in Ad-hoc Network

Top PDF in Ad-hoc Network:

Optimized Fuzzy based Malicious Node Detection on Routing and Certificate Authority based Secure Communication in Wireless Ad HOC Network

Optimized Fuzzy based Malicious Node Detection on Routing and Certificate Authority based Secure Communication in Wireless Ad HOC Network

The following description clearly illustrates the solution to the above mentioned problems in past-researches. The main goal of this proposed system is to eliminate the problem in past systems and improve the network performance by enhancing the routing-procedures over MANET-environment. And finding out the malicious nodes in the environment and remove the malicious nodes from communication scenario while data-transaction between nodes. The entire proposed approach genuinely ensures the node lifetime and in which it indirectly improves the network performance and node robustness. The proposed algorithm called Fuzzy Secured Node Selection Routing (FSNSR), guarantees the network lifetime enhancement, energy-efficiency, security and etc. The logic of fuzzy usually improves the result in all applications better than other approaches, in which it behaves like a questioner and answerer. While communication, the fuzzy acts like a questioner and enquire regarding the next neighbor node and its characteristics by means of raising the Route-Request and waiting for the response from the respective node. The respective neighbor can response only if it has the sufficient energy and has a proper node-identity. If it fails to response, then immediately that particular node will be marked as a malicious node, the next nearest neighbor will be taken-into consideration and repeating the same process until the data reached the receiver-end. So, that the proposed algorithm assures there will be no lacking in network performance as- well-as the security issues caused by hackers/intruders over the mobile-ad-hoc-network environment.
Show more

7 Read more

A serve on: An efficient prediction based routing for mobile AD HOC network

A serve on: An efficient prediction based routing for mobile AD HOC network

mobile nodes, it discover their route itself for communication between mobile nodes of MANET. MANET is a self creating self-organize and self administrative network. Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANET) are no configuration, self-organizing, and MANET has dynamic in nature in which nodes are free to move, networks formed by set of mobile nodes connected through wireless medium. These networks can be formed on the fly, without need any fixed infrastructure, each node should act as a router, Wireless ad hoc network is gaining its popularity day by day because the device communicate with each other using a wireless physical medium without relying on pre-existing wired infrastructure. Moreover, each node in an ad-hoc network are self-configurable in nature and takes help of “multi-hop routing” technique to communicate with those nodes which are beyond communication range. But, these features give additional vulnerabilities along with those existing in the traditional wired network. Since the advent of Defense Advanced Research Project Agency packet radio networks in the early 1970s, a number of protocols have been developed for mobile ad-hoc networks. Prediction based routing for mobile ad-hoc network or this application is used in battle field, disaster recovery, natural calamity, reuse operation, fast traffic information deliver on highways during travel, network extension, cloud computing, tactical networking, entertainment, Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), Private Area Network (PAN), health monitoring, tracking application, managing the aquatic environment, localization application, law enforcement, emergency service, educational application,
Show more

5 Read more

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AD-HOC ON DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR FOR MOBILE AD- HOC NETWORK

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AD-HOC ON DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR FOR MOBILE AD- HOC NETWORK

The Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing protocol [2, 3, 4, and 5] is a reactive protocol that enables multi-hop routing between the participating mobile nodes wishing to establish and maintain an ad-hoc network. Different types of messages have been used in AODV to discover and maintain links. Whenever a node wants to try and find a route to another node it broadcasts a Route Request (RREQ) to all its neighbors. The RREQ propagates through the network until it reaches the destination or the node with a fresh enough route to the destination. Then the route is made available by uncasing a RREP back to the source. The algorithm uses hello messages (a special RREP) that are broadcasted periodically to the immediate neighbors. These hello messages are local advertisements for the continued presence of the node, and neighbors using routes through the broadcasting node will continue to mark the routes as valid. If hello messages stop coming from a particular node, the neighbor can assume that the node has moved away and mark that link to the node as broken and notify the affected set of nodes by sending a link failure notification (a special RREP) to that set of nodes.
Show more

6 Read more

Secure Multicasting in Ad-Hoc Network

Secure Multicasting in Ad-Hoc Network

Mobile ad-hoc networks or "little live" networks operate in the absence of fixed infrastructure. They offer quick and easy network deployment in situations where it is not possible otherwise. Ad-hoc is a Latin word, which means "for this or for this only." Mobile ad-hoc network is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links; each node operates as an end system and a router for all other nodes in the network. Nodes in mobile ad-hoc network are free to move and organize themselves in an arbitrary fashion. Each user is free to roam about while communication with others. The path between each pair of the users may have multiple links and the radio between them can be heterogeneous. This allows an association of various links to be a part of the same network. Mobile ad- hoc networks can turn the dream of getting connected "anywhere and at any time" into reality. Typical application examples include a disaster recovery or a military operation. Not bound to specific situations, these networks may equally show better performance in other places.
Show more

10 Read more

ABSTRACT: A vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is subclass of Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) in which vehicles

ABSTRACT: A vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is subclass of Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) in which vehicles

ABSTRACT: A vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is subclass of Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) in which vehicles act as mobile nodes. Many MANET routing protocol such as AODV and DSR are not suitable VANET .This is because VANET differs from MANET in aspects like topology and mobility model. This paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of different Inter Vehicular Routing protocols and mainly deals with Transmission Strategies of Routing Protocol.

6 Read more

Performance Analysis in Ad-Hoc Network

Performance Analysis in Ad-Hoc Network

Wireless communication1 between mobile users is becoming more popular than ever before. There are two distinct approaches for enabling wireless communication betweentwo hosts. The first approach is to let the existing cellular network infrastructure carry data as well as voice. The major problems include the problem of handoff, which tries to handle the situation when a connection should be smoothly handed over from one base station to another base station without noticeable delay or packet loss. Another problem is that networks based on the cellular infrastructure are limited to places where there exists such a cellular network infrastructure. The second approach is to form an ad-hoc network among all users wanting to communicate with each other. This means that all users participating in the ad-hoc network must be willing to forward data packets to make sure that the packets are delivered from source to destination successfully. This form of networking is limited in range by the individual node transmission range and is typically smaller compared to the range of cellular systems. This does not mean that the cellular approach is better than the ad-hoc approach. Ad- hoc networks have several advantages compared to traditional cellular systems. These advantages include on demand setup, Fault tolerance, and unconstrained connectivity.
Show more

6 Read more

Mobile Ad-Hoc Network: A Review

Mobile Ad-Hoc Network: A Review

Since Wireless Ad-hoc Networks are inherently different from the well-known wired networks, it is an absolutely new architecture. Thus some challenges raise from the two key aspects: self-organization and wireless transport of information. First of all, since the nodes in a Wireless Ad-hoc Network are free to move arbitrarily at any time. So the networks topology of MANET may change randomly and rapidly at unpredictable times. This makes routing difficult because the topology is constantly changing and nodes cannot be assumed to have persistent data storage. In the worst case, we do not even know whether the node will still remain next minute, because the node will leave the network at any minute [5]. Bandwidth constrained is also a big challenge. Wireless links have significantly lower capacity than their hardwired counterparts. Also, due to multiple access, fading, noise, and interference conditions etc. the wireless links have low throughput.
Show more

5 Read more

Identification of Critical Nodes in Ad hoc Network Based on Topology Optimization

Identification of Critical Nodes in Ad hoc Network Based on Topology Optimization

Critical nodes are very important for Ad-hoc network, topology constructed according to traditional methods is usually too complex. This paper presents a method to realize the identification of critical nodes. We optimize original topology according to the Delaunay triangulation, which could reduce the links invalid in the network. Then virtual backbone nodes are identified based on the unified connected dominating set. At last, we chose average betweenness centrality as the criteria to identify the critical nodes, the experimental result shows the efficiency of our algorithm.
Show more

8 Read more

Energy Efficient Routing Protocols in Mobile
Ad hoc Network based on AODV Protocol

Energy Efficient Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad hoc Network based on AODV Protocol

A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a self-configuring network composed of mobile nodes without any fixed infrastructure. Energy is limited factor in case of Ad-hoc networks. The life of a node is directly proportional to the battery in the device operating at the node. Maximize the use of energy and maximize the life of network is still the key challenge of Mobile Ad hoc network. Different routing protocols for MANETs could be differing depending upon the network architecture and the application. This paper presents a survey on energy efficient protocols in MANETs based on AODV. These algorithms use energy consumption as routing metric. These algorithms use energy optimal routes to reduce the energy consumption of nodes. Key words: Mobile Ad-hoc Network, On-demand Routing, Energy Efficient Routing, Routing Protocols.
Show more

6 Read more

Mobile ad hoc network overview

Mobile ad hoc network overview

As discussed earlier, the table-driven ad-hoc routing approach is similar to the connectionless approach of forwarding packets, with no regard to when and how frequent such routes are desired. It relies on an underlying routing table update mechanism that involves the constant propagation of routing information. This is, however, not the case for on-demand routing protocols. When a node using an on-demand protocol desires a route to a new destination, it will have to wait until such a route can be discovered. On the other hand, because routing information is constantly propagated and maintained in table-driven routing protocols, a route to every other node in the ad-hoc network is always available, regardless of whether or not it is needed. This feature, although useful for datagram traffic, incurs substantial signaling traffic and power consumption. Since both bandwidth and battery power are scarce resources in mobile computers, this becomes a serious limitation. Table 3 lists some of the basic differences between the two classes of algorithms.
Show more

8 Read more

Implementation and Performance Analysis of Multi Hop Ad Hoc Cloud Network and Servers using Ad Hoc Network Protocols

Implementation and Performance Analysis of Multi Hop Ad Hoc Cloud Network and Servers using Ad Hoc Network Protocols

When cloud services are allowed to run on existing heterogeneous hardware, it is known as ad hoc cloud [3]. In other words when cloud services runs on ad hoc network then it is termed as ad hoc cloud. General purpose computers and hardware devices utilization is increased by using this concept. Architecture of ad hoc cloud is shown in Fig. 3 in which organizational infrastructure are the end user infrastructure that consists of ad hoc hosts, ad hoc guests (VM), ad hoc clients, and cloudlets. Tasks such as host processes are performed by ad hoc hosts whereas protection for host and guest processes while executing cloud tasks are offered by virtual machines known as ad hoc guests. Ad hoc guests also reap and utilize every host's unused resources. Set of connected ad hoc guests
Show more

9 Read more

A NOVEL APPROACH FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR AD-HOC NETWORK

A NOVEL APPROACH FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR AD-HOC NETWORK

MANETs functioning for a longer duration. By using this survey we conclude that there is not a single protocol which can be selected for its best performance in ad-hoc network. Performance of the protocol varies according to the changes in the network parameters. Sometimes the mobility of the node of the network is high sometimes energy of the node is of prime concern. The comparisons of these energy efficient protocols have been discussed in this survey paper. We have tried to present almost all possible approaches of energy efficient protocols.
Show more

9 Read more

Security in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network

Security in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network

ABSTRACT: The automobile manufactures uses wireless communication and networking into vehicles to increase safety and efficiency on road transmission. Vehicular ad hoc network (VANAT) is subset of mobile ad hoc network. Vehicular Communication requires vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) with security to improve road safety. VANETs security is essential because badly designed VANET is exposed to network attacks and danger to the security of drivers. The VANET is to provide road safety information among the nodes hence the frequently exchange of such type of data on the network clearly signifies the role of security. Encryption and description of modified SHA-256 is use to provide security to network packets. Network packets contain information or message. The messages which are transferred between nodes or vehicular is secure.
Show more

6 Read more

A PROTOCOL FOR MOBILE AD HOC
NETWORK

A PROTOCOL FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK

Our location management scheme is simple and was developed for the sole purpose of a fair comparison with routing protocols that do not require location management. Location management consists of location discovery and tracking Location Discovery. Our method is similar to DSR source route discovery . When source S has data to send to destination D that is not reachable by TLR, S needs to find the location of D (LDAD). S buffers all data packets until it learns LDAD. To do so, S broadcasts a location request control packet to all its neighbors. Inside the packet, S stamps its own location and a sequence number. Node X, which receives a location request packet and is not the destination, broadcasts the request to its neighbors. Location Tracking. Once two nodes begin to communicate, location tracking is used: data packets periodically (every 5 seconds) piggyback the local location of the sending node. If no data packet is to be sent, a node periodically sends a location reply control message with its location not refreshed for more than 10 seconds in small networks,20s in large networks. The source then reinitiates learning of the destination location. The source does not flood the network, but uses the last known destination location to reduce the search space for the destination. Idealized no-overhead location management. For completeness, in simulations of large networks, we separate the cost of location management and location-based routing. We do this by also simulating a hypothetical no- overhead location management. In this idealized scenario, we assume that sources use location information with a lifetime of 5 seconds (which causes some location inaccuracies).
Show more

6 Read more

Timed bargaining based opportunistic routing model for dynamic vehicular ad hoc network

Timed bargaining based opportunistic routing model for dynamic vehicular ad hoc network

Motivated by the facts presented in the above dis- cussion, we design a new routing scheme for VANETs. In order to adapt to the dynamic VANET situations, the classical NBS model is modified based on the sequential bargaining approach. By taking into account the timed game model, the proposed scheme is designed as an iterative routing process in which each iteration involves three key steps: (i) ob- serving the current network environment, (ii) esti- mating the prospective payoff to select the most adaptable strategy, and (iii) updating the information to adapt to the network dynamics. In the case of in- complete information, our timed game approach can relax the traditional NBS assumption that all infor- mation is completely known; this is the main advan- tage of our proposed scheme. The important features of the proposed scheme are (i) the adjustable dy- namics considering the current VANET situation, (ii) the interactive process based on the iterative feed- back mechanism, and (iii) the practical distributed method to effectively reach a desirable solution. In the case of significantly different and diversified net- work situations, the proposed scheme can approxi- mate an optimized VANET performance during real- world routing operations.
Show more

9 Read more

An Improved Content Centric Extended Kalman Filter Based Crowd Sensing In Vanet Using Vehicular Cloud Computing

An Improved Content Centric Extended Kalman Filter Based Crowd Sensing In Vanet Using Vehicular Cloud Computing

The problem of crowd sensing in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network is a most widely researched problem in recent years. Many researchers use various machine learning algorithms to solve the problem of congestion Mobile crowd sensing refers to a broad range of community sensing paradigms. As a special form of crowdsourcing, mobile crowd sensing aims to provide a mechanism to involve participants from the general public to efficiently and effectively contribute and utilize context-related sensing data from their mobile devices in solving specific problems in collaborations. But lack of effective solutions to quantify the relationship among participants in crowd sensing inspires us to form a formidable solution for the same. Thus, it could not effectively allocate the computing tasks and human based tasks of crowd sensing among individuals in VSNs simultaneously. Therefore, one of the problems which have been taken in this paper is about task allocation of crowd sensing in VSNs. The first major step toward achieving this goal will be to determine the effects of different driving environments on the signal propagation within the vehicular cloud framework. Also location based crowd sensing has been utilized by many researchers but there has been very few works in using content aware approach. This papertargets to achieve the goal of crowd sensing using not only location but also velocity and direction of vehicles. The aim is to develop and improved version of Kalman filter to solve the problems of non-linearity in the traditional one. In our problem statement, an expected zone needs to be computed for the possible position of the destination node. It is a circle around the destination that contains the estimated location of the destination node. The Request Zone is a rectangle with source node S in one corner (Xs, Ys), and the Expected Zone containing destination D in the other opposite comer (Xd,Yd).In this protocol, only those neighbours of source node that are present within the request zone forwards the route request packet further. The source node S should know the location of destination node D(Xd,Yd)at time t0 and average speed v with which D is moving. Every time node S initiates a new route discovery process, it the circular expected zone at time t1 with the radius R = v(t1 - t0) and center at location (Xd,Yd). I and J are neighbours of Source node S. But, only node I forwards the packets received from S to its neighbours, since I is within the request zone. The node J discards the message received from S since J is outside the request zone.
Show more

8 Read more

Routing Flying Ad Hoc Networks (FANET) Flight Systems: A Survey

Routing Flying Ad Hoc Networks (FANET) Flight Systems: A Survey

Mobility is one of the most prominent features of the network whose result is new problems for MAC layer in ad hoc network. Given the high mobility and the various distances between the nodes, the quality of the bonds in FANET network is usually fluctuating [8]. Changes in the quality of the bond and the termination of the transplant are affected by the design of the drug. Package delay is another problem of designing MAC FANETs, particularly for real-time applications where packet delay time is limited and new challenges are imposed [9]. Fortunately, there are some new technologies that can be used to meet FANET requirements in MAC layer. Directional antennas and fully bi-directional propagation circuits with multi-packet receivers are promising examples of technological advances that can be used in MAC layer of Ad-Hoc(FANETs) network [10]. The conductor antenna has several advantages over the distributor antenna for FANET network, which is presented as a subset of the physical layer. In addition to the advantages of using a directional antenna, it brings unique design problems, especially for MAC layer, while many MAC layers have been proposed for FANET and MANET networks [11]. There is little research on the design of MAC layer in ad hoc FANET networks with conductive antennas. In conventional wireless communications, reception and transmissioncannot be performed simultaneously [12, 13]. With the recent advances in radio circuits, it is now possible to realize a completely two-way communication on a channel. One ofthe other limitations of conventional wireless communications is the receipt of packages. If there is more than one sender, the receiver cannot receive all packets properly. Fortunately, data from more than one source with the help of radio circuits with a multi-packet receiver is possible. The radio circuits with a multi-packet and fully-bi-directional receiver have produced significant effects on MAC layer of ad hoc FANET network [14].
Show more

5 Read more

DETECTION OF BLACK HOLE ATTACK IN VANET

DETECTION OF BLACK HOLE ATTACK IN VANET

Security is the major issue in VANET. Majority of the attacks were against Physical, MAC and fewmore layers which deals with routing mechanism of Vehicular ad hoc network. Primarily the attacks were classified based on the purpose (i.e) not forwarding the packets through routing mechanism, which affects sequence number and hop count. In the Black Hole attack malicious vehicle waits for the neighbors’ to initiate a RREQ packet. Since the receivable RREQ Packet reaches the vehicle, it will immediately send a false RREP packet with a modified higher sequence number. A malicious vehicle where there is a possibility of Black hole attack which submerge all data packets of all objects and the packet will not be distributed further. The AODV protocol is vulnerable to such kind of attack because of having network centric property, where each vehicle of the network has to shares their routing tables among each other. Black Hole attack involves some modification of the data stream or the creation of a false stream
Show more

11 Read more

Improved Load Balanced & Energy Efficient          Ad hoc on demand routing Algorithm

Improved Load Balanced & Energy Efficient Ad hoc on demand routing Algorithm

Wireless network is becoming popular day by day. There are two types of wireless networks- infrastructure network and infrastructure less networks. When communications among terminals or nodes are established and maintained through central controllers also known as base stations, then this type of network comes under infrastructure network and when no central station is present it known as mobile ad hoc network, where terminals are capable of establishing connections by themselves and are able to communicate with other nodes in a multi-hop manner without any fixed infrastructures. This infrastructure less property helps the ad hoc network, to get quickly deployed in a given area and to provide robust operation [1]. The mobile nodes of which can change their locations and topology of the network frequently and in unpredictable manner over time [2]. The network is localized, where all activities such as discovering the topology of a network and message delivery are performed by the nodes themselves, i.e., devices act as both hosts and routers [3]. In recent years, mobile ad hoc network has found its applications in the areas of Environment Monitoring and Forecasting, Health and Medical Care, Underwater Communications, Smart Energy, and Building and Home Automation industries. But the mobile nature of Ad hoc network posses many issues as challenges such as Lack of centralized management, Resource availability, Dynamic topology, Limited power supply, Bandwidth constraint etc. These challenges have generated great interests within the
Show more

5 Read more

Secured Data Transmission in Mobile Adhoc Networks: An Implementation Using Java

Secured Data Transmission in Mobile Adhoc Networks: An Implementation Using Java

ABSTRACT: MANET stands for mobile ad-hoc network. It is basically a collection of nodes where each node performs as independent router or host. Mobility is the core feature of MANET. Therefore routing protocol is needed that changes whenever topology changes. Secure data transmission is the most important issue in MANET. The emerging trends for mobile ad hoc networks and secured data transmission phase are of significant importance based upon the environments like military. In this paper, a new way to improve the reliability of data transmission is presented. In the open collaborative MANET environment, any node can maliciously or selfishly interrupt and deny communication of other nodes. Dynamically changing topologies makes it hard to determine the opponent nodes that affect the communication in MANET
Show more

8 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...