Impact of Environmental Variables on Tree Species Distribution in a Forest Reserve

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Robust modelling of the impacts of climate change on the habitat suitability of forest tree species

Robust modelling of the impacts of climate change on the habitat suitability of forest tree species

The relationship between potential species suitability and potential species distribution lies in the environmental and ecological requisites to be satisfied in order for a given species to live. This means that potential suitability shapes the boundaries of potential distribution, while the opposite is not true: the spatial extent of potential distribution is a subset of the potential suit- ability extent. As summarised in the section of the Foreword on the robust modelling of tree species habitat suitability, different reasons may prevent a species from being observed within geographic areas which are bioclimatically suitable for it. Potential suitability alone is unable to predict potential distribution, because the latter is also influenced by anthropogenic activities (e.g. land cover changes), the cumulated effects and feedbacks of ecological competition, and sustainability of the natural migration pace of species (e.g. the spatial shift of environmental suitability due to climate change may exceed the natural spatial migration rate of the species). On the other hand, models based on hypotheses concerning anthropogenic scenarios and land- cover evolution cannot reliably predict potential tree species distribution without subordinating their predictions to the output of sound potential habitat suitability models. Therefore, HS models can be described as a highly critical bottleneck in a scientifically sound modelling chain which is required for assessing the economic impact of tree species distribution changes under climate change scenarios. Where evidence suggests a probable loss of HS, this could be interpreted as a probable local contraction of tree species distribution, with the inherent economic consequences. Where instead HS is predicted to grow, anthropogenic and species migration factors (either nat-
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An assessment of impact of charcoal making on distribution of some tree species in Kibwezi Division

An assessment of impact of charcoal making on distribution of some tree species in Kibwezi Division

Stem sizes of standing trees and stumps were used to investigate the abundance and distribution of selected species and past harvesting patterns in Kibwezi Forest Reserve, DWA Estate For[r]

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Abundance distributions for tree species in Great Britain: a two-stage approach to modeling abundance using species distribution modeling and random forest

Abundance distributions for tree species in Great Britain: a two-stage approach to modeling abundance using species distribution modeling and random forest

We selected 15 environmental variables as covariates from the original set of 33. We removed one of each pair of variables with a pairwise Pearson’s correlation coefficient higher than 0.7, while retain- ing variables that are known to be important determinants of plant growth (Guisan, Zimmermann et al., 2007; Prentice et al., 1992). The final selection was altitude, aspect, slope, direct incoming solar radi- ation, mean diurnal temperature range, temperature seasonality, an- nual precipitation, ancient woodland locations, topsoil available water capacity, topsoil minerology, topsoil organic carbon content, topsoil texture class, soil category, National Forest Inventory (NFI) forest type, and land cover type(see Appendix 2 for pairwise Pearson’s correla- tions between selected variables). We ran six algorithms (GLM, GAM, classification tree analysis (CTA), generalized boosting models (GBM), random forest (RF), and maximum entropy (MaxEnt)) 15 times for each species using the 15 environmental covariates, producing a total of (25 species × 6 algorithms × 15 repeats) = 2,250 models.
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The impact of juvenile tree species canopy on properties of new forest floor

The impact of juvenile tree species canopy on properties of new forest floor

The experimental design did not meet the require- ments for using ANOVA for appropriate evaluation of treatment effects because of the lack of treatment replications. Thus, we compared the treatments only by descriptive statistics using both univariate and multivariate techniques. Since the number of pits per plot was quite small and we could not assume the normality (or at least symmetric distribution) of data, we used the median as appropriate parameter of the central tendency of data. We displayed data by strip charts because of small sample sizes. We also performed principal component analysis (PCA) and constructed ordination plots, because of their ability to reveal relationships between mutually correlated variables. For the purpose of multivariate analysis, the individual variables were logarithmically trans- formed and also centred and standardized. Arrows in the ordination plots show directions in which the value of the given variable is increasing, the angle between the respective arrows represents correla- tions between the variables. Because the analyses did not allow us to separate differences between the plots due to treatment effect and due to the other uncontrolled influences, caution must be used when inferring conclusions.
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Spatial Assessment of the Bioclimatic and Environmental Factors Driving Mangrove Tree Species’ Distribution along the Brazilian Coastline

Spatial Assessment of the Bioclimatic and Environmental Factors Driving Mangrove Tree Species’ Distribution along the Brazilian Coastline

In this context, the Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) [ 13 ] provide a “data-driven” approach that it is supported by tools of data representation, mainly characteristic of data abstraction enhanced by visualization techniques [ 14 , 15 ]. The SOM have been used in several applications, such as mapping ecological and biogeographical features [ 16 – 20 ], determination of the most suitable sites for forest restoration [ 21 ] and selecting bioclimatic variables for species distribution modeling in the Brazilian north region [ 22 ]. The main advantage of the SOM algorithm as a data-driven approach is that it does not need to assume any a priori hypotheses [ 14 , 23 ]; it still has a robustness when data behavior is unknown and it shows the multivariate data cloud through visualization tools [ 14 , 23 ] or rather as geovisualization tools [ 14 ]. The SOM’s ability to preserve the topological structure of the input data [ 14 , 23 ] provides a powerful advantage in studies with geospatial analysis [ 15 ]. Giraudel and Lek [ 24 ] compared the SOM with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Correspondence Analysis and they found similar results, with the latter two validating the SOM methods. Hence, SOM or a combination of SOM and ordination analysis seems to be a promising technique in ecological studies to explore multivariate data.
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Tree Species Diversity and Dominance in Gelai Forest Reserve, Tanzania

Tree Species Diversity and Dominance in Gelai Forest Reserve, Tanzania

Therefore, the inventory data collected in this survey can be used effectively as a benchmark from which to evaluate trends in tree species especially with the community in- volvement in conservation of the forest. The survey also demonstrated the importance of doing similar surveys to other small isolated forests of Tanzania to act as baselines for future monitoring. However, some parts of the forest were not systematically covered but with information col- lected from 100 plots (about 80%) out of 127 plots and low variation of vegetation types within this forest, the survey data will still meet the intended purposes of providing baselines information for planning, monitoring and mea- suring impacts. Ideally, the aim of the study, which was to estimate the tree species diversity and abundance following increased human encroachment and activities in the forest and to establish a baseline which can be used in follow-up studies to determine change, particularly after mitigation measures have been put in place. Indeed, the Gelai Forest Reserve is an area of exceptional importance for biodiversity conservation in the dry northern part of Tanzania. The ma- jority of the forest is still intact although poorly managed and is a water catchment and a source of rivers that drains into Lake Natron. The forest reserve boundary, even where it is clearly defined, is encroached by the local people in some areas. However, the limited human resource available to manage the forest and the distance from the administrative unit makes management problematic and allows significant illegal activities to take place within the forests. The future of the forest resource will depend on the Joint Forest Man- agement with the local people from the five villages who border the forest boundaries.
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Tree diversity limits the impact of an invasive forest pest

Tree diversity limits the impact of an invasive forest pest

The enemy release hypothesis [74] predicts that exotic species are successful invaders in the new range because specialist natural enemies were left behind in their native range [75]. How- ever the lack of native enemies might be compensated for by the presence of generalist enemies able to shift onto the new host in the area of introduction [41,76]. Yet several authors reported that predators and parasitoids are more abundant and more diverse in species rich plant com- munities [27,28,77], thus increasing the chance that these communities contain species able to prey on new alien hosts. This was the case with the maritime pine bast scale Matsucoccus fey- taudi in its invaded range (Corsica). There, a native predatory bug, Elatophilus nigricornis Zet- terstedt, which was only present in mixed stands of maritime pine and black pine, was able to shift onto the invasive pest and control its populations [32]. Here, we investigated a similar process by estimating the abundance of cynipid galls on oak trees mixed with chestnut trees. Several studies have already shown that parasitoids native to Italy and emerging from galls on oaks were able to parasitize D. kuriphilus [42,43,45,46]. In our study, gall damage by D. kur- iphilus was negatively correlated with gall abundance on Quercus trees suggesting a potential involvement of native parasitoids emerging from oak galls in chestnut gall wasp control. Cur- rently, the parasitoid T. sinensis, originating from Japan, is used as classical biological control agent against D. kuriphilus in Europe. But risks associated with the use of this exotic parasitoid need further investigations to limit negative effects on environment such as hybridization with native parasitoids or spillover onto native gall insects [78]. Promoting native parasitoids through the mixture of chestnuts and oaks (i.e. conservation biological control) could be then a better way to prevent damage caused by the Asian chestnut gall wasp. However, in our study, the abundance of Cynipidae galls on oaks was not retained by model selection suggesting that either natural enemies were not effective biological control agents or that the measure used as a proxy (percentage of oak leaves with galls) misestimated their abundance. There is therefore a need for better sampling both chestnut and oak cynipid galls in order to more accurately esti- mate their level of parasitism and also identify the parasitoids species really involved in hori- zontal transfers in mixed stands.
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Heavy metals distribution in water, sediment and aquatic species from Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia / Rahimah Abdullah

Heavy metals distribution in water, sediment and aquatic species from Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia / Rahimah Abdullah

It is noteworthy that higher concentrations of Cr and Pb were found at station P3. This station is located at the mouth of Larut river. The mixing of river water and sea water causes a change in salinity. Trace metals are usually associated with fine particles. When fine particles move downstream to the mouth of Larut river, the changes in salinity enlarge the particle diameters by flocculation, resulting in the deposition of metal concentrations in the sediments of estuary (Doong et al., 2008). Mackey et al. (1995) have determined the concentrations of trace metals along 12 transects laid down a mangrove woodland near the mouth of Brisbane River Australia and reported that metal concentrations tended to increase from land to sea. This is attributed to the role of tidal deposition in determining the spatial distribution of metals in sediments (Ong Che, 1999).
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Effects of Whole Tree Harvesting on Species Composition of Tree and Understory Communities in a Northern Hardwood Forest

Effects of Whole Tree Harvesting on Species Composition of Tree and Understory Communities in a Northern Hardwood Forest

We chose biomass fraction—the fraction of total biomass accounted for by a single species—as the metric with which to judge species abundance of stems > 2 m in height. Biomass is a straightforward measure of the amount of resources used by a given tree and a good indicator of future tree success. Since we measured stems of all size classes, using density would have biased the results toward making small, numerous species seem dominant, when in fact they were likely suppressed and may never achieve canopy dominance. Species-specific biomass equations from Jenkins et al. (2004) were used to estimate individual aboveground tree biomass from measured diameter. For some species, many potential equations exist. Whenever possible, we selected equations devel- oped on sites near our study locations, covering the small diameter ranges of tree on our sites, and with large sample sizes. Estimates of biomass per hectare for each site were calculated by dividing the total biomass present within a plot by its area and averaging over all plots within that site. For both the 2010 and 2011 data, species dominance of stems > 2 m in height was calculated by averaging species’ biomass fractions with other plots subject to the same treatment and within the same clearcut site. Since only four sites were measured during the 2010 season, the data were combined with the 29 sites from 2011 and treated as one data set for the majority of the statistical tests performed. However, since the 2010 season measured those four sites with a high sampling intensity, several statistical tests using only the 2010 data were run and are noted in our results.
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Species Richness and Endemism of Zingiberaceae in Cinchona Forest Reserve, Lantapan, Bukidnon, Philippines

Species Richness and Endemism of Zingiberaceae in Cinchona Forest Reserve, Lantapan, Bukidnon, Philippines

This study was carried out to provide information on species richness and endemism of Zingiberaceae in Cinchona Forest Reserve, Kaatuan, Lanta- pan, Bukidnon, Philippines. Transect walks, opportunistic sampling and collection within the sampling quadrats were conducted along established forest trails to collect ginger species. A total of 11 species of Zingibera- ceae were documented belonging to two subfamilies (Alpinioideae and Zingiberoideae) and three tribes (Alpinieae, Hedychieae, and Zingi- bereae). The species recorded include Adelmeria alpina Elmer, Alpinia haenkei C.Presl, A. rufa C.Presl, Etlingera fimbriobracteata (K.Schum.) R.M.Sm., E. pubimarginata (Elmer) A.D.Poulsen, Hedychium philip- pinense K.Schum., Hornstedtia conoidea Ridl., H. lophophora Ridl., Meistera muricarpa (Elmer) Škorničk. & M.F.Newman, Zingiber banahaoense Mood & Theilade, and Zingiber sp. Of these, H. philip- pinense is the only threatened species recorded. All species are endemic to the Philippines except for E. fimbriobracteata which is native to Borneo and Zingiber sp. which is unidentified to the species level. These species represent 41% of the total genera and 9% of the total species of Zingiber- aceae in the Philippines. The high endemicity (82%) in the total collected species in this study and the presence of a threatened species in this area calls for protection and conservation by the stakeholders.
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Effects of tree species diversity on foliar fungal distribution

Effects of tree species diversity on foliar fungal distribution

The experimental design of future studies should also consider the role of management has in promoting damages to trees. Forest management techniques can create infection courts whereby fungal pathogens overcome the natural constitutive barriers, physical and chemical, that plants have. During tree harvesting processes, stumps exposed, for example of Norway spruce, serve as an infection court for basidiospores of Heterobasidion annosum (Redfern & Stenlid, 1998), and the mycelium can subsequently spread to other trees through root contacts (Stenlid & Redfern, 1998). Wounds created by machines or damage to crop trees during pre- or commercial thinning operations, can be routes for decay fungi such as Stereum sanguinolentum, Amylostereum areolatum, and Nectria fukeliana, among others (Arhipova et al., 2015; Vasaitis et al., 2012; Zeglen, 1997). Residual crop trees, or trees left in the forest instead of removal to processing plants, can be breeding habitats for insects that vector pathogens. Examples of the devastating effects of leaving diseased elms in the forest have been observed in Europe. Scolytus beetles that carry the Dutch elm disease fungus Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo- ulmi breed in the dying trees and fly to new trees infecting them as well, thus continuing the cycle (Webber & Brasier, 1984). Diseased trees may be removed, as in the case of dead/dying ash, but to leave behind the leaves and rachises where the pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus is found is not advisable. Fruiting and spore dispersal can occur long after the leaves have detached from trees and the removal of trees from the forest (Kirisits, 2015).
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FINANCIAL IMPACT IN CASE OF INVESTMENT TO THE FOREST PROPERTY AS A RESULT OF DIFFERENT TREE SPECIES COMPOSITION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

FINANCIAL IMPACT IN CASE OF INVESTMENT TO THE FOREST PROPERTY AS A RESULT OF DIFFERENT TREE SPECIES COMPOSITION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

The second hypothesis was confirmed only partly. It is true that lower SM composition causes lower profit. However, this is not caused by rising costs for established plantation, which are twice times higher in case of beech. Price differences of wood assortments have a bigger impact on the profit. Wood price is affected by various factors, which could be target for future research. The calculated average price for site index +1 (36) in case of SM is 1,990 CZK/m 3 and for BK 1,319 CZK/m 3 . In comparison to Barto‰ et al. [1], results from this research do not differ so significantly in case of BK. They got beech wood price 1,238 CZK/m 3
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Domestic rare forest tree species – help to the processing industry?

Domestic rare forest tree species – help to the processing industry?

The proposed method for a comparison of possi- bilities of using rare tree species is described in the first part of this paper. As suitable single trees and mainly admixed tree species in forest stands are rela- tively scarce, it is necessary to continue seeking out these tree species and to enlarge the base of meas- ured trees also in other areas. It does not mean that in operational conditions we should not claim from forest owners and especially from large proprietors (LČR – Forests of the CR, VLS – Military Forests and Farms) to include the wild cherry and service tree as an admixed stabilisation and improvement tree spe- cies in suitable management complexes. With regard to the long production period it will be desirable to present this claim to owners. By its implementation the owners will solve the problem of improvement and stabilisation tree species that is laid down by Forest Act, and in future they will get a chance to sell the valuable raw material at a good price. It is also
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The Impact of Encroachment on the Distribution of Tree Species in Cross River National Park, Oban Division, Nigeria

The Impact of Encroachment on the Distribution of Tree Species in Cross River National Park, Oban Division, Nigeria

Increasing human activities around protected area pinpoint to looming degradation and altera- tion of the component of such areas, especially where adequate measures are not taken to fores- tall encroachment. The Oban division of the Cross River National Park is one of the oldest rainfo- rests and has been identified as a biodiversity hotspot. However, communities settling around the park have been involved in some economic activities for their livelihood. Resource utilization at the edge of the park may alter the components of the park such as species diversity. Therefore this study is geared towards assessing the impact of human encroachment and the concomitant impact on the distribution of species within the park. The study adopted participatory research methods which included Focus Group Discussion and participatory mapping as well as a plot based survey which involved the laying of sample plots within two zones of the park designated as areas bounded by cultivated land and areas bounded by fallow. Three 40 m × 40 m square plots are laid along a 320 meter transect measured from the boundary of the park at each buffer zone. The plots are separated by 100 m gap. From the result obtained, it is discovered that Musanga cercropoides dominates the outer plots of the cultivated zones and fallow zones comprising 20.2 and 21.5 per- cent respectively while Terminalia ivorensis dominates the middle and inner areas of the park. Moreover the composition of species decreases inward to the inner part of the park. Diversity in- dex decreases in the order of 2.566 < 2.348 < 2.163 at the cultivated zones and 2.443 < 2.376 < 2.366 at the fallow zones. It is concluded that human activities close to the park alters the species composi- tion of the park. Hence, it’s recommended that adequate alternatives livelihood and incentive be provided to support zone communities to reduce their dependents on the edge of the park.
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Assessment of Urban Forest Tree Species Population and Diversity in Ibadan, Nigeria

Assessment of Urban Forest Tree Species Population and Diversity in Ibadan, Nigeria

The data for this research was collected from Ibadan metropolitan city of Oyo State, Nigeria. Government owned Institutions (schools, public buildings, higher institutions), worship centres (Church and Mosque buildings), privately owned institutions (schools, public buildings, higher institutions, Hotels, recreation centres, parks and gardens), Street and link roads. The selection Ibadan city for this study was done purposefully due to the population density and the comercial significant of the city. Green areas within Ibadan metroplis was sampled by the measuremnet of the trees diameters at base, middle and top, diamerter at breast height and height with the aid of spiegel relaskop and girth tape. Coordinates were taken with hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS) in all the locations selected within Ibadan. All trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) greater than or equal to 10 cm were identified, dbh measured with Girth Tape, height measured with Spiegel Relaskop and their frequencies taken. Tree species identification was done using keys in flora manuals and match-up technique. For trees that could not be identified on the field, representative samples (leaves, fruits and bark) were collected and taken to the herbarium for identification. Identified woody trees were classified as species, family and biodiversity indices were computered.
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Forest Vegetation of Hardwood Tree Species along the Mirna River in Istria (Croatia)

Forest Vegetation of Hardwood Tree Species along the Mirna River in Istria (Croatia)

Results and Conclusions: Based on 45 phytocoenological relevés two main vegetation types were found. In the lowest and periodically flooded habitats grow forests dominated by Fraxinus angustifolia and numerous hygrophilous species. In somewhat higher and drier localities, but with a high level of ground waters, grow mixed forests of Quercus robur, Fraxinus angustifolia, Ulmus minor and Carpinus betulus, with a greater presence of mesophilous species. The paper analyzes their mutual relationship, phytocoenological affiliation, as well as their position with regard to the related syntaxa of the Mediterranean and continental area. The results suggest isolation and a transitional character of the studied forests, which is a consequence of the biogeographical position in the north Mediterranean, of the ecological conditions, and to a lesser extent of anthropogenic influence.
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Aboveground biomass and carbon in a South African mistbelt forest and the relationships with tree species diversity and forest structures

Aboveground biomass and carbon in a South African mistbelt forest and the relationships with tree species diversity and forest structures

Abstract: Biomass and carbon stocks are key information criteria to understand the role of forests in regulating global climate. However, for a bio-rich continent like Africa, ground-based measurements for accurate estimation of carbon are scarce, and the variables affecting the forest carbon are not well understood. Here, we present the first biomass study conducted in South Africa Mistbelt forests. Using data from a non-destructive sampling of 59 trees of four species, we (1) evaluated the accuracy of multispecies aboveground biomass (AGB) models, using predictors such as diameter at breast height (DBH), total height (H) and wood density; (2) estimated the amount of biomass and carbon stored in the aboveground compartment of Mistbelt forests and (3) explored the variation of aboveground carbon (AGC) in relation to tree species diversity and structural variables. We found significant effects of species on wood density and AGB. Among the candidate models, the model that incorporated DBH and H as a compound variable (DBH 2 ˆ H) was the best fitting. AGB and AGC values were highly variable across all plots, with average values of 358.1 Mg¨ ha ´1 and 179.0 Mg¨ C¨ ha ´1 , respectively. Few species contributed 80% of AGC stock, probably as a result of selection effect. Stand basal area, basal area of the ten most important species and basal area of the largest trees were the most influencing variables. Tree species richness was also positively correlated with AGC, but the basal area of smaller trees was not. These results enable insights into the role of biodiversity in maintaining carbon storage and the possibilities for sustainable strategies for timber harvesting without risk of significant biomass decline.
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Idiosyncratic soil-tree species associations and their relationships with drought in a monodominant Amazon forest

Idiosyncratic soil-tree species associations and their relationships with drought in a monodominant Amazon forest

Moraceae 34 monodominant forest at the southern edge of Amazonia, we tested the hypotheses that local- 35 scale variation in intra- and interspecific spatial patterns of dominant tree sp[r]

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Tree species diversity and the functioning and stability of a managed forest in Central Europe

Tree species diversity and the functioning and stability of a managed forest in Central Europe

effective   species   diversity   from   one   to   four   species   enhanced   individual   growth  rate  by  18  to  28%.  As  expected,  growth  rate  decreased  with  age,  in   a  similar  way  for  all  species.  Radial  growth  naturally  decreases  with  size,   because   a   constant   diameter   increment   corresponds   to   an   increasing   biomass   increment   as   trees   become   larger   (Pallardy   2010;   Speer   2012;   Bowman   et   al.   2013).   Finally   at   a   similar   age   and   for   the   same   level   of   species   diversity,   species   had   different   average   growth   rates.   Fagus   was   the  fastest  grower,  followed  by  Picea,  Quercus,  and  Larix.  Fagus  is  the  most   abundant  broad-­‐leaved  species  in  Europe,  where  it  grows  in  a  wide  range   of   abiotic   conditions,   and   is   often   found   to   be   the   matrix   species   (i.e.   the   species   always   present,   with   variable   relative   abundance,   Dittmar   et   al.   2003).  Therefore  it  is  not  very  surprising  to  see  that  it  grew  the  fastest  at   the  studied  location.  The  native  range  of  Picea  abies  does  not  include  the   Training   Forest   Enterprise,   but   it   has   been   widely   planted   for   decades   because  it  is  also  usually  such  a  fast-­‐growing  species  that  quickly  reaches   harvestable   dimensions.   Larch   and   Quercus   were   both   slower   and   had   similar  average  growth  rates.  Increasing  tree  density  had  a  negative  effect   on   growth   but   one
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Demographic variation and habitat specialization of tree species in a diverse tropical forest of Cameroon

Demographic variation and habitat specialization of tree species in a diverse tropical forest of Cameroon

We tested these demographic hypotheses of habitat as- sociation using tree census data from a fully mapped, long-term forest census plot in a species-rich tropical for- est in southwestern Cameroon (Chuyong et al. 2004a). The site is topographically variable, and many tree species have conspicuous associations with the ridge, slope, or flat valley. Indeed, 63% of tree species specialize on particular topographic subsets of the terrain (Chuyong et al. 2011). The two predictions about variation in demography rela- tive to topography are: 1) specialists on their favored habi- tat outperform other species on the same habitat; we call this the resident vs. foreign hypothesis, where resident re- fers to the local specialists and foreign refers to specialists of other habitats; 2) specialists perform better on their fa- vored habitat than they do elsewhere: the home vs. away hypothesis. To test these hypotheses, we estimated growth and mortality rates of 272 species in the 50-ha forest plot and examined how rates varied across five topographic habitats along the ridge-valley catena. There were 171 spe- cies specializing on a topographic habitat, and 101 gener- alists, which were similarly abundant across all habitats, as detailed in Chuyong et al. (2011).
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