Implications of the Tariff with Learning Effect

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Welfare versus Market Access - The Implications of Tariff Structure for Tariff Reform

Welfare versus Market Access - The Implications of Tariff Structure for Tariff Reform

WELFARE VERSUS MARKET ACCESS: THE IMPLICATIONS OF TARIFF STRUCTURE FOR TARIFF REFORM Welfare and trade volume increase together in a small open economy when only one good is subject to a tariff and that tariff is reduced. Tariff reduction thus serves both domestic and international goals: on the one hand it raises home welfare; on the other hand it increases foreign access to domestic markets as required by multilateral trade obligations under the WTO. 1 However, in the empirically relevant case where there are many tariff-ridden goods, the analytic relationship between changes in tariffs, welfare and trade volume forms a difficult tangle due to cross effects. The theory of the second best noted long ago that cutting a single tariff need not raise welfare, and it is easy to see that it need not improve market access either. What tariff changes do improve welfare? Market access? What is the relationship between the two?
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Welfare vs. Market Access: The Implications of Tariff Structure for Tariff Reform

Welfare vs. Market Access: The Implications of Tariff Structure for Tariff Reform

WELFARE VERSUS MARKET ACCESS: THE IMPLICATIONS OF TARIFF STRUCTURE FOR TARIFF REFORM Welfare and trade volume increase together in a small open economy when only one good is subject to a tariff and that tariff is reduced. Tariff reduction thus serves both domestic and international goals: on the one hand it raises home welfare; on the other hand it increases foreign access to domestic markets as required by multilateral trade obligations under the WTO. 1 However, in the empirically relevant case where there are many tariff-ridden goods, the analytic relationship between changes in tariffs, welfare and trade volume forms a difficult tangle due to cross effects. The theory of the second best noted long ago that cutting a single tariff need not raise welfare, and it is easy to see that it need not improve market access either. What tariff changes do improve welfare? Market access? What is the relationship between the two?
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Implications of WTO Tariff Reductions for EU and US Dairy Policy

Implications of WTO Tariff Reductions for EU and US Dairy Policy

Implications of WTO Tariff Reductions for EU and US Dairy Policy Abstract The objective of this study is to measure the impact of proposed Doha Round tariff reductions on the global dairy industry and dairy policy. We examine how proposed tariff reductions affect global trade and prices, and the implications for the European Union and the United States. Since international market conditions can vary, we examine the implications of liberalization under two sets of market conditions. The first corresponds to the year 2004 in which there was a global surplus of dairy products. In that year import protection ensured that U.S prices of dairy products were above world prices. The second corresponds to 2007, when dairy products globally were in short supply and U.S. domestic prices were at or below world prices. We show that proposed tariff reductions have different implications for dairy commodities depending on policy assumptions. For cheese and dry whole milk, tariff reductions reduce supplies and raise world prices due to reduced production in the EU. However, without a change in EU policies global butter prices would decline due an increase in EU supplies. Production shifts away from cheese into butter production, increasing the supply of butter on the world market. We conclude that with trade liberalization EU intervention prices or milk quotas would have to be reduced in order to counteract an increase in butter production and increased use of export restitution payments for that commodity.
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Endogenous choice of price or quantity contract and the implications of two part tariff in a vertical structure

Endogenous choice of price or quantity contract and the implications of two part tariff in a vertical structure

We, on the other hand, aim to revisit the classic question of price and quantity contract where the downstream firms involve in centralised bargaining 2 with an upstream input supplier to determine the two-part tariff vertical pricing contracts. We show that choosing price contract is the dominant strategy for the downstream firms and both Bertrand and Cournot entail equal welfare level. López and Naylor (2004), López (2007), Mukherjee et al. (2012) also consider the implications of Bertrand and Cournot competition in isolation, under strategic input-price determination. Their results mostly confirm Singh and Vives' (1984) findings and hence, our results are in stark contrast with the existing literature.
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Revenue-Neutral or Profit-Neutral Tariff and Tax Reforms under Imperfect Competition: Welfare Implications*

Revenue-Neutral or Profit-Neutral Tariff and Tax Reforms under Imperfect Competition: Welfare Implications*

declining tariff revenues. Baunsgaard and Keen (2010) find that while high-income and middle- income countries have fully recovered their lost trade taxes, low-income countries have typically recovered no more than 30 cents of each lost dollar. This paper analyzes two coordinated tariff reduction and domestic consumption tax reform strategies with the objective of achieving government revenue neutrality or domestic profit neutrality for a reforming country under imperfect competition. These strategies have important policy implications for an effective reform. The revenue-neutral tariff-tax strategy allows a reforming country's government to ease budgetary pressures of tariff reduction and avoid harsh spending cuts. The profit-neutral tariff-tax strategy prevents an import-competing firm's profits from falling due to trade liberalization-induced foreign competition, on the one hand, and increases the probability of a domestic firm's survival, on the other. 5 We attempt to show that, under imperfect competition, adopting either one of these strategies can increase a reforming country’s overall welfare when certain plausible conditions are satisfied. These conditions pertain to the pre-reform market demand conditions (in terms of the product price level) and whether the pre-reform tariff exceeds the pre-reform consumption tax.
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Implications of multilateral tariff bindings on the formation of preferential trade agreements and quest for global free trade

Implications of multilateral tariff bindings on the formation of preferential trade agreements and quest for global free trade

Our point of departure is a world in which all countries are the WTO members that face exogenously given multilaterally negotiated bound tari¤ rates and thus their applied rates under any trade regime must therefore be less than or equal to the tari¤ bindings. Under these tari¤ bindings, countries endogenously choose whether to form PTAs. Here, it is important to note that the level of the bound tari¤ rates signi…cantly a¤ects the ability of countries to impose optimal tari¤s and thus the preferences of both member and non-member countries regarding PTA formation. As a result, it has strong implications on whether PTA formation ultimately leads to global free trade or ends prematurely with a fragmented trading world with “gated globalization”. Does the reduction in the multilaterally negotiated tari¤ bindings enhance the role of the PTA formation for the prospects of global free trade? In other words, does the multilateral trade liberalization complement preferential trade liberalization in achieving global free trade? Do the answers to these questions depend on the nature of the PTAs (FTA versus CU)? To address these questions, we develop an equilibrium theory of trade agreements and use it to shed light on the interaction between bilateral and multilateral approaches to trade liberalization with a …ner lens.
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Implications of multilateral tariff bindings on the formation of preferential trade agreements and quest for global free trade

Implications of multilateral tariff bindings on the formation of preferential trade agreements and quest for global free trade

Our point of departure is a world in which all countries are the WTO members that face exogenously given multilaterally negotiated bound tari¤ rates and thus their applied rates under any trade regime must therefore be less than or equal to the tari¤ bindings. Under these tari¤ bindings, countries endogenously choose whether to form PTAs. Here, it is important to note that the level of the bound tari¤ rates signi…cantly a¤ects the ability of countries to impose optimal tari¤s and thus the preferences of both member and non-member countries regarding PTA formation. As a result, it has strong implications on whether PTA formation ultimately leads to global free trade or ends prematurely with a fragmented trading world with “gated globalization”. Does the reduction in the multilaterally negotiated tari¤ bindings enhance the role of the PTA formation for the prospects of global free trade? In other words, does the multilateral trade liberalization complement preferential trade liberalization in achieving global free trade? Do the answers to these questions depend on the nature of the PTAs (FTA versus CU)? To address these questions, we develop an equilibrium theory of trade agreements and use it to shed light on the interaction between bilateral and multilateral approaches to trade liberalization with a …ner lens.
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Which biofuel market does the ethanol tariff protect? Implications for social welfare and GHG emissions

Which biofuel market does the ethanol tariff protect? Implications for social welfare and GHG emissions

Recent trade data also shows a sharp decline in imports from Brazil. Figure 2 shows the trend in US ethanol imports. Before 2004, imports of ethanol mostly came from CBI countries. It was not until 2004 that large amount of exports were sources from Brazil. The MTBE ban and the first RFS were enacted around 2005, which increased ethanol demand in the US, thus prompting significant imports of ethanol. However, domestic production capacity quickly scaled up, and by 2009 imports were down to pre-RFS1 levels, and in 2010 imports were less than 0.05% of total consumption. Imports from Brazil have declined significantly from its peak of 400 million in 2006 down to a negligible 78,6700 in 2010. CBI imports remained at a relatively steady level from 2005-2009 but also dropped significantly to 5 million in 2010. A large portion of ethanol from CBI is produced by importing hydrated ethanol from Brazil and dehydrating the ethanol in the CBI country – thus meeting the requirement of “substantial transformation” for tariff exemption. Thus, tighter supplies of ethanol from Brazil could also limit CBI imports.
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Port Tariff (With effect from )

Port Tariff (With effect from )

The Detention Charges - Towage shall be levied as per applicable rates, if a Vessel is not ready to sail inward/outward, for the reasons attributable to Vessel/Steamer Age[r]

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Effect of Import Tariff on U.S. Welfare

Effect of Import Tariff on U.S. Welfare

©Center for Promoting Education and Research www.cpernet.org SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS While developed countries mostly use import tariff as a tool to protect domestic industries from foreign competition and to lower trade deficits with their trade partners, a majority of developing countries uses it as one of the revenue sources to finance government spending. Whatever be the objective, an import tariff, however, has a varying effect on different segments of the people in importing nation. One of the effects of an import tariff is it raises the domestic price of importable encouraging the domestic producers to increase their production, which in turn, raises the nation’s income and tariff and income tax revenues to the government, yields a larger producer surplus to the domestic producers and sellers of importable products, and raises the income of input suppliers of import-substituting industries, which is considered as a benefit to the nation. But an import tariff also produces negative effects, because an import tariff raises the price of importable for domestic customers, thereby lowering the consumers’ surplus (welfare). If the loss in consumer surplus is less than the benefit, then the nation will be better off after the import tariff is imposed, otherwise, it will worsen the nation’s welfare.
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Effect of Competitive Learning Strategy on Secondary School Students Learning Outcome: Implications for Counselling

Effect of Competitive Learning Strategy on Secondary School Students Learning Outcome: Implications for Counselling

Ho2: There is no significant difference between the mean scores of male and female students exposed to the experimental strategies at post test period. Research Procedure and Design The research design used for the study is quasi-experimental using the pre-test-posttest with control group design. It involves the manipulation of independent variable (teaching strategies) on the dependent variable (students academic performance in chemistry). The sample consisted of 337 SSS II students purposively sampled from 8 secondary schools with 8 intact classes and were used for this study. In each of the four schools, competitive learning strategies were introduced to the treatment group and teacher centred learning strategies for the control group. The regular chemistry teachers of these schools were the experimenters. They were trained on how to use the strategies using lesson plans prepared by the researchers. Before the treatment, the pretest was given to the participants. Eight lessons of one hour each were taught for four weeks.
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The effect of language complexity and group size on knowledge construction: Implications for online learning

The effect of language complexity and group size on knowledge construction: Implications for online learning

analysis of the data, especially on word counts and number of postings. Yet, although this method of analysis provides a survey of the interactions which occur online, it does not take into consideration the content of what is posted on the discussion boards. The analysis of the content of the discussion boards, thus, moves towards a more semantic labeling of propositions (Donnelly & Fitzpatrick, 2010). The assessment of co-construction of knowledge based on quantitative analysis of postings underestimates the complexity of the available issue. Although a quantitative analysis allows the researchers to understand some linguistic online behaviors, it does not allow deep investigation of the language complexity in order to pinpoint the collaborative learning among learners. Thus, linguistic models for a qualitative analysis of online discourses have been elaborated by several researchers; for example, Interaction Analysis Model by Gunawardena, Lowe and Anderson (1997).
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The effect of tax tariff reform: evidence from Ukraine

The effect of tax tariff reform: evidence from Ukraine

Simultaneously, for instance Ukraine faces with the problem of informal economy. Despite a number of actions, taking for the purpose of unshadowing the national economy, a large part of it belongs to the informal sector. Such conditions show that the increase of VAT or production taxes, necessary to neutralize the changes in consumer/producer prices, can be performed only in the case if the good is produced or/and processed and sold in formal sector of economy. Those constraints determine the situation where such neutral (in respect to consumer/producer prices) can reduce both the state tax revenues and national welfare. In those circumstances the number of goods, destined to increase of VAT, is limited because of large informal sector; and the trade tariff cuts can lead to mentioned consequences.
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Biblical Literalism And Implications For Learning

Biblical Literalism And Implications For Learning

between the two. Given a choice of believing in climate change and being rejected by their social group, versus rejecting science and clinging to their existing belief systems, learners can find it very difficult to choose alienation. Even the use of structured reasoning about source credibility can be thwarted by those embedded beliefs. In order to be open to learning new ideas, learners must employ epoche, a term which references a learner’s ability to temporarily suspend their previous understandings in order to engage in more critical inquiry (Mezirow, 2000). As it pertains to source credibility, it is incumbent on the learner to be able to set aside their preconceptions about the validity of a source to be able to make an accurate assessment. Determining the credibility of a source is integral to the appropriate consumption and understanding of information, and yet, if a religious organization espouses an anti-science bias in favor of spiritual tomes, the individual is likely to deem the peer-reviewed work of a renowned scientist with greater suspicion than the work of a known faith leader. This can even be true if the faith leader is speaking about concepts with which they do not have expertise. The centrality of the religious belief system in the individual’s worldview will crowd out conflicting voices.
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The Effect of U.S. Import Tariff Reductions on Expanded Wage Inequality

The Effect of U.S. Import Tariff Reductions on Expanded Wage Inequality

tariff reductions mandated a rise in wage inequality. This paper, using a newly developed industrial classification code applied to a different set of tariff data from a different time period than that considered by Haskel and Slaughter (2003), examines Stolper and Samuelson (1941) and finds a different result from Haskel and Slaughter (2003). U.S. tariffs on imports from countries in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Canada and Mexico, in the period of 1980 through 2000 are considered in this paper. U.S. tariff rates were generally declining after 1980 especially, and NAFTA has provided us with an opportunity to observe the effect of U.S. tariff reductions. Meanwhile, it can be seen that the wage gap between skilled workers and unskilled workers in U.S. manufacturing industries has widened since the early 1980s. This paper examines whether the reduction of U.S. import tariffs from Canada and Mexico, working through product prices, raises expanding wage inequality between two types of workers in U.S. manufacturing industries from 1980 through 2000.
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The Effect of Import Tariff Policy on Indonesian Soybean Consumption and Production

The Effect of Import Tariff Policy on Indonesian Soybean Consumption and Production

The data used in this study is a secondary data in form of annual with a time series of 30 years ranged from 1986-2015. The result shows that the import quantity of soybean is affected by the variable of exchange rate; soybean consumption and import tariff. The price of imported soybean and exchange rate significantly affect domestic soybean price. While domestic soybean price and population significantly influence soybean consumption where a soybean productivity is highly responsive to wage rates. The simulation result shows that the quantity of imported soybean and soybean consumption increase with the tariff exemption (T = 0%) compared to condition when it is applied. Whereas, the domestic soybean price decreases at the exemption of tariffs compared to a condition when it is applied. Our study reveals that the application of tariffs had no effect on soybean production and productivity.
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Examples Of Tariff And Non Tariff Barriers

Examples Of Tariff And Non Tariff Barriers

tariff and non tariff generates the right direction of potential effect. NTBs continue to prevail and the extent to which the existing monitoring mechanisms have been effective; Examine the impact of non tariff barriers on Ugandan exports within the EAC; and Suggest hybrid strategies to eliminate the existing NTBs. Dolorem nostrum placeat non tariff and of free flow. This is not to say that the Japanese government will turn to such measures, as well as local and national regulations. OECD Trade Policy research Paper, testing, Department Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness. Others are tariffs do they maintain and domestic producers. School of tariffs are. Communication to tile Council was the problems of the pulp, the WTO has made no dispute settlement rulings applying the TBT agreement. Preferential rates are relevant have the determination of eating impact of tariffs on bilateral trade flows and solar in evaluating the effects of tariffs on global trade patterns and resource allocation. Tariffs have grown and evolved as modern world trade has advanced. Trade, such as distilled spirits, and administrative provisions. Prescriptive design standards under the High Pressure Gas Law favor Japanese producers. This tariff barrier examples include tariffs and non tariff data throughout the wto, in pakistan trade a limited exceptions, frequency and slower economic literature. Suppose the US imports sugar from Brazil and imposes a quota of horizontal distance AB on imports from Brazil. Although this article xx allows countries to encourage the greater regulatory harmonization with examples of tariff and non barriers. We support to work need experienced regulatory
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An Introduction to Attachment and the implications for Learning and Behaviour

An Introduction to Attachment and the implications for Learning and Behaviour

Transitions can be difficult for children, particularly those with unmet attachment needs and may trigger painful memories of loss or rejection, feelings of high anxiety, fear, grief or even terror. If poorly managed, these changes may lead to a serious setback or trauma. When managed well, a positive experience of change provides a valuable opportunity for learning and recovery from trauma.

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The Spiral Curriculum: implications for online learning

The Spiral Curriculum: implications for online learning

Although student comments were not always in line with the concept of the spiral curriculum, most referred to processes of building on previous work, and some mentioned the spiral curriculum specifically. Conclusion: This study suggests that the practice of replacing previous online courses may hinder rather than support student learning. Although students visit previous material for ranges of reasons, a large number are aware of the spiral curriculum, and use the online environment to build upon previous material. Any practice, which entails replacing material and redesigning curricula content may be detrimental to the students' future learning needs, and such activities may need revision.
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Play and flow: Implications for online learning

Play and flow: Implications for online learning

learning in an exploratory study that tracked the emotions of college students while they interacted with a computer literacy tutoring system. Consider one study in detail. Nakamura (1998) demonstrated that the difference in performance between two equally capable groups of mathematics students was related to the fact that during periods of study the high achievers experienced flow twice as often as the low achievers. The study participants were students of superior mathematics ability attending a Chicago high school. All of the

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