Along these lines, it is shown that flexibility-based methods are mostly vali- dated by numerical models or laboratory tests. Far more seldom a paper dealing with in-situtests at real bridge structures can be found. The obvious reasons may be the high costs and logistic effort for such tests as well as the fact, that a still used structure cannot be artificially damaged for test purposes. On the other hand, a real structure has to be monitored over several years or even decades in order to see effects of accumulating damage. Only the demolishing of a structure may offer the opportunity for extensive tests. But for the sake of transfer from academic researches to practical application, such real-life tests are indispensa- ble. Therefore, a relevant contribution of this paper is the performance of in-situtests and the analysis based on flexibility for two bridges in Luxembourg.
Abstract Flexible pavements in many countries including India are designed on the basis of laboratory California Bearing Ratio (CBR). During construction to ascertain that the design stipulations are met with, one has check in-situ CBR. For testing in-situ CBR, undisturbed samples are taken and are then tested in the laboratory. Collection of undisturbed sample from soil subgrade that is essentially non-plastic in nature, is near to impossible and further more determination of CBR is a time consuming and sensitive to many parameters, such as relative density, particle size, texture, moisture content and confinement pressure etc. . Thus, during execution stage, it becomes very difficult to ascertain whether the design stipulation has been achieved or not. In this study an effort has been made to evaluate the subgrade strength by conducting in-situtests using Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) and Light Deflectometer (LWD) on various locations shown in 1), of an under-construction road, that is on the service bank of Sirhind Canal, in Punjab, India. The road is tested at fifteen different locations; representative samples of soil were collected from all the fifteen locations and tested in laboratory for Grain Size Analysis, Atterberg Limits Limit, Plastic Limit), Maximum Dry Density (MDD), Optimum Moisture Content, and Laboratory CBR at 97 percent of modified MDD, to find correlations.
sion systems (WECS). Like all other industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) devices, WECS must be assessed and evalu- ated regarding their radiated electromagnetic (EM) emissions based on international standards (CISPR 11, 2015). Due to their geometrical size, WECS cannot simply be installed and tested at a defined test site such as an open area test site (OATS). Instead, they need to be tested in situ. The prob- lem is, that for equipment under test (EUT), evaluated in situ only, compliance with these standards can be proven for this specific EUT, but not for the whole product line. In order to reduce the effort and costs, it is always aimed for a se- ries release. However, a series release is only possible with the knowledge of the measurement uncertainty, determined according to the “Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement” (GUM, 2008). The measurement uncertainty for in situtests of WECS is not specified yet. Therefore, the goal of this work is to define and characterize possible con- tributions to uncertainty during in situ measurements of EM emissions from WECS. The normatively given limit values as well as the causes of the EM emissions are not focus of this article. The latter are discussed e.g. in Koj et al. (2017) and Fisahn et al. (2017).
Since WTs are tested in situ, there are various causes for the uncertainty of the distance. WTs are most often located in areas used for agriculture, the ground around the WT is uneven. This leads to an inaccurate placement of the antenna due to unsuitable ground at the determined measuring posi- tion or because of inaccuracies while measuring the distance to the WT due to the given circumstances. Furthermore, the measuring equipment itself can be the cause of some inaccu- racies, e.g. the antenna phase centre of a logarithmic periodic antenna that is wandering with respect to the frequency. All these factors add up to the measurement uncertainty. This as- pect is investigated in this work.
Among the techniques for predicting the propagation of failure waves in the flow, in-situtests or on reduced model, the theoretical and numerical models, given the rivers, objectives and informations available, can be mentioned Mathematical models, also constantly developed and improved, are used today.The current situation highlights the importance of numerical models in studies of failure flood propagation of their ability to take into account the mode of failure of structure, the geometry of the channel, effluents, and the boundary conditions has made them compulsory in all studies of dam’s failure. However, it should be clear that the choice of calculation methods is an important step to get the desired results and the choice must take into account the specific characteristics of each work. The values of parameters used to define the gap have a large effect on fracture rates and flooding generated near the dam. As the distance from the hole and the wave progresses downstream these values decrease and their influence becomes negligible .
In the contribution, there are presented the newest results CBR in situ measurements on the objective aero-drome earth structures too. CBR in situ values were objectified by the device WS 32830 according to CLEGG. This device quantifies the value of rate of compaction on the basis in situtests of CIV values (Clegg Impact Value).
The poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by conventional ophthalmic solutions due to rapid precorneal elimination of the drug may be overcome by use of in–situ gel forming system that are instilled as a drops into the eye and it undergoes a sol-gel transition in the cul-de-sac. The present work describes the formulation and evaluation of an ophthalmic delivery system of an antibacterial agent, Pefloxacin, using xanthan gum as a gelling agent in combination with HPMC K15 as viscosity enhancing agent which is used in the treatment of eye infection such as, bacterial conjunctivitis, corneal ulceration and blepharitis, based on the concepts of pH-triggered In -situ gelation, thermo reversible gelation and Ion activated system. In situ gelling system of Pefloxacin Mesylate provides sustained release of drug based on polymeric carriers that undergo sol-to-gel transition upon change in temperature & PH. The formulations were evaluated for clarity, pH measurement, gelling capacity, drug content estimation, rheological study, in vitro release study. The optimized formulation F6 was stable and provided sustained release up to 92% at the end of 8 th hour and it is a viable alternative to conventional eye drops. The developed system is thus a viable alternative to conventional eye drops.
traction-free state. At higher levels of stretch, the stiff collagen fibers become taut and dominate the mechanical response of the vessel yielding much stiffer behavior. Yield stretches were higher in elongation to failure tests performed after cyclic loading than failure tests without prior cyclic loading, but interestingly, cyclic loading and its associated higher yield stretches and shifted behavior did not significantly affect any other property measured. In summary, although elastic modulus and failure properties did not differ between lower rate elongations to failure with or without 30 seconds of cycling prior, because yield stretch was higher and toe regions were longer after cycling, we conclude that cyclic loading conferred damage to the mechanical integrity of the bridging veins prior to failure loading. The increased length of the toe region may imply that the brain will continuously achieve greater momentum (and thus higher stretch rates) when bridging veins are repeatedly elongated because they are unable to supply the same level of mechanical resistance to motion at low stretch ratios as their previously unloaded counterparts.
and 11 d). The formation of this patina could be related to a passivation process and it could explain the decrease in current density. The main difference in the images obtained during the reactivation branch between the as-received and the sensitised sample is the formation of dark areas between grains in the case of the sensitised sample. These areas are the same zones as those attacked at the beginning of the test. Furthermore, these dark areas become more marked during the reactivation branch, as shown in Figures 11 e) and f). Then, these affected areas during the reactivation branch could be zones with a poor passive film, which leads to an increase in the reactivation charge. On the other hand, in the case of the as-received sample no visible variations are observed during the reactivation branch, Figures 10 e) and f), and the reactivation charge remains with a low value. Therefore, the differences observed in the electrochemical data can be related to the differences in the evolution of the electrode surface during the tests. The sensitised Alloy 900 presents new phases formed during heating that cause the depletion of alloying elements in the adjacent areas, and a higher attack during the activation branch accompanied by a higher activation charge than in the as-received sample. Furthermore, during the reactivation branch these depleted areas are attacked again leading to an increase in the reactivation charge.
Zr+ ion irradiations were performed at 573K on RXA Zircaloy-4 and M5® and two loading histories were considered, using a four point bending device specifically designed to apply a tensile or a compressive stress under irradiation. During the first loading experiment, the external stress was applied at an early stage of irradiation. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observations showed that the initial applied stress has no effect on the incubation dose of c-loops. For the second loading experiment, the macroscopic stress was applied when c-loops are already created. Same trend, that the one observed for in-situ experience, but with a lower effect of stress on the c-loop linear density was observed on RXA Zircaloy-4 and M5® due to dispersion from grain to grain and a much larger statistic for this experiment (Fig 4) . Nevertheless, qualitative agreement between two experiments is noticed.
The results for Dwelling A indicate that the use of the air change rates calculated from the co- pressurization test results produce a more accurate prediction of heat loss than when using the results from the air pressurization test that was conducted in isolation. However, the same effect is not observed in the model outputs for Dwelling B; the version of the model using the measured air change rate predicts a HTC closer to the measured value than the adjusted model. Further testing is required to quantify this effect in an end-terrace building of this nature. The HTC for Dwelling B is only slightly under estimated by 1.6 W/K when using the measured air change rate and 8.6 W/K when including the reduced air change rate. The HTC for Dwelling A is considerably over estimated by 21.6 W/K before the air changes through the no-fines party walls are accounted for, however, once the air change rate is reduced, the model demonstrates a very close match with the measured fabric performance (1.7 W/K higher than measured). The difference between predicted HTCs for both models and their respective coheating test results are within the uncertainty associated with the test method, specifically, ±9.7 W/K for Dwelling A and ±8.8 W/K for Dwelling B. The need to adjust the air change rate in the Dwelling A model to calibrate them against in situ test results has potentially important implications for energy modelling, as will be discussed later in this paper.
Tests were performed at the laboratory with samples from elements named “Moise” that were the filling in-plane horizontal elements of the old pipe supporting system. These samples were removed from the old system and were tested in flexure. These elements have reinforcement only at their bottom side. The ultimate positive and negative bending moments, found from these tests, are equal to 1.206KNm and 0.313KNm, respectively. These “Moise” were removed from all the bays of the interior frames of the upgraded system.
A speciﬁc light tensile machine, designed at the INSA Lyon (Institut National des Sciences Ap- pliqu´ees, Lyon, France), was used to load manually the specimen (see ﬁg.5). The minicomposite was glued into aluminium tabs, like for the SEM tests, and had a gauge length of 15 mm. Six loadings were successively applied to the specimen : 50, 68, 74, 86, and 92 N. For each loading, three images (four scans at four diﬀerent distances by image) were acquired to observe a total length of 1.65 mm of the sample in the central part.
The absorption of vasicine (V1), vasicine in the methanol extract (V1M) and vasicine in the ethanol extract (V1E) from the small intestine of anaesthetized rats was studied using the Doluisio in situ technique. Nine inbred rats divided into three groups of three each were placed in individual cages. Ketamine hydrochloride equivalent to 100 mg/kg of ketamine was injected intramuscularly to anaesthetize the rats and the anaesthetic effect further maintained by using anesthetic ether for an hour. Midline abdominal incision was made to open the abdomen and the jejunum was carefully lifted out without distortion to the blood supply and with the animal intact. Two slits were made, one at the beginning of the jejunum and another approximately 10 cm from the Þ rst one. The contents of the intestine were ß ushed with saline and a drug solution (100 µg standard vasicine in 10 ml saline) was filled into the intestine using a plastic syringe connected with a three way stopper through the Þ rst slit at the beginning of the jejunum. To another slit made at the other end of the jejunum was connected a plastic syringe with a three way stopper for drawing sample solutions of 1 ml each periodically every ten min at a perfusion rate of 0.1 ml/min. Absorbance of V1, V1M and V1E were recorded using UV Spectrophotometer at λ max 281 nm and the drug concentrations were determined from the standard curve.
Objective: The objective of the present study is to develop the pharmacological activity of the herbal drug using ethanolic extract of whole plant of Argyreia nervosa which is claimed for its effective treatment of ailments with low toxicity and economic viability. Collection and authentication of whole plant A. nervosa. Extraction of leaves of A. nervosa with 90% ethanol. Phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract of A. nervosa whole plant. Pharmacological evaluation of ethanolic extract biochemical parameters such as estimation of levels of creatinine in blood serum, estimation of levels of urea in blood serum, estimation of levels of uric acid in blood serum and Statistical analysis. Materials and Methods: Picric acid, alkalin buffer reagent, standard creatinine, surfactant, urea reagent, acid reagent, diaceylmonoxime reagent, urea standard, buffer reagent, enzyme reagent, uric acid standard, A. nervosa, gentamicin, di-ethyl ether. Tests for flavonoids, tests for steroids, tests for alkaloids, tests for tannins, tests for carbohydrates, tests for cardiac glycosides, tests for anthra quinones glycosides, tests for amino acids, test for phenols, acute oral toxicity studies, experimental design: The animal experiments were performed after acclimatization animals were separated in to four groups of each group with 6 animals were placed in separate cages, collection of blood, estimation of serum creatinine, estimation of uric acid, estimation of urea, statistical report. Conclusion: The presence of flavonoids, tannins, steroids, carbohydrates, phenols etc. In acute toxicity studies the test dose 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/ kg was chosen as experimental doses. Nephroprotective activity of ethanolic extract of A. nervosa was screened for biochemical parameters (serum creatinine, serum uric acid, serum urea). The ethanolic extracts have produced effective nephroprotective action as evident by results obtained from the studies. The interpretation of the results was done after subjecting the data obtained from various studies by simple graph. The studies indicate that ethanolic extract of A. nervosa whole plant producing promising results in treatment of nephrotoxicity
In this study, we report the cations exchange inside the Maghnite interlamellar space using copper(II) cations. These inorgano-modified Mags were also used to prepare polyaniline/Mag-Cu, Poly(4amino benzylamine)/Mag-Cu and their copolymers/Mag- Cu nanocomposites by In-Situ polymerization. The increased compatibility between the polymers and clay was achieved by production of the nanocomposites containing polymer chains.
We used a hand-held electrospinning device to seal an intestinal incision for the ﬁ rst time to simulate intestinal hemostasis. Experiments showed that the in-situ electrospin- ning had a good sealing effect on the intestinal incision and could prevent the exudation of the intestinal ﬂ uid. In addi- tion, our experiments showed that hand-held electrospinning devices can be used while the operator is wearing nitrile gloves, which is of great signi ﬁ cance for the clinical use of hand-held electrospinning devices. This research laid the foundation for future animal experiments and clinical trials.
Theorem 1.7 is proved using a special test that we call a universal test, that works by selecting every index i for querying with probability ˜ O(n −1/3 −1 ) · log(k), independently of other indexes. We prove in Theorem 6.8 below that such a kind of test will work for any property admitting a proximity oblivious 2-test, regardless of how that 2-test works. This universal test is very close to what is defined as a sampling based test in a new work  of Goldreich and Ron. In particular, our proof yields the following corollary, which partially addresses a question from  about whether proximity oblivious tests are translatable to sample-based ones: