inclusivebusiness is that firms can be profitable by including the poor in the value chain and at the same time alleviate poverty; some even go as far as suggesting poverty can be eradicated (Prahalad, 2010). However, existing research has tended to focus on the first part of this promise while the second aspect related to poverty alleviation has received scant attention. To begin to redress this balance, this empirical study explores the relationship between inclusivebusiness and poverty alleviation. I apply the capability approach and operationalise it by using Alkire and Foster’s (2011) multidimensional poverty index to evaluate inclusivebusiness activities of five firms in Vanuatu. This evaluation reveals that at least two conditions are important for poverty alleviation to occur. The first condition that strengthens the relationship between inclusivebusiness and poverty alleviation is the presence of formal institutions that support the private sector in their interactions with the poor. The second involves a commitment to capacity building on the part of the firm. The findings suggest that where these conditions exist inclusivebusiness is more likely to alleviate poverty, however, it can only go so far to assist with efforts to eradicate global poverty.
Amidst the increasing corporate investment in African farmland the term ‘inclusivebusiness model’ has become a catchphrase touted as an opportunity for incorporating smallholder farmers alongside large-scale commercial farming projects. Inclusivebusiness models require an enabling institutional and regulatory framework. Such frameworks now exist at the international level: the African Union Framework and Guidelines on Land Policy in Africa and FAO Voluntary Guidelines on Responsible Governance on the Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forest in the Context of National Food Security provide a starting point. If translated and implemented, these guidelines can help develop transparent and accountable mechanisms that enable and strengthen the participation of smallholder farmers in the
Experience in coffee producing countries, the good cooperation among the market actors, such as the presence of companies, such as an exporter is one of the most important parts to buy farmers’ products (Fadhil et al., 2018; Alejandra et al., 2012; Arifin, 2013). The specialty coffee has big potential to generate higher income to farmers and the exporters through the good processing and good quality standard product (Palmiro and Rossi, 2016). The inclusivebusiness in this study is an approach to building a business that involves the participation and role of various market actors involved in business development. The actors that should be involved are farmers group, company, government, and other related actors. This business is based on a business model that has been jointly established by the actors (Sedana and Astawa, 2016). Every market actor in this inclusivebusiness has a proportional role in the coffee market chain to get their own profits. Proper relationship established in the partnership is very important to build and maintain in order to ensure the sustainability of inclusivebusiness (Aimin and Shunxi, 2011).
For development agencies, inclusive models involving the private sector may offer a valuable opportunity to leverage greater investment in the agriculture sector. The idea is not for donor agencies to “fund” commercial partners, but rather to reduce risk or lift other barriers that prevent businesses from investing, thereby leveraging investment from a commercial partner that would otherwise not be possible. Development agencies may help finance equity participation by local communities, for instance, and more generally provide grants and bank guarantees to business ventures that embody more inclusive models. In these cases, well thought-out intervention strategies are critical: clearly demonstrable poverty impacts, additionality (would the private investment happen without donor involvement?), leverage (what level of private investment would a given donor intervention trigger?), commercial viability and replicability (can the model be scaled up?). Ultimately, for more inclusivebusiness models to persist they must be financially and managerially viable. Market-distorting support from development agencies can be provided for specified periods of time, but needs to be phased out in the longer term. The experience of Kuapa Kokoo in Ghana illustrates how initial support from development agencies can help establish a commercially viable, dynamic and growing business that is now self-sustaining.
From here the idea of inclusivebusiness, or social business, arises. These types of businesses focus on activities that can contribute to the long-term goal of poverty alleviation by embedding the neglected poor parts of the world population into efficient value chains and market structures, both as consumers and as producers or distributors (Hahn, 2012). To reach this, or any long-term goal, an organization must grow and scale up. Because inclusive businesses often fail to do so, this research investigates how inclusive businesses use growth strategies to scale up their business throughout its lifecycle. In order to do so, case studies will analyse what pressures from the BoP context inclusive businesses can expect during their lifecycle stages, how to deal with such challenges and adapt their business model to the BoP context and how this differs from traditional businesses. By analysing these pressures and challenges, and how inclusivebusiness deal with them, the research seeks to formulate how growth strategies are adapted to BoP context.
Consider the case of Yum! Brands. It derived about half of its revenues from China and faced a sharp decline in 2013 in the Chinese market because of an antibiotics scare in the local poultry supply chain. The company’s ability to grow in additional markets also ran into barriers: for example, the growth of its KFC franchise in sub-Saharan Africa was capped by the lack of local modernized poultry farming practices. Supply chain deficiencies are one facet of the contextual gaps we alluded to earlier. Alternatively, natural and environmental challenges and inadequate institutions to protect against them can represent a different form of a gap. Consider the cases of Coca Cola and Nike. Both companies found that their global growth opportunities were at risk of being severely affected by environmental and climatic changes. Droughts, more unpredictable weather patterns, and more frequent major floods are threats to Coca Cola’s supply of key ingredients – such as sugar cane, sugar beets and citrus for its fruit juices – sourced from agricultural sectors highly dependent on natural water supplies. Similarly, Nike has had to contend with factory shutdowns due to floods in Asia. In the face of these challenges, leading businesses are investing in initiatives to close the gaps through a variety of sustainable and inclusivebusiness activities – we shall refer to them as SIBA – that address the contextual gaps and create social, environmental and economic value. Of late, numerous case studies and illustrations have appeared in the media, in corporate publications and in the academic literature that describe such activities. The present study was motivated by the need to understand the incentives behind SIBA: the drivers and inhibitors within business organizations that help explain why managers undertake SIBA and why they may not. SIBA is, after all, a relatively new phenomenon, is not uniformly conducted at scale, and is not necessarily tied to a company’s strategy focused on its core markets. It is important to understand the reasons behind why businesses invest in them to understand the degree of commitment to SIBA and its effectiveness in addressing the contextual gaps, creating social impact and supporting the core business objectives over the longer-term.
Mr Burns said, “I am enthusiastic and excited about the opportunity to lead the combined group. The two companies each possess a long and distinguished record operating in essentially the same fields, ensuring close cultural alignment. The complementary products and services and closely aligned structures will provide the capacity to efficiently reach a bigger client base with a broader range of service offerings. Combined, the two companies will be a significantly greater force in our chosen market segments, able to operate with greater cost-efficiency and with the resources to more aggressively pursue long-term growth strategies. The Combined Group will also lead to an expanded range of opportunities for employees from working for a larger, more diversified business.”
Providers were keen to volunteer opinions on the advantages and disadvantages of combining placements for young children, but it was difficult to decipher from the questionnaire data the extent to which these opinions were informed by experience. On the whole, providers who did not have children in combined placements often had very firm, and often negative, views on whether this was good for children, whereas providers who did have children in combined special and inclusive placements mostly reported positive experiences. Providers with some experience noted a range of factors that affected the success of combined placements and these were related to either the setting or the child. The biggest category overall was the individual child (n=17): respondents regularly volunteered the key message that individual children vary. This seemed more important than either the age of the child (mentioned 6 times) or the nature of the child's disability (also 6 mentions). Parental data
The purpose of education is to ensure that all students gain access to knowledge, skills, and information that will prepare them to contribute to immediate community and the society. The central purpose becomes more challenging as schools accommodate students with increasingly diverse backgrounds and abilities. Inclusion is an educational approach and philosophy that provides all students with community membership and greater opportunities for academic and social achievement. Inclusion is about making sure that each and every student feels welcome and that their unique needs and learning styles are attended to and valued. India being a multicultural country, Indian classrooms are multicultural in nature. The problems happening in the society are reflected in the classrooms too. Children are likely to face bias, prejudice and feeling of disrespect and unwelcome environment in the classroom. Creating an inclusive environment is necessary to make every student welcome in the school and the classroom.
Disability-Inclusive Education is the means by which the rights of children and youth with disabilities to education are upheld at all levels within the general education system, on an equal basis with others in the communities in which they live. It involves identifying and overcoming barriers to quality education in the general education system; reasonable accommodation of the individual’s requirements; and provision of support measures to facilitate access to and participation in effective quality education.
Children those who are deviated from average towards left side in normal probability curve or below from average physically, intellectually, emotionally, and socially consider as challenged or disabled to instruct in general class with other students. These children can be categorized as mild, moderate and severe. There is a provision of special education and integrated education for the children with disabilities, but it is expensive, limited to their reach, and create exclusion in the society. Education of children with disability has shifted from no education at all to inclusive education to achieve the goal „education for all‟. Therefore to develop inclusive society (learn to live together), inclusive education is the approach to include all children irrespective of their diversity in the general school environment. World conference on special need education
Abstract: Inclusion is an ideal: Belonging to the educations system is not a question. The children with disabilities are all part of a group, of a class, a school and of a community. This idea is great, but it needs to be grounded. Before describing in concrete terms which possibilities open up inclusive practices, the negative must be taken in account. The negative is intrusive: for the claim - to "integrate" everyone - can fail at certain moments. The idea of promoting and not "selecting" ends with a disturbing insight that affects a certain group: children with emotional and social developmental disorders. An interesting but difficult group, if we allow ourselves a few cliché-like exaggerations. A group that will be described in the following. The following article therefore covers a very wide range of objects. First, it aims to recall the foundations of inclusive theory; in this respect, it primarily aims at social-theoretical idealizations for which there is no exact equivalent in reality. First of all, abstract norms and values are at stake, ideals that always receive a resonance in pedagogical reality. But this resonance is not a measurable effect that can be exactly reproduced with the means of empirical social research. On the other hand it is a question of a group of people who may not be able to correspond to the described ideal: Children and adolescents with social and emotional developmental disorders. This group is trivially a factual component of a larger social group. But to what extent their integration and promotion is feasible within an inclusive framework would be questionable. Accordingly, the methodology must remain related to phenomenological perspectives. For it is not just a question of asking who may be a victim of exclusion, who is successfully integrated into a system and who is excluded. Rather, it is about the social-theoretical consequences of an irreversible tension: between a reality in which educational subjects do not correspond to the expectations, in which children are "sorted" and "classified" - and a theory that would have to draw conclusions from this situation. The aim of the following considerations would therefore be to start from the perspective of those subjects that we describe as inferior and marginalized, and to what extent observing the preconditions of this group should be a constitutive (and hitherto overlooked) component of the theory of inclusion.
The core objective of this study is to explore the feasibility of farmers‟ organizations (FOs) as a vehicle for micro-insurance delivery of the paddy crop, grown by small-scale (peasant) farmers in Sri Lanka. Factor Analysis was used to elicit the group dynamic and the capacity of FOs as a stakeholder in the insurance supply chain. The results show that the farmers‟ organizations are most widespread and are a very close institutional setup for paddy farmers because FOs are capable of handling financial activities with transparency, and have healthy financial habits and as a result farmers participate actively in farmers‟ organization activities. This study provided clear policy insights for the policy makers to implement an innovative business model for micro- insurance delivery to be incorporated with the FO model in Sri Lanka. Furthermore, it was revealed that the postal network can act as a financial intermediary in circumstances to assist the FOs in financial activities, where the commercial insurers do not have an outlet or branch networks in their target area. Therefore, in order to develop the links between the farmers and the insurers, it seems viable that the public-private partnership model be used for micro-insurance supply to paddy farmers in Sri Lanka.
The proposed algorithm for cut-paste string composite operation ITCutPaste (Inclu- sive Transformation of Cut-Paste) is based on inclusive transformation of operational transformation. The algorithm ABTS (Shao et al. 2009), already contains ITII (Inclusive Transformation of Insert–Insert)/ITID (Inclusive Transformation of Insert–Delete)/ ITDD (Inclusive Transformation of Delete–Delete)/ITDI (Inclusive Transformation of Delete–Insert) algorithms for transformation of insert and delete string operations. So to perform cut-paste operation, first the substring ‘s’ get deleted from p by opera- tion delete(s, p) and then ‘s’ get inserted at position q by operation insert(s, q). Here, delete(s, p) and insert(s, q) are independent operations. At all sharing sites, transforma- tion functions corresponding to both delete(p, s) and insert(q, s) get called which results in increase in the time complexity.
term survival tactic. Although this theoretical concept of economic profit is correct, an economic profit of 1 -which is the bare minimum for staying in business - is not sufficient for a small-scale cocoa farm’s long term continuity (Fleming et al., 2009; Kay et al., 2016). Therefore, a margin on top of a breakeven (residual return to the farmer/owner or management investment income) is needed to absorb long term risks in price and yield fluctuations. From a business perspective, a mean residual return for the farmer/owner over the years is therefore considered to be critical to a cocoa farm’s continuity. The initial farmer response to farm-gate prices being lower than the total costs may not be to stop production however, cocoa being a permanent crop with an economic life cycle of 20 -25 years. They will first exploit the labour force (e.g., through low wages, excessive hours, and use of forced labour) or cut down on environmental management (Blowfield, 2003). In turn, this behaviour will harm the reputation of MNEs seeking to take responsibility for their supply chains. This is why a residual return for the farmer/owner has been included in the inclusive smallholder sourcing indicator we have developed.
Regarding the third-stage estimation results, the hypotheses we set out to investigate have been overwhelmingly validated. For example: Education from starting and doing business is associated with growth, which in turn influences the quality of development (Hypothesis 1); ICT from starting and doing business is associated with growth which influences the quality of development (Hypothesis 2); Innovation from starting and doing business is associated with growth which influences the quality of development (Hypothesis 3); Economic incentives from starting and doing business is associated with growth which influences the quality of development (Hypothesis 4); and Institutional regime from starting and doing business is associated with growth which influences the quality of development (Hypothesis 5). Obviously not all associations are statistically significant, but that does not bother us greatly, because, given the small number of observations we had to work with, we are comfortable taking a minimalistic approach by not placing too much emphasis on the magnitude of estimated coefficients, relative to their signs. We understand that the low magnitude of parameter is due to the varying degrees of adjusted (linearized) coefficients of determinants across various stages of the empirical analysis. Econometrically speaking, linearity in the parameters is not the same thing as linearity in the variables. Even so, a key policy conclusion one can draw from the results so far is that they dispute categorical statements that the African business environment is bad for inclusive development, worse for economic growth, and crippling (worst) for KE. In what follows below we stress the results in detail in respect of specific hypotheses.
A number of migrants struggle to legalise their status due to lack of adequate information, corruption and red tape at immigration offices. They end up staying as undocumented migrants and thus increase their chances of being victimised by law enforcement agencies and some employers (Kalitanyi & Visser, m2010; Daniel Makina, 2007). As a result, migrants are excluded from basic services and access to markets such as housing or jobs becomes a struggle. They are classified as a high risk and are thus shunned when trying to access financial services and credit from services providers. These migrants are often maligned as being a burden to the South Africa economy and not directly contributing to its growth. Peberdy (2000), in the study on migrant informal traders in South Africa, dismisses this assertion. The study reveals that these migrants contribute significantly to the country’s economic activity. They spend a great portion of their income or revenue within the country (Hunter & Skinner, 2003; Paulson, Singer, Newberger, & Smith, 2006; Ratha, 2005; Tengeh, Ballard, & Slabbert, 2012a). They not only export products made in South Africa but also spend locally through paying for rent, goods and services, food transport and their education. The migrants also contribute to the Value Added Tax (VAT) revenue as the purchase of these goods is usually VAT inclusive (Landau (2005). Regardless of the contribution to the economy some of these migrants continue to be marginalised from formal financial services. Migrants also boost foreign currency exchange through remittances of money back to loved ones in their home countries, albeit some of these are through informal channels (DK Von
This paper develops an empirically-relevant framework (a) to examine whether or not the African business environment hinders or promotes the knowledge economy (KE), (b) to determine how the KE which emerges from such an environment affects economic growth, and (c) how growth in turn relates to the ‘inclusive development’ of 53 African countries during the 1996-2010 time period. The framework provides a modest guide to policymaking about, and further research into, such relationships. We implement the framework by building a three-stage model and rationalizing it as five interrelated hypotheses. To allow greater concentration on the issues that are themselves already complex, our model is very simple, but clear. For example, we make neither an attempt to evaluate causality nor to test for it, even though we suspect the links to be multi-directional – opportunity costs are everywhere. Instead we focus on fundamental relationships between the dynamics of starting business and doing business as expressed in the state of KE, and through it to the inclusive development via the economic growth of those countries. Estimation results indicate that the dynamics of starting and doing business explain strongly a large part of variations in KE. The link between KE and economic growth exists, but it is weak, and we provide plausible reasons for such a result. Despite the weak association between KE and economic growth, KE-influenced growth plays a very important role in inclusive development. In fact, growth of this kind has stronger effects on inclusive development and by implication on poverty reduction, than some of conventional controls in this study such as FDI, foreign aid, and even private investment. There is clearly room for further research to improve the results, but just as clearly practical policy is best served by not neglecting the relationships examined in this paper.
An inclusive financial system is one that effectively provides all clients, especially poor and low- income clients, with affordable financial services. Compared with microcredit, inclusive finance not only contains loan, but also contains savings, insurance, payment, settlement and other financial services. Compared with microfinance, inclusive finance not only includes small loan companies, rural credit cooperatives, rural banks and other microfinance institutions, but also includes formal financial sectors like large commercial banks. The mission of inclusive finance is to integrate microfinance into mainstream of financial system and realize the full potential of microfinance. It is very important to provide all clients with convenient, prompt and low-cost financial services, although the inclusive financial system gives priority to expanding access to those who are excluded by traditional finance and microfinance.