surface to be analysed. The primary ion source can be an inert or a reactive gas. When a reactive gas such as oxygen is employed as in the current research, a cold cathode mode of discharge is used to generate the O 2 '". Alternatively N 2 gas can be utilised, but the use of an 02 ^ primary beam offers higher beam brightness and improved sensitivity for the detection of electropositive species. Elements on the left-hand side of the periodic table are usually monitored as positive ions due to their lower ionization energy. These are usually monitored using an 02 "" primary ion beam (McPhail 1989). The primary ions are accelerated across an electric field in the primary ion column, while a Wien filter ensures mass discrimination. The angular spread of the beam is reduced as it passes through an interchangeable aperture. Two pairs of electrodes are used to scan the beam across the sample in either a raster, spiral or linescan mode. The Einzel lens focuses the beam prior to it scanning the substrate (Vickerman etal. 1990).
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Planar InAs photodiodes fabricated using He ion implantation

Planar InAs photodiodes fabricated using He ion implantation

An InAs sample consisting of a 2 µm p + doped (1x10 18 cm −3 of Be) layer, grown on an InAs substrate by Metal Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy, was implanted with He. Multiple implantation energies and doses were used to create a flat damage distribution of approximately 1.7% up to a depth of just over 2 µ m. In total four implantations were used to achieve this with the following conditions 1) 36 keV with a dose of 1.3x10 13 , 2) 120 keV at 7.4x10 13 , 3) 300 keV at 2.04x10 14 and 4) 600 keV at 4.62x10 14 ions/cm 2 . All the implants were performed, at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre, at room temperature and with the wafer at an angle of 7° to minimize channeling of the implanted ions. The implanted sample was then cleaved into various pieces which were annealed in a rapid thermal annealer before depositing TLM pads for subsequent resistivity measurements. All samples were annealed for two minutes and were sandwiched between two InAs carrier wafers to minimize any out diffusion. The p-i-n structure used was also grown by Metal Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy consisting a 2 µm n doped layer (Si, 1x10 17 cm −3 ), followed by a 6 µ m intrinsic layer and then a 2 µ m p doped layer (Be, 1x10 18 cm −3 ). A set of reference pin diodes were fabricated using our standard wet etching recipes [4] of a 1:1:1 (phosphoric acid: hydrogen peroxide: de- ionized water) etch, followed by a finishing etch of 1:8:80 (sulphuric acid: hydrogen peroxide: de-ionized water), to define the mesa diodes with radii between for 25 to 200 m. For the ion implantation samples a layer of 2.5 µ m thick SiN was deposited on a set of diodes with circular metal contacts of various sizes prior to ion implantation using similar ion implant conditions described above. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the implanted structure and an image of the fabricated devices.
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Ion implantation of calcium and zinc in magnesium for biodegradable implant applications

Ion implantation of calcium and zinc in magnesium for biodegradable implant applications

For biomedical applications, the biocompatibility of the implanted element is critical. Zinc is a biocompatible metal and has been used as an alloying element in magnesium for potential biodegradable implants [20,21]. Recently, there have been some works on zinc-ion implantation [22–24]. Wu et al. [22] examined the in vitro degradation of zinc-ion implantation in pure magnesium. The degradation resistance decreased with zinc-ion implantation at a fluence of 2.5 × 10 17 ion · cm −2 , which was attributed to galvanic corrosion between the zinc-rich region and the magnesium matrix. Wan et al. [23] used a slightly lower fluence, i.e., 0.9 × 10 17 ion · cm −2 , for zinc-ion implantation in a magnesium-calcium alloy and congruently found that zinc-ion decreased the degradation resistance under in vitro conditions. However, they found that the surface hardness and elastic modulus of the alloy increased with zinc-ion implantation. Xu et al. [24] studied the combined effect of zinc-ion and aluminium-ion in pure magnesium (fluence: 3.6 × 10 17 ion · cm −2 ). They first implanted zinc-ion and then carried out aluminium-ion implantation. They observed improved degradation resistance, which was attributed to the formation of a heterogeneous oxide layer and a β -Mg 17 Al 12 phase.
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Planar InAs photodiodes fabricated using He ion implantation

Planar InAs photodiodes fabricated using He ion implantation

This work has shown that it is possible to use He implantation with InAs to produce highly resistive areas and that when combined with post implantation annealing, a sufficiently high resistive region can be formed to allow the fabrication of a planar photodiode. Due to the implantation conditions used in this work an isolation depth of only around 2 µm has been achieved despite the total device thickness being 8 µm. As such this appears to have limited the upper voltage limit that the diodes can be operated to due to the onset of edge breakdown. We have measured similar external quantum efficiencies for an implanted and subsequently annealed device as we would obtain for a reference etched device. These results also suggest that it may be possible to use implantation techniques to fabricate photodiodes in narrower bandgap materials such as InSb to allow the realisation of long wavelength planar detectors.
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Chemical Modification of Titanium Nitride Films via Ion Implantation

Chemical Modification of Titanium Nitride Films via Ion Implantation

In the dependent manner on the implanted species, the chemical modification induces a unique nanostructure. In the case of C-implantation, TiN is modified to have a sandwich layered structure with Ti-C/C-C/Ti-C bonding state at the vicinity of its surface. This as-implanted nanostructure directly leads to reduction of the wear volume. During the wear testing, titanium carbide and graphite were detected as wear debris particles together with TiN. Once the implanted carbon forms titanium carbide or graphite, no further reaction takes place to modify the as-implanted nanostructure in the wear track during the post-implantation testing. Al-implanted TiN has a modified phase of cubic solid solution, (Ti, Al) N, and metallic aluminum cluster for an as-implanted nano- structure inside TiN. Under oxidation condition, these phases decompose themselves to release Al atoms. They are sufficiently free to diffuse from depth to surface for reaction with the penetrating oxygen atoms at the surface, so that a dense, stable -Al 2 O 3 layer should be in-situ formed as a
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Tantalum/ Nitrogen and n-type WO3 semiconductor/FTO structures as a cathode for the future of nano devices

Tantalum/ Nitrogen and n-type WO3 semiconductor/FTO structures as a cathode for the future of nano devices

In the last decades an extensive number of research papers published on nano chip electrode and cathode electrochromic materials. Tantalum (Ta) with so high melting point can be a immeasurable candidate for the future of nanochip devices. However, its surface has not enough trap centers and occupation states, so nitrogen ions exposed on Ta surface may solve this problem. For this purpose, in the present work, samples of tantalum (99.99%) with 0.58 mm thickness were embedded by nitrogen ions. The ions’ implantation manner was operated at 30 keV and also at various doses which were in the range between 10 17 - 10 18 ions/cm 2 .The electrical,
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Ion Implantation Induced Martensite Nucleation in SUS301 Steel

Ion Implantation Induced Martensite Nucleation in SUS301 Steel

In ion implantation technique, the distribution of trans- formed phase depends on accelerating energy, so it is possible to produce martensite phase in surface region with nano-scale. A lot of studies on the mechanism and process of transformation due to implantation with different ion species have been conducted in several types of stainless steels by means of microstructural observation using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffrac- tion, Rutherford backscattering and Mossbauer spectrosco- py. 12–30)

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Optimization of Manufacturing of Operational Amplifier Manufactured by Using Field effect Heterotransistor to Decrease Their Dimensions

Optimization of Manufacturing of Operational Amplifier Manufactured by Using Field effect Heterotransistor to Decrease Their Dimensions

In this paper we consider an operational amplifier based on field-effect heterotransistors described in Ref. [10] (see Fig.1). We assume, that the considered element has been manufactured in heterostructure from Fig. 1. The heterostructure consist of a substrate and an epitaxial layer. The epitaxial layer includes into itself several sections manufactured by using another materials. The sections have been doped by diffusion or ion implantation to generation into these sections required type of conductivity (n or p). In this paper we analyzed redistribution of dopant during annealing of dopant and/ or radiation defects to formulate conditions for decreasing of dimensions of the considered amplifier.
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Characterization of ion implanted antimony

Characterization of ion implanted antimony

Table 5: Summary of Ion Implanted Buried Layer Process Parameters Process Parameter Version A Version B 600 250 140 50 Implantation Screen Oxide Thickness A Implantation Energy keV Impla[r]

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Development of the Biologically Active Guglielmi Detachable Coil for the Treatment of Cerebral Aneurysms  Part II: An Experimental Study in a Swine Aneurysm Model

Development of the Biologically Active Guglielmi Detachable Coil for the Treatment of Cerebral Aneurysms Part II: An Experimental Study in a Swine Aneurysm Model

Ion implantation is a physico-chemical surface-modification process resulting from the impingement of a high-energy ion beam (16). When ion implantation is performed on a protein- coated GDC surface, the coated protein is embedded and mixed into the GDC surface (protein-coated GDC-I). The ma- jor difference between conventional coating and ion-implan- tation technology is in the quality of the interfaces. Any stan- dard coating process has an interface (or ‘‘border’’) between coating materials (such as proteins) and the base materials (such as platinum). Regular GDC coating may be stripped away by mechanical stress while depositing the coil through long, small microcatheters. Ion implantation creates a very thin
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Continuous and Localized Mn Implantation of ZnO

Continuous and Localized Mn Implantation of ZnO

Experimental works on ion implantation of different atomic species into micrometric confined volumes [11] have shown that different diffusion and clustering proper- ties of the implanted species may exist compared to con- tinuum film implantation. The ion implantation processes usually give place to the generation of vacancies and point defects in crystalline matrixes, which strongly affect the carrier transport. In the particular case of Mn implanted ZnO, an anomalous creation of Zn interstitials has been studied 20 years ago [12] and, more recently, it has been reported that even non-doped ZnO nanostructures can show ferromagnetism [13] due to special arrangement of Zn and O atoms within ZnO crystalline structure confined into porous anodic alumina (PAA).
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110GHz fT Silicon Bipolar Transistors Implemented using Fluorine Implantation for Boron Diffusion Suppression

110GHz fT Silicon Bipolar Transistors Implemented using Fluorine Implantation for Boron Diffusion Suppression

Research Laboratories and worked initially on ion implanted integrated circuit bipolar transistors, and then on electron lithography for submicrometer integrated circuits. In 1978, he joined the Academic Staff of the Department of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, U.K., as a Lecturer, and currently is the holder of a Personal Chair in microelectronics. Since taking up a post at Southampton University, he has worked on polysilicon emitter bipolar transistors, high-speed bipolar and BiCMOS technologies, gate delay expressions for bipolar circuits, and the effects of fluorine in polysilicon emitters. His current research interests include SiGe HBTs, SiGeC and its device applications and vertical MOS transistors for application in sub100-nm CMOS technology. He has authored and coauthored 200 papers in the technical literature, given many invited papers on polysilicon emitters, SiGe HBTs, and vertical MOSFETs and has authored books on the design and realization of bipolar transistors in 1988 and on silicon germanium HBTs in 2003.
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Mg Tilted Angle Ion Implantation for Threshold Voltage Control and Suppression of the Short Channel Effect in GaN MISFETs

Mg Tilted Angle Ion Implantation for Threshold Voltage Control and Suppression of the Short Channel Effect in GaN MISFETs

This paper demonstrates that threshold voltages of GaN MISFET are control- lable by varying the Mg ion doses for Mg ion implantation. Furthermore, it demonstrates for the first time that the short channel effect can be suppressed using a halo structure that has a p-layer in channel regions adjacent to source/ drain regions using tilt ion implantation. A device with a Mg dose of 8 × 10 13 /cm 2 achieved maximum drain current of 240 mA/mm and a transcon-

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Influence of Adsorption of Dopant on Distribution of the Dopant in A P N Junction

Influence of Adsorption of Dopant on Distribution of the Dopant in A P N Junction

In this section based on obtain in previous section rela- tions we analyzed dynamics of redistribution of dopant and radiation defects. The typical distributions of dopant (for diffusive type of doping and ion implantation, respectively) for fixed value of annealing time and different values of difference between diffusion coefficients of dopant in layers of heterostructure are presented on Figs. 2 and 3. On the present figures solid lines are distributions of dopant without accounting dopant adsorption, dashed lines are distributions of dopant with accounting dopant adsorption in the substrate. The Figs. 2 and 3 show, that interface between layers of heterostructure gives us possibility to increase sharpness of p-n-junction and homogeneity of dopant distribution in enriched area. Increasing of sharpness of p-n-junction gives us possibility to decrease switching time of the device. In- creasing of homogeneity of dopant distribution gives us possibility to decrease local overheats of material during operation of p-n-junction or to decrease dimensions of p-n-junction for fixed tolerance on value of overheats. The Figs. 2 and 3 also show, that accounting of adsorption gives us possibility to decrease sharpness of p-n-junction and quantity of dopant in the substrate.
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