Most studies agree that each grade of SCFE is equally associated with progression to hip osteoarthritis [ 23 , 26 ], therefore early preventive intervention is desirable. In a retrospective study by Castaneda et al. [ 27 ] all patients, regardless of the severity of the initial epiphyseal slip— measured by the head–shaft angle—showed radiographic signs of osteoarthritis after a 22.3-year follow-up period; two out of three patients experienced pain when sitting or riding a bicycle and almost 90 % with the positive impingement test. On the other hand, some patients show satisfactory long-term outcome in their hip function even after severe head–neck deformity after SCFE without any surgical treatment [ 28 – 30 ]. This might to some extent be due to partial spontaneous remodelling of the proximal femoral epiphysis [ 30 – 32 ]. Most interestingly, in situations of pre-slip or prophylactic in situfixation, Dodds et al. found no clinical hip impingement, leading to the conclu- sion that only slip leads to femoro-acetabular impingement [ 26 ]. Whether early arthroscopic osteochondroplasty is superior to a more expectant approach to correcting
Ward et al. reported that mean time to physeal closure was 13 months with single screw fixation and longer with eccentric placement of the screw . In general, the longer time to physeal closure is a likely risk factor for further slippage, as the slip could progress during this period. In this study, time to physeal closure was consistent with Ward’s report, but there was no signifi- cant difference between the slip-retention group and the slip-progression group or between the lateral and the medial insertion groups. Sanders pointed out that when a screw was inserted into osteopenic bone in the proximal femoral metaphysis, it was likely to loosen and accelerate the slippage of the epiphysis  (Figures 2 and 3).
Many controversies are present regarding the outcome of different instrumentation systems for the treatment of traumatic paraplegia. Biomechanical performance of different spinal fixation devices has been studied extensively in laboratories but comparative clinical outcome data are few. This study compares the internal fixation devices Hartshill (based on sublaminar wiring to gain purchase on the posterior column structure alone) and pedicle screw fixation (in which all the three spinal columns may be fixed directly and are able to reduce fractures of these columns by ligamentotaxis). Newer systems and techniques are continuously becoming available and old systems are being modified. Long term follow-up studies in addition to randomized prospective studies are needed to appropriately evaluate the efficacies of these systems. As our knowledge and experience grows, we will be able to better determine the limitations, indications and usefulness of these systems.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients aged over 18 years with humeral midshaft fractures treated with anterior or posterior plate fixation. Selection of the approach to the humerus was based on the particular pattern of injury and soft tissue involvement. The minimum follow-up duration was set at six months. The outcomes included the rate of union, primary nerve palsy recovery, secondary nerve damage, infection and revision surgery. Results: Between 2006 and 2014, 58 patients (mean age, 59.9; range, 19 – 97 years) with humeral midshaft fractures were treated with anterior (n = 33) or posterior (n = 25) plate fixation. After a mean follow-up duration of 34 months, 57 of 58 fractures achieved union after index procedure. Twelve fractures were associated with primary radial nerve palsy. Ten of the twelve patients with primary radial palsy recovered completely within six months after the index surgery. In total, one patient developed secondary palsy after anterior plating, and three patients developed secondary palsy after posterior plating. No significant difference in the healing rate (p = 0.4), primary nerve palsy recovery rate (p = 0.6) or prevalence of secondary nerve palsy (p = 0.4) was found between the two clinical groups. No cases of infection after plate fixation were documented.
cathode to anode. However, besides the existence of copper (II) oxide in the cathode composite, the HRTEM images revealed the formation of the metastable paramelaconite copper oxide (Cu4O3) with an intermediate stoichiometry between the copper (II) oxide and copper (I) oxide. The formation of paramelaconite was attributed to either oxidation of copper (I) oxide or decomposition of copper (II) oxide under the electron beam. The high oxygen content of the cathode composite, presumably formed during to the ball milling of the composite outside the glove box, can partially explain the difference between the theoretical capacity of Cu/CuF2 (528 mAh g -1 ) and the observed capacity during the first discharging of the battery (360 mAh g -1 ). Furthermore, Cu diffusion from the cathode into the electrolyte was observed in the recharged cell during the in situ studies, due to the high volumetric change associated to the Cu/CuF2 reaction. Furthermore, an intermediate layer of La2O3 was observed in the as-prepared cell at the anode-electrolyte interface. The oxide layer was present on the La sheet surface prior to fabrication of the cell. After discharging, a LaF3 layer formed below the La2O3 on the La sheet and as a result of the fluoride migration from the cathode into the anode through the oxide layer. After recharging, these two layers merged into one layer with lower fluorine content, indicating the migration of fluorine from the anode toward the cathode. However, the presence of lanthanum (III) oxide on the anode lead to a side reaction resulting in the formation of LaOF during recharging, which was acting as significant fluoride trap. This partially explains the capacity fading after the first recharging to 270 mAh g -1 (75% of the first discharge capacity), while it faded strongly in the second discharging to only 165 mAh g -1 at 1 V.
cyanobacteria. The interesting hypothesis that PII may be involved in nitrogen signalling in cyanobacteria can therefore be raised. However, as PII can directly bind molecules relevant to conditions of nitrogen stress, it may not only act as a signal transducer but also as a sensor. Other stress responses may be elicited by exposure of cyanobacteria to altered light, temperatures, desic- cation (osmotic stress) and nutrient starvation. Synthesis of stress pro- teins, such as molecular chaperones, is already being studied in some laboratories, others study the effects of stresses on N 2 fixation under
recently, increasing evidence has challenged this due to the relatively high incidence of complications, deficits in functional recovery in shoulder and disappointing cos- metic results in up to 30% of the patients sustaining mid- shaft clavicular fracture [7-9]. With recent advancement in technique and implants for fracture fixation, internal fix- ation is therefore generally considered as the better choice for these fractures and admirable outcomes have been ob- served. However, substantial controversies exist in surgeons regarding the optimal fixation pattern (plate or intramedul- lary fixation) for treating these injuries and further research is necessitated.
. Karl Matthias, Rosch Silke, Friedrich Greaf, Taylor D. Thomas, Heckmann M. Siegfried „Strain Situation after Fixation of Three-Unit Ceramic Veneered Implant Superstructures” , Implant Dentistry, Vol. 14, nr. 2, 2005
. Kohal Ralf-J., Klaus Gerold, Strub Jorg R. - „Zirconia-Implant-Supported All-Ceramic Crowns Withstand Long-Term Load: A Pilot Investigation”, Clinical Oral Implant Research.17, 2006
For the prisoner’s dilemma we choose R = 3, S = 1, T = 4, and P = 2. Since u = 0, the fixation probability is given by Eq. 共 8 兲. In Fig. 1共a兲 we show a comparison between the analyti- cal results and extensive computer simulations for a small population of N = 20 individuals. Clearly, cooperators are al- ways in disadvantage with respect to defectors. In spite of the exponential increase of the fixation probability of coop- erators with the initial number k, only for very weak selec- tion 共␤ = 0.01兲 do cooperators acquire reasonable chances in a population as small as N = 20. As stated before, the error of the approximation leading to Eqs. 共 7 兲 and 共 8 兲 is of order N −2 . However, even for N = 20 excellent agreement with numeri- cal simulations is obtained as illustrated in Fig. 1 .
Note: The trochanteric fixation nail can be passed over
the 3.0 mm reaming rod, with straight ball tip, if used. No reaming rod exchange is required.
Nail length may be determined by using the reaming rod measuring device and a 950 mm reaming rod or guide rod. Insert the reaming rod to hold fracture reduction. Position the image intensifier over the distal femur and take an image to confirm reaming rod insertion depth. Pass the reaming rod measuring device over the proximal end of the reaming rod and through the incision to the bone. Read nail length directly from the measuring device.
The other reason why preservation in situ has become such a dogma, is commercialization. Table 1 presents the various types of archaeological work over the past eight years in the Netherlands. It was derived from the 2011 Annual Report of the Dutch Heritage Inspectorate (Erfgoedinspectie 2012, 14), but the area and dates are in fact not important in this context, because similar data can be found for many other countries and areas. What is relevant is that the fi rst three lines all indicate evaluation work and only the fourth indicates excavations. It is clear that only about 5-6 percent of all archaeological work involves excavation. Table 2 shows that about one third of these excavations is actually just a very short affair of a few days, usually just one. This is typical, and apparently in all western countries that have commercial archaeology, it is primarily evaluation work that gets done. It is much more in demand by the bureaucracy and it is much less risky as a business. No company that is honest and works according to normal standards and ethical principles can exist on only excavation as a business, let alone make an acceptable profi t. They can, however, do real well on evaluation work and consultancy.
acquisitions. Measurements are based on 65 targets across the bi-plane ultra- sound plane. Solid red line indicates the mean and borders, standard deviation, which are obtained from ‘in-situ RTS’ approach. Blue line and its border cor- responds to the ‘CS RT’ approach. (b) Side by side comparison of fiducials’ (#) e ff ect on ‘in-situ RTS’ and ‘CS RT’ methods. Tukey multiple comparison test with 95% confidence interval has been applied to test the significance of di ff erence. (c) Schematic demo of the In- and Out-of-Plane directions. (d, e) Demonstrates the TRE of the individual targets across the depth and In-Plane directions. The quadratic line fitted into the measured data. (f) The trueness of the calibration; separated into three sections across the depth of the ultrasound image. (g) The precision of the calibration; separated into three sections across the depth of the ultrasound image. * P<0.05, ** P<0.01, **** P<0.0001 . . . . 58 2.16 (a,b) PRA experiment: placing the tip of the pointer inside the phantom. (c,d)
Far less attention is paid to the bias that occurs when some results from a study are published, but the choice of which results to publish produces bias. As with traditional pub- lication bias, the tendency is to analyze data and choose to present results which are statistically significant, further from the null, or closer to what the researchers believe is the true value. The implications for the literature as a whole, though, are much the same as the file drawer bias. I label this "publication bias in situ" (PBIS) because the biased reporting of study findings exists within each indi- vidual research report (with any metaphoric references to cancer – the usual context of the phrase "in situ" in health science – left as an exercise for the reader). Despite the similarities between the file drawer bias and PBIS, there are fundamental differences. In particular, the bias from some studies having no published findings exists only at the level of the whole literature (no particular study can be said to be biased), while PBIS exists within the results reported from a single study (and thus exists in the litera- ture as a whole by aggregation). More practically, PBIS is substantially more difficult to even identify, let alone correct.
Totally extraperitoneal repair for inguinal hernia is a safe procedure that can be a better alternative for open anterior approach repair if the expertise is available, whether with mesh fixation or non-fixation. Both options are valid, have low postoperative morbidity with comparable operative time, hospital stay and recurrence rates. Early postoperative pain is slightly higher with mesh fixation plus positive significant correlation with operative time in both groups. Larger volume studies with longer follow up periods should be done to clarify, more specifically, points like; incidence of chronic groin pain and its relation to mesh fixation, relation between drain insertion and incidence of postoperative seroma, hematoma and surgical emphysema.