These can occur when insufficient care is taken during ply layup. Foreign objects have been discovered post-cure inspection such as backing paper, release film and even personal items. Inclusions are physical defects that reduce the load carrying capacity of a part. Inclusions are often attributed to a lack diligence by the layup or to lack of attention by the in-process. Post-fabrication methods must be employed to discover the majority of inclusion anomalies. Defects such as edge damages, dents, delaminations and fastener hole damage can result after cure, during part handling, machining and assembly, and care must be taken during handling. It is essential that the protective coating (e.g. conductive coating if present, paint enamel and primer) is removed using a prescribed method such as abrading or sanding. The coatings should be completely removed over an area that will more than encompass the repair. All fluids must be removed from the component using vacuum and heat. Failure to remove all moisture and fluids from the repair region of the component may cause a patch bond-line failure. Residual
Titania films were deposited on Si wafers, and the surface morphology and film thickness were examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM; HITACHI S-2000). After annealing at 500 ºC and 700 ºC for 1 hour in nitrogen ambient, the crystalline structures were examined with an X-ray diffractometer (XRD; RIGAKU RINT-2100, Cu K α X-ray source operating at 30 kV and 20 mA). The
enhanced optical absorption properties. Using the porous film as a working electrode, we found that it displays efficient activity for photoelectrocatalytic decolorization of rhodamine B (RhB) and photocurrent generation, with a photocurrent density as high as 1.2 mA/cm 2 . It represents a potential method to fabricate large-area nanoporous TiO 2 film on Ti substrate due to the scalability of such chemical oxidation process.
Daklinza (trade name of Daclatasvir dihydrochloride) Daclatasvir is a drug for the treatment of hepatitis C (HCV), genotype 3 infections. Daclatasvir inhibits the HCV nonstructural protein NS5A. Recent research suggests that it targets two steps of the viral replication process, enabling rapid decline of HCV RNA. Daclatasvir dihydrochloride is chemically known as methyl((1S)-1-(((2S)- 2-(5-(4'-(2-((2S)-1-((2S)-2-((methoxycarbonyl)amino)-3-methylbutanoyl)-2-pyrrolidinyl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl)-4-biphenylyl)-1H- imidazol-2-yl)-1-pyrrolidinyl)carbonyl)-2-methylpropyl) carbamate dihydrochloride has the following structure (Figure 1).
Forming is a very delicate part of the process through which the polymeric sheet acquires a 3D shape. Forming has to guarantee that the film has the desired shape within tight tolerances. An excellent formed film would result in an optimal shape that matches with the tools used for subsequent operations. Poor forming instead would cause a non- optimal shape of the film that will not match with the mold, resulting in scrap. The number of scraps in the film insert molding process is then related to the forming process. The forming process changes depending on the requirements of the film. The temperature is a key factor and can be set to the process used. There are two main techniques utilized to form the film. The most common one is thermoforming that involves heating the film to a very high temperature, above the polymer’s glass transition temperature. The film comes either in a roll or in sheet form, depending on the type of forming machine. It is heated above its glass transition temperature through the use of radiant heaters . Thermoforming is suitable when higher stretching of the film is required . It means that forming precision is higher for thermoforming than for high pressure forming, especially when the part has a very convoluted 3D shape. Thermoforming is not recommended when the decorations on the part have to be in a specific area with a tight tolerance, which is often the case for cars’ interior trim. Thermoforming is often not appropriate for matte and textured films because it makes matte films glossy and damages textures.
OALibJ | DOI:10.4236/oalib.1100849 2 September 2014 | Volume 1 | e849 the doping of protonic acid, the conductivity will raise 12 magnitudes. After PANI doping with different acids, the conductivity of PANI film is different  . In addition the effective composition  between PANI and PVA can also improve the conductivity of PANI film. The PANI-PVA composite films adopting PVA as the base material and doped with hydrochloride, DBSA, amino sulfonic acid aqueous solution were prepared and their conductivity was compared. The influences of mass ratio between PANI and PVA, acid amount, oxidant amount, reaction time and film drying temperature on the conductivity of HCl-PANI-PVA film were studied.
was examined and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive spectroscopy X-ray diffraction (EDAX) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. XRD pattern shows that the crystals have hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferred (002) growth direction. The deposited film shows UV absorption at 381.3 nm . KEYWORDS: Zinc oxide, Chemical bath deposition, Annealing, Micro crystals, Morphology.
As described earlier, the photoelectric properties of Pc's are being characterised. This has been extended by some workers to the fabrication of practical photocells. Metal-free Pc sandwiched with various combinations of gold, lead and aluminium electrodes has been used (Hall, Bonham and Lyons 1978) but were found to be very inefficient. MgPc (Ghosh, Morel, Feng, Shaw, Rowe 1974) provided a photovoltaic efficiency of ca. 0.01% under illumination from a filament lamp. The highest reported for organic photovoltaic cells was about 1% for a merocyanine dye. Surfactant aluminium phthalocyanine (Belanger, Dodelet, Dao and Lombos 1984), a C 16 H 33 chain bonded to aluminium phthalocyanine by a phosphate bridge, was investigated on both gold and doped SnC >2 electrodes. The former provided, at I = 10 mWcm'2, an efficiency of about 2x10“3%, and the latter ca. 1x10"^%. Zinc phthalocyanine (Twarowski 1982) using "Nesatron" (ITO coated) glass as the base electrode and gold on top was used in an experiment to determine those factors which limit the conversion efficiency. This work showed for the first time that the Onsager mechanism for photocurrent generation applies to phthalocyanine thin films excited in the visible region. The quantum efficiency of the devices varies with the applied electric field, and it was proven that an upper limit for conversion efficiency would be ca. 1%. It was concluded that when a blocking contact was made to Pc thin films, other photogeneration methods might be introduced. Substituted silicon phthalocyanine between gold and ITO electrodes (Hua, Petty and Roberts 1987) as an LB film showed that the use of very thin films, in addition to permitting high electric fields, was useful, since the open circuit photovoltage and the short-circuit photocurrent both began to decrease when the film thickness became
Fast dissolving sublingual film was prepared by solvent casting method. A total of 10 formulations were prepared by using different polymers, super disintegrating agent, plasticizer in combination. Total water was divided into two parts in one part drug is dissolved and in other part polymer, plasticizer, super disintegrant and flavouring agents were dissolved. Part one is added to the part two with stirring and sonicated for 10 mins to remove the entrapped air, the solution was poured into petridish and an inverted funnel was placed over it. Kept for evapouration for 24 hours. The formed patch was removed and analyzed.
Physiological saline or PBS (pH 7.4) was used as the dissolution test medium. A film was placed in a plastic dish, and 10 mL of dissolution medium incubated at 37˚C was added. The dish was shaken at 300 rpm in a shaker incubator at 37˚C. An 80 µL aliquot was removed periodically and placed in a micro test tube (1.5 mL) and 720 µL of methanol was added to precipitate the poly- saccharide dissolved from the dosage form. The sample was mixed and centrifuged (10,000 rpm, 5 min), and then, the supernatant was injected into a high-perform- ance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column. All tests were performed in triplicate. The HPLC system had an LC-6A pump (Shimadzu Co., Kyoto), a packed column (150 mm × 4.6 mm; Cosmosil 5C 18 -MS-II; Nacalai Tes-
2.1. Preparation of Protein Powder: From the Compost to the Dried Earthworm Powder Samples were obtained from the species Eisenia foetida at the adult stage of development (3 months), with aver- age length and weight of 8.5 cm and 0.45 g respectively (earthworm cultures from “Luis Ruiz Terán” Herbarium at the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Andes, Merida-Venezuela). The earthworms were fed on a diet of organic waste compost, obtained from a university canteen in the region. In order to guarantee optimum growth conditions, the temperature, moisture and pH of the compost were kept under control. A single batch of earthworm powder was prepared as follows and used throughout the study. Different preparation processes were then applied as summarized in Figure 1 and the dried protein-rich powders obtained were stored until further analyses. The data we referred to in the introduc- tion part were corresponding to ODEW sample of the present study.
Finally, after 4 h, the diameter and length of nanowires growth on Sample 2 were 0.36 +/- 0.1 and 9.2 +/- 0.2 µm. It was slightly increased however, the pattern changes from square top to semisphere. While a white uniform film consists of nanowires begin to peel-off on the Sample 1 and 3. The film looks like a white paper which can be easily handled by a tweezer and possible to transfer on other substrate in the form of a film. This observation was almost similar to Liu et.al, who studied the TiO 2 nanorods growth . According to them, a
CdSe is one of he most promising materials solar energy conversion because it has low energy gap and direct optical transition takes place. Several methods have been used to prepare thin films. The thin film electrochemical synthesis method is a simple and versatile method for preparing semiconductor materials. The material can be obtained under very mild condition, under atmospheric pressure and at a room temperature. The cathodic deposition route involving the co- reduction of chalcogenide has been extensively studied.
Osmotically balanced polyethylene glycol (PEG)- elec- trolyte bowel lavage solutions were introduced in 1980 . These PEG based solutions are the most commonly used bowel preparations today . They have high efficacy, are safe and are associated with minimal fluid and electrolyte imbalance. However the major drawback of these prepara- tions is the taste and the large volumes required with as- sociated nausea, cramping and vomiting . This often results in poor compliance and tolerance with resultant poor preparation & improper visualization. The compli- ance rates for colonoscopy screening has been reported to be as low as 34 % in adults greater than 50 year of age . A pooled analysis of 15 trials found that at least 29 % of patients were unable to complete their PEG solution .
The polymer employed should be non-toxic, non- irritant and devoid of leachable impurities. It should have good wetting and spreadability property. The polymer should exhibit sufficient peel, shear and tensile strengths. The polymer should be readily available and should not be very expensive. Film obtained should be tough enough so that there won't be any damage while handling or during transportation. Combination of microcrystalline cellulose and maltodextrin has been used to formulate Oral Strips of piroxicam made by hot melt extrusion technique. Pullulan has been the most widely used film former (used in Listerine PocketPak, Benadryl, etc.)
The selective oxidation of rhodium at the surface of top PtRh layer forms oxygen diffusion barriers, which isolates ITO layer from the external oxygen environ- ment. Meanwhile, Platinum and Rhodium atoms would diffuse into ITO film at high temperature and segregate at the grain boundary of ITO film. As a consequence, the Schottky barriers could form at the grain boundaries of ITO. The Schottky barriers may constrain the local concentration of oxygen vacancies in ITO film. As a result, the variation of the carrier concentration of ITO film is minimized. All of these factors lead to excellent high-temperature stability and repeatability of the thermoelectric response of the TFTC.
enantiomer of cetirizine. It is the L-enantiomer of the cetirizine racemate. Levocetirizine works by blocking histamine receptors. It does not prevent the actual release of histamine from mast cells, but prevents it binding to its receptors. This in turn prevents the release of other allergy chemicals and increased blood supply to the area, and provides relief from the typical symptoms of hayfever.  The fast dissolving drug delivery system is a new drug delivery technique to provide medicine to such patients i.e. pediatric, children, geriatrics etc. Fast-dissolving film have acquired great importance in the pharmaceutical industry due to their unique properties & advantages. [2, 3] As the fast dissolving film utilizes sublingual route, rapid absorption of the drug is possible, which finally lead to quick onset of drug action. Difficulty in swallowing is a common problem of all age group, especially elderly and pediatrics, because of physiological changes associated with these groups of patients. Solid dosage form that can be disintegrated, dissolved, or suspended by saliva in the mouth resulting easy swallowing can provide significant benefits to the pediatric and geriatric population, as well as other patients who prefer the convience of easily swallowable dosage form. [4- 8] In case of allergic condion rapid action of drug is required. The fast dissolving films fulfill the requirement of potential solid dosage form for levocetirizine in treating allergic conditions. It shows patient compliance, rapid on-set of action, increased bioavailability and good stability make these film popular as a dosage form of choice. [9-11] Prepared film were subjected to different evaluation parameters like physical properties, disintegration time, content uniformity and dissolution studies.
Samples 3, 4 and 5 pastes were screen printed onto the interdigitated electrode pattern in order to investigate the reliability of the thick film paste. The reliable paste must have properties such as good printing quality, fine line resolution and fast drying rate. The paste for sample number 3 with ratio of 10:1 for terpineol solvent to ethyl cellulose shows the fastest drying rate. The paste easily become dry on screen before screen printing process was made. This behavior makes the paste is not suitable for screen printing based on time factor in printing process. The paste for sample number 4 was better than sample number 3. The paste has been successfully screen printed with a good printing quality and fine line resolution on the interdigitaed electrode pattern. The number 5 sample shows more diluents compare to the sample number 4. Consequently, the drying rate for the sample number 5 becomes slower and the paste not sticks very well with the substrate after the printing process. Therefore, based on this study, the samples number 4 was suitable to be use as a recipe in thick film screen printing technique. The electrical properties of BaTiO 3 thick film for sample number 4 will be characterize with
Film cooling method was applied to the turbine blades to provide thermal protection from high turbine inlet temperatures in modern gas turbines. Recent literature discovers that combining two cylindrical holes of film cooling is one of the ways to further enhance the film cooling performances. In the present study, a batch of simulations and experiments involving two cylindrical holes with opposite compound angle were carried out and this two cylindrical hole also known as combined-hole film cooling. The main objective of this study is to determine the influence of different blowing ratio, M with a combination of different lateral distance between cooling holes (PoD), a streamwise distance between cooling holes (LoD) and compound angle of cooling hole ( 1 / 2 ) on the film cooling performance. The simulation of the present