Immune-modulatory

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Expression and regulation of immune modulatory enzyme Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) by human airway epithelial cells and its effect on T cell activation

Expression and regulation of immune modulatory enzyme Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) by human airway epithelial cells and its effect on T cell activation

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the degradation of tryptophan, which plays a critical role in immune suppression through regulating the production of a series of metabolites that are generally referred to as kynurenines. It has become increasingly clear that epithelial cells (ECs) play an active role in maintaining lung homeostasis by modulating the function of immune cells via producing cytokines, chemokines, and anti-microbial mediators. In this study we assessed the regulation of IDO activity and expression in human primary ECs and EC lines under steady state conditions and in response to bacterial and allergenic stimuli. We also investigated the potential immune modulatory functions of IDO expression in human airway ECs. Our data clearly show that airway ECs produce IDO, which is down-regulated in response to allergens and TLR ligands while up-regulated in response to IFN-γ. Using gene silencing, we further demonstrate that IDO plays a key role in the EC-mediated suppression of antigen-specific and polyclonal proliferation of T cells. Interestingly, our data also show that ECs lose their inhibitory effect on T cell activation in response to different TLR agonists mimicking bacterial or viral infections. In conclusion, our work provides an understanding of how IDO is regulated in ECs as well as demonstrates that “resting” ECs can suppress T cell activation in an IDO dependent manner. These data provide new insight into how ECs, through the production of IDO, can influence downstream innate and adaptive responses as part of their function in maintaining immune homeostasis in the airways.
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Deletion of Specific Immune-Modulatory Genes from Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara-Based HIV Vaccines Engenders Improved Immunogenicity in Rhesus Macaques

Deletion of Specific Immune-Modulatory Genes from Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara-Based HIV Vaccines Engenders Improved Immunogenicity in Rhesus Macaques

The deletion of immune-modulatory genes from MVA vectors engendered an enhanced ability to elicit antibody responses in vivo, although compared to the control, the relative magnitude and kinetics of these responses appear to be antigen specific. The immunization of macaques with both MVA⌬4-HIV and MVA ⌬ 5-HIV induced HIV Env-specific antibody responses in plasma that were transiently of a higher magnitude than those elicited by the MVA-HIV control. Env-specific antibodies were detected as early as 2 weeks following immunization with MVA ⌬ 4-HIV but not the control vaccine. More dramatically, MVA⌬4-HIV and MVA⌬5-HIV elicited significantly higher (up to 25-fold) titers of gp120 binding antibodies at 1 week following homologous booster immunization, which were nonneutralizing against an HIV Con-C-pseudotyped reporter vector, than the control vector. However, these augmented antibody responses were transient in nature, as similar titers of gp120 binding anti- bodies were observed 5 weeks later for macaques immunized with either the modified or control vaccines. In contrast, MVA ⌬ 4-HIV elicited 2- to 7-fold-higher titers of vector-specific antibodies (both neutralizing and nonneutralizing) following booster immu- nization, which remained persistently elevated through at least 6 weeks postboosting, suggesting that the ⌬ 4 modification may be relevant to the improvement of MVA as a smallpox virus vaccine per se. As anticipated, MVA ⌬ 5-HIV, which harbors a deletion of udg in addition to deletions of the four immune-modulatory genes deleted from MVA ⌬ 4-HIV, induced titers of vector-specific antibodies that were at best comparable to, but frequently lower than, those elicited by the control vaccine. Thus, when combined with the ⌬4 modification, the deletion of udg specifically offset the enhancement of vector-specific antibody responses that was oth- erwise observed, presumably because the deletion of udg abro- gates the expression of MVA late genes (30, 45), which encode many virion structural proteins that are antibody targets (24).
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Expression and regulation of immune-modulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) by human airway epithelial cells and its effect on T cell activation

Expression and regulation of immune-modulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) by human airway epithelial cells and its effect on T cell activation

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the degradation of tryptophan, which plays a critical role in immune suppression through regulating the production of a series of metabolites that are generally referred to as kynurenines. It has become increasingly clear that epithelial cells (ECs) play an active role in maintaining lung homeostasis by modulating the function of immune cells via producing cytokines, chemokines, and anti-microbial mediators. In this study we assessed the regulation of IDO activity and expression in human primary ECs and EC lines under steady state conditions and in response to bacterial and allergenic stimuli. We also investigated the potential immune modulatory functions of IDO expression in human airway ECs. Our data clearly show that airway ECs produce IDO, which is down-regulated in response to allergens and TLR ligands while up-regulated in response to IFN-γ. Using gene silencing, we further demonstrate that IDO plays a key role in the EC-mediated suppression of antigen-specific and polyclonal proliferation of T cells. Interestingly, our data also show that ECs lose their inhibitory effect on T cell activation in response to different TLR agonists mimicking bacterial or viral infections. In conclusion, our work provides an understanding of how IDO is regulated in ECs as well as demonstrates that “resting” ECs can suppress T cell activation in an IDO dependent manner. These data provide new insight into how ECs, through the production of IDO, can influence downstream innate and adaptive responses as part of their function in maintaining immune homeostasis in the airways.
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Dietary yeast-derived mannan oligosaccharides have immune-modulatory properties but do not improve high fat diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance

Dietary yeast-derived mannan oligosaccharides have immune-modulatory properties but do not improve high fat diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance

The indigestible mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) derived from the outer cell wall of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown potential to reduce inflammation. Since inflamma- tion is one of the underlying mechanisms involved in the development of obesity-associated metabolic dysfunctions, we aimed to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with MOS on inflammation and metabolic homeostasis in lean and diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a low fat diet (LFD) or a high fat diet (HFD) with, respec- tively, 10% or 45% energy derived from lard fat, with or without 1% MOS for 17 weeks. Body weight and composition were measured throughout the study. After 12 weeks of interven- tion, whole-body glucose tolerance was assessed and in week 17 immune cell composition was determined in mesenteric white adipose tissue (mWAT) and liver by flow cytometry and RT-qPCR. In LFD-fed mice, MOS supplementation induced a significant increase in the abundance of macrophages and eosinophils in mWAT. A similar trend was observed in hepatic macrophages. Although HFD feeding induced a classical shift from the anti-inflam- matory M2-like macrophages towards the pro-inflammatory M1-like macrophages in both mWAT and liver from control mice, MOS supplementation had no effect on this obesity- driven immune response. Finally, MOS supplementation did not improve whole-body glu- cose homeostasis in both lean and obese mice.Altogether, our data showed that MOS had extra-intestinal immune modulatory properties in mWAT and liver. However these effects were not substantial enough to significantly ameliorate HFD-induced glucose intolerance or inflammation.
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Metabolic determinants of the immune modulatory function of neural stem cells

Metabolic determinants of the immune modulatory function of neural stem cells

Background: Neural stem cells (NSCs) display tissue trophic and immune modulatory therapeutic activities after transplantation in central nervous system disorders. The intercellular interplay between stem cells and target immune cells is increased in NSCs exposed to inflammatory cues. Here, we hypothesize that inflammatory cytokine signalling leads to metabolic reprogramming of NSCs regulating some of their immune modulatory effects. Methods: NSC lines were prepared from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of 7 – 12-week-old mice. Whole secretome- based screening and analysis of intracellular small metabolites was performed in NSCs exposed to cocktails of either Th1-like (IFN- γ , 500 U/ml; TNF- α , 200 U/ml; IL-1 β , 100 U/ml) or Th2-like (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13; 10 ng/ml) inflammatory cytokines for 16 h in vitro. Isotopologues distribution of arginine and downstream metabolites was assessed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in NSCs incubated with U- 13 C 6 L-arginine in the presence or absence of
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Characterization of a secreted cystatin of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus and its immune modulatory effect on goat monocytes

Characterization of a secreted cystatin of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus and its immune modulatory effect on goat monocytes

Different from type 1 cystatins, the type 2 cystatins are secretion-type proteins containing signal peptides. Type 2 cystatins from Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Heligmoso- moides polygyrus, Litomosoides sigmodontis and Brugia malayi were proved existence in excretory/secretory (ES) products of parasites [12, 21, 26, 27]. In the present study, we found that rHCcyst-3 could be recognized by the antiserum from goats experimentally infected with H. contortus and the native HCcyst-3 protein was pre- dominantly localized at the body surface and internal surface of the parasite’s gut. Cystatins of helminth para- sites play immune modulatory functions based on a hypothesis that host monocyte/macrophage can uptake parasite cystatins [28]. Furthermore, we demonstrated that goat monocyte could uptake rHCcyst-3 in vitro. These results indicated that type 2 cystatins of H. contortus were excretory/secretory antigens and interacted with the host immune system during infection. Theoretically, the immunomodulatory functions proposed to require constant secretion and certain concentrations of this molecule. How- ever, HCcyst-3 accumulates to the functional concentration in vivo, so the real mechanism or pathways involved in host parasite interactions during natural infection of H. contortus are worthy for further studied.
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Increased expression of the immune modulatory molecule PD- L1 (CD274) in anaplastic meningioma

Increased expression of the immune modulatory molecule PD- L1 (CD274) in anaplastic meningioma

Prior studies of the immune infiltrate in meningiomas have focused predominantly on investigating the monocytic infiltrate of these tumors [40, 41] while others have characterized B and T lymphocyte infiltrates but on small sample sets [42, 43] (less than 30 samples). One study used flow cytometry analysis to characterize the lymphocyte population infiltrating 28 cases of meningioma [42] and demonstrated several important findings: that meningioma harbor both T and B lymphocytes that are antigen-experienced; that meningioma have CD4+ and CD8+ memory/effector T cells, regulatory T cells, and T cells expressing the immune checkpoint molecules PD-1; that these effector T cell populations are enriched relative to peripheral blood suggesting that certain T lymphocytes migrate to and reside in the tumors; and that the T lymphocytes infiltrating meningioma show phenotypes associated with ‘exhaustion’ suggesting that they may not be able to mount an effective immune response. Because this study used flow cytometry to characterize fresh meningioma tissues, the numbers of samples analyzed was relatively small (including only three WHO grade III meningiomas) compared to studies that use retrospective cohorts of FFPE fixed tissues. Hence, the authors could not assess if there are differences in the immune cell infiltrating populations of meningioma according to WHO grade and if there are significant changes in the expression of immune modulatory molecules in meningioma, particularly in the meningioma cells themselves. Our study, utilizing nearly 300 FFPE meningioma samples allowed us to address this important clinical issue by characterizing large numbers of samples and assessing the differences in the tumor infiltrating immune cells in high grade meningioma, the cases that are most likely to require treatment. A limitation of TMA based studies, on the other hand, is that the extracted TMA cores may miss potential heterogeneity that is present in the patient samples. Because we see high correlation between the scores of different cores for each patient samples, this suggests that the heterogeneity in meningioma may be less than that seen in other tumors, consistent with their relatively uniform morphological appearance seen by light microscopy.
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Immune-modulatory effects of dietary Yeast Beta-1,3/1,6-D-glucan

Immune-modulatory effects of dietary Yeast Beta-1,3/1,6-D-glucan

pathway is essential for the activation of dendritic cells, which in turn induces T-cell response and cytokine release [31]. However, not all insoluble particulate β-glucans are able to bind to and activate the dectin-1 receptor. Studies with synthetically produced β-glucans revealed that bind- ing to dectin-1 receptor is specific for β-glucans with a (1,3)-beta backbone. Backbones with mixed (1,3)/(1,4)-β- bindings (e.g. barley derived β-glucans) are not recognized by this receptor. Also, a backbone length of at least seven glucose units is required for binding, in addition to one (1,6)-β-side-chain branch (e.g. insoluble yeast β-glucans). Furthermore, the binding activity increases with increas- ing molecular weight of the polymer [32]. However, bind- ing to the dectin-1 receptor alone does not activate the signal cascade induced by this receptor. Indeed, dectin- 1 signaling and the concomitant immune responses are only activated by particulate β-glucans but not by sol- uble β-glucans [33]. Insoluble, particulate β-glucans in- duced the process of phagocytosis, resulting in the elimination of invading microbes by binding to the dectin-1 receptor [31]. Further, particulate β-glucans pro- motes T-cell differentiation into Th1-cells and enhances cytotoxic T lymphocyte priming by the dectin-1 pathway. Even though soluble β-glucans are also recognized by the dectin-1 receptors, they cannot activate immune response via this pathway. Soluble β-glucans are, however, able to bind to the CR3 receptor. The activation of the CR3 leads to complement system mediated immune process, sup- ported by specific antibodies [31].
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A robust potency assay highlights significant donor variation of human mesenchymal stem/progenitor cell immune modulatory capacity and extended radio-resistance

A robust potency assay highlights significant donor variation of human mesenchymal stem/progenitor cell immune modulatory capacity and extended radio-resistance

Here we introduce a robust potency assay using inhib- ition of pooled polyclonal T-lymphocyte proliferation (i) after mitogen or antibody stimulation as well as (ii) due to allo-antigen-driven mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). Pooled organ-specific reference MSPCs were used as a nominator to qualify individual donor MSPC potency for inhibiting mitogen-induced as well as MLR-driven T-cell proliferation in parallel for direct comparison. Leukocytes from ten donors were pooled to counter- balance individual immune response variability. Cells were pre-labeled with carboxyfluorescein and cryopre- served in aliquots for instant and reproducible off-the-shelf use. Based on clinical practice, MSPCs were tested immedi- ately after thawing (off-the-shelf) or after an approximate 72-hour ‘rescue culture’ for their potency to inhibit both polyclonal and allogeneic T-cell proliferation. MSPCs from five random human BM, white adipose tissue (WAT) and umbilical cord (UC) donors were analyzed individually or as a pool. A supplementary safety measure was intended by testing 30 Gy irradiation of the MSPCs to minimize the risk of continued proliferation after application.
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Immune-modulatory Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Type 1 and Type 2 Immune Responses among Workers in Cardiac Catheterization Units

Immune-modulatory Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Type 1 and Type 2 Immune Responses among Workers in Cardiac Catheterization Units

However, our results were inconsistent with Attar et al. [37], who studied the effect of high dose natural ionizing radiation HDR on the immune system of the exposed residents of Ramsar Town, Iran. They found elevated level of IL10, IL4 and lower IL2 and IFNγ. This inconsistency probably is due to the different nature, dose and duration of exposure to ionizing radiation.

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Immune Modulatory Potential of Anti-idiotype Antibodies as a Surrogate of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Antigen

Immune Modulatory Potential of Anti-idiotype Antibodies as a Surrogate of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Antigen

A neutralizing effect of Ab2 was recently reported against Dengue virus (DENV). Ab2 was raised against potent human DENV serotype 1-specific antibodies named HM14c10; structural mimicry by Ab2 was achieved after several interactions with the heavy chain of antibodies to neutralize the DENV (23). A neutralizing effect of mono- clonal Ab2 against reovirus of the Picornaviridae family was reported by Sharpe et al. (24). The manipulation of the immune responses of both B and T cells was recorded in the absence of adjuvant. It was reported that Ab2 blocks viral attachment to the cell and enhances cytotoxic T lymphocyte-dependent lysis of infected cells in a dose- dependent manner. In the current study, the immune response to Montanide adju- vanted monovalent and trivalent anti-id FMD virus antigens was evaluated. The Mon- tanide adjuvanted monovalent and trivalent anti-id FMD virus antigens produced Ab titers ranging from 70% to 83%. In vitro experimentation was done for the preparation of monoclonal antibodies and anti-id in mouse model as described previously by Garmendia et al. (25). The Ab2 was used as a surrogate antigen for FMD virus. Mice were immunized by injecting Ab2 and anti-anti-id (Ab3), and Ab2 showed a higher response than Ab3 in the mouse model. Paryati et al. compared rabies virus vaccines with oral and intramuscular (i.m.) suspensions of the anti-id vaccine. The enzyme-linked immu- nosorbent assay (ELISA) Ab titer of i.m. anti-id vaccines was higher than that of the oral suspension (26). In the present experiments, an anti-id antigen suspension was injected for comparison to the trivalent FMD viral vaccine. The results of Ab titration support the hypothesis of the use of Ab2 as a surrogate antigen. A mean Ab titer range of 72% to 83% was observed in the mice injected with polyclonal anti-id antigen prepared from the IgY antibodies. The initial response in Montanide adjuvanted anti-id FMD virus antigen was slow and increased over time to 83% followed
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Anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory and antioxidant effects of date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera) extract in rats treated with AlCl3.

Anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory and antioxidant effects of date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera) extract in rats treated with AlCl3.

the production of RBCs with impaired integrity that easily destroyed in the circulation (19). The decrease in Hb could be not only due to decrease in RBCs count, but also to reduce biosynthesis of heme in the bone marrow (19). The white blood cells are the regulators of the immune system and the increase in WBCs count may be anticipated to generalized immune responses and a protective response to metal stress (20).

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Composition of the Schistosoma mansoni worm secretome: Identification of immune modulatory Cyclophilin A

Composition of the Schistosoma mansoni worm secretome: Identification of immune modulatory Cyclophilin A

the infected host. The characterisation of WES will potentially be of great significance in the identification of novel therapeutic targets for S. mansoni and other Schistosoma species’ infec- tions of man [53, 54]. Several previously proposed vaccine candidates were found to be located in extracellular vesicles of adult S. mansoni worms [55]. In addition to the identification of vac- cine candidates, adult S. mansoni worm proteome has previously been serologically screened for the successful detection of biomarkers and infection susceptibility markers [56]. In our study, 111 proteins of the S. mansoni male WES were identified by mass-spectometric analysis. This led to the identification of 7 previously proposed vaccine candidates and 5 molecules with potential immunomodulatory activity. Over 70% of the identified S. mansoni WES proteins share high homology with proteins described in S. japonicum. Our data show a clear demarca- tion of the WES and the AW of S. mansoni, revealing that only a fraction of the S. mansoni worm proteins are excreted/secreted. It should be noted that WES and AW used in this study were prepared from adult sexually mature male worms, with female worms not included in antigen preparations. This was to remove female worms and therefore presence of eggs, and release of egg secretions during in vitro culture, and prevent the potential confounding effects of the potent IM in eggs [57]. Further, infections of mice with male worms only have been shown to induce marked modulation of the immune system of the host [8]. Amongst the WES proteins, an enzymatically active homologue of human CypA was identified. SmCypA showed immunomodulatory activity in in vitro cell culture assays, with alterations in DC function and cytokine production leading to a DC mediated preferential expansion of CD4 + Treg cells.
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Immune Modulatory Effects of Hypercholesterolemia:  Can Atorvastatin Convert the Detrimental Effect of Hypercholesterolemia  on the Immune System?

Immune Modulatory Effects of Hypercholesterolemia: Can Atorvastatin Convert the Detrimental Effect of Hypercholesterolemia on the Immune System?

In parallel, in vitro studies have displayed that statin drugs, which used for treatment of hypercholesterolemia patients, impair the proper function of the immune cells and consequently weaken their timely response to infectious agents. 20,21 The inhibitory effects of statins on Th1 cells caused simvastatin is used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases such as arthritis in rodent models. 16 According to our results, it is suggested that atorvastatin decreases the mRNA expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-6 and T-bet transcription factor. In addition, it increases the expression of Th2- related cytokine expressions namely IL-5 and GATA3 transcription factor in patients with hypercholesterolemia. One of the possible underlying mechanism in which atorvastatin can drive the Th1/Th2 balance in favor of the overproduction of Th2 is the induction of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) phosphorylation and up- regulation of the GATA-3 transcription factor. 22 It can accordingly inhibit the differentiation of Th1 cells via the preventing STAT4 phosphorylation and down- regulation of T-bet transcription factor. 23 In this context, atorvastatin can down-regulate the expression of IFN-γ through disruption of MHC II transcription activation and finally, resulting in the inhibition of antigen presentation on APCs and damping the generation of proinflammatory Th1 cells. 24 We measured the protein levels of Th1- and Th2-related cytokines by the ELISA method in which hypercholesterolemia and atorvastatin both lowered the concentrations of Th1-related cytokines such as IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in serum and concentrations of IL-5 as Th2-related cytokine increased by atorvastatin. The obtained data from the protein levels corroborated the mRNA expressions of their cognate genes. It should be noted that the correlation of Th1- and Th2-related cytokines was calculated with the demographic characteristics of patients who were treatment-naïve in which the expression of IL-2, TNF-α and IL-5 was associated with the concentration of cholesterol in the serum of hypercholesterolemia patients. In a suitable manner, the level of LDL was also attributed to the levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in the above patients.
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Granulocyte colony stimulating factor affects the distribution and clonality of TRGV and TRDV repertoire of T cells and graft versus host disease

Granulocyte colony stimulating factor affects the distribution and clonality of TRGV and TRDV repertoire of T cells and graft versus host disease

T cells recognize specific ligands by specific T cell receptors (TCR), which are heterodimers comprising either a/b or g/ δ chains. Genes encoding the variable domains of the TCR g and δ heterodimer chains are TRG (g chain) and TRD ( δ chain), which are assembled by somatic recombination from variable (V), diversity (D, only for TRD), and joining (J) segments [9-11]. The TRG gene contains at least 14 functional variable (TRGV) segments belonging to four subgroups (TRGVI to IV), and the TRD contains at least 8 functional TRDV segments, which are subdivided into 8 TRDV subfamilies (TRDV1 toTRDV8)[12-14]. The functional capacities of g δ + T cells include cytokine production and potent cytotoxic effector activity [15-17]. Recently, it was reported that g δ + T cells might participate in regu- lation of autoimmune diseases and GVHD [16,18-21]. However, it is still unclear whether G-CSF mobilization could influence g δ + T cells and thereby mediate GVHD. In the present study, to further investigate the immune modulatory effect of G-CSF on T cells, we characterized the distribution and clonality of TRGV and TRDV subfa- milies of donor T cells before and after G-CSF mobilization.
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Patient experience and practice trends in multiple sclerosis – clinical utility of fingolimod

Patient experience and practice trends in multiple sclerosis – clinical utility of fingolimod

Abstract: Targeting sphingosine-1-phosphate pathway with orally available immune-modulatory fingolimod (Gilenya™) therapy ameliorates relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) by decreasing relapse rate as shown in FREEDOMS and TRANSFORMS. Fingolimod has also been shown to be superior to interferon-beta therapy as evidenced by TRANSFORMS. Albeit multiple benefits in treatment of multiple sclerosis including high efficacy and ease of admin- istration, potential untoward effects such as cardiotoxicity, risk of infection, and cancer exist, thus mandating careful screening and frequent monitoring of patients undergoing treatment with fingolimod. This review outlines mechanism of action, observations, side effects, and practice guidelines on use of fingolimod in treatment of RRMS.
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Hypoxia Pre-Conditioned Embryonic Mesenchymal Stem  Cell Secretome Reduces IL-10 Production by  Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

Hypoxia Pre-Conditioned Embryonic Mesenchymal Stem Cell Secretome Reduces IL-10 Production by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important candidates for MSC-based cellular therapy. Current paradigm states that MSCs support local progenitor cells in damaged tissue through paracrine signaling. Therefore, the study of paracrine effects and secretome of MSCs could lead to the appreciation of mechanisms and molecules associated with the therapeutic effects of these cells. This study analyzed anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effects of MSC secretomes derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and bone marrow cells after hypoxia and normoxia preconditioning. Methods: ESCs differentiated into MSCs and characterized by flow cytometry as well as by differentiation into adipocytes and osteoblasts. The experimental groups were consisted of individual groups of ESC-MSCs and BM-MSCs (bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells), which were preconditioned with either hypoxia or normoxia for 24, 48 and 72 h. After collecting the cell-free medium from each treatment, secretomes were concentrated by centrifugal filters. Using a peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) assay and ELISA, IL-10 concentration in PBMCs was evaluated after their incubation with different secretomes from preconditioned and non-preconditioned MSCs. Results: A significant difference was observed between ESC-MSC normoxia and ESC-MSC hypoxia in IL-10 concentration, and normoxia secretomes increased IL- 10 secretion from PBMCs. Moreover, the strongest IL-10 secretion from PBMCs could be detected after the stimulation by ESC-MSC conditioned secretomes, but not BM-MSC conditioned medium. Conclusions: Human hypoxia preconditioned ESC-MSC secretome indicated stronger immune-modulatory effects compared to BM- MSC conditioned medium. It could be suggested that induced MSCs confer less immune-modulatory effects but produce more inflammatory molecules such as tumor necrosis factor α, which needs further investigation. DOI: 10.6091/.21.1. 24
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“Antioxidant Study of One Ayurvedic Medicine, “Sukumara Kashayam”” by Dr. Nirupa, Dr. Mudiganti Ram Krishna Rao, Dr. K. Prabhu, Dr. V.S. Kaliaselvi, Dr. D. Kumaran, Dr. E. Sivaram, Dr. Sruthi Dinakar, India.

“Antioxidant Study of One Ayurvedic Medicine, “Sukumara Kashayam”” by Dr. Nirupa, Dr. Mudiganti Ram Krishna Rao, Dr. K. Prabhu, Dr. V.S. Kaliaselvi, Dr. D. Kumaran, Dr. E. Sivaram, Dr. Sruthi Dinakar, India.

Kumar have reviewed the various health benefits of Piper longum. Piper longum has many important medicinal values such as anticancer, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, immune modulatory, antimicrobial, anti-platelet, anti hyperlipidemic activity, analgesic, antidepressant, anti-amoebic, vasodialtory, bioavailability enhancer due the presence of piperine in it, anti-obesity activity, radio protective, cardio protective and antifungal. 46

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The West African Sorghum Bicolor Leaf Sheath Extract Jobelyn® and Its Diverse Therapeutic Potentials

The West African Sorghum Bicolor Leaf Sheath Extract Jobelyn® and Its Diverse Therapeutic Potentials

Keywords: Sorghum bicolor leaf extract; SBLS; Jobelyn®; antioxidant; Immune-modulatory; anti-inflammatory; 26.. anti-anemia; HIV 27.[r]

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Carbohydrates and Fungal Toxin Exposure Influence the Vaginal Microbiota, Metabolome, and Reproductive Health of Women

Carbohydrates and Fungal Toxin Exposure Influence the Vaginal Microbiota, Metabolome, and Reproductive Health of Women

Antimicrobial and immune modulatory effects of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids produced by vaginal microbiota associated with eubiosis and bacterial vaginosis. [r]

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