Transformative online pedagogies call for innovative ways of conceptualizing the online environment and the student, teacher, and peer relationships. In this paper, we focus on how distributed co-mentoring can scaffold both social and knowledge building processes to develop culturally inclusive online learningcommunities. We critique traditional mentoring relationships, which have often sustained a biased class structure exclusive of diverse populations. We conceptualize co-mentoring drawing from the perspectives of two alternative mentoring theories: (1) feminist postmodern values that bring women and minorities into educational networks, and (2) mentoring mosaic where a diverse range of individuals of different ranks, ages, genders, ethnicities, skills, and experience come together in a non- hierarchical community, blurring distinctions between mentor and mentee to support each other in collaboration. Based on these two perspectives, we define co-mentoring as offering developmental assistance at various points in the growth of a collaborative online group, moving away from the traditional two-person relationship where a more experienced person offers assistance and guides a less experienced person to grow and advance. The expert/novice relationship definition of mentoring is problematic not only from a culturally inclusive point of view, but also from the perspective of the online environment where networked relationships can emerge between persons not bound by power structures, or, local or national cultures. We discuss two case studies of distributed co-mentoring: one, a cross-cultural co-mentoring program between the United States and Sri Lanka in the context of an online faculty development program implemented in Sri Lanka, and the second, a cross-border faculty development program conducted in Sri Lanka between
inclusive civic engagement in action can be found in Kirwan’s work in its home community of Columbus, Ohio. “More Than My Brother’s Keeper” (MTMBK) is a program run in partner- ship with key community anchor institutions, including the local children’s hospital and a neighborhood community-development collabora- tive. The program supports at-risk African Ameri- can male youth (ages 10 to 14) and their families residing on the south side of the city. MTMBK incorporates both experiential learning and inten- sive mentoring to help kids discover their own assets and build relationships of mutual trust with each other and with the Kirwan (and other partner) staff and community members. While Kirwan leads conversations among community stakeholders to address issues of affordable and safe housing, food access, and healthy and diverse “third places,” 4 the
This paper reports on a pilot study that investigates the widely reported issue of underachievement of students from Culturally Linguistically and Economically Diverse (CLED) backgrounds. It involves 15 university educa- tion faculty student volunteers and over 40 students and their families in primary (elementary) schools situated in disadvantaged communities of Victoria whose students come from 40 different nationalities, speaking 36 languages and with 75 per cent of its student cohort coming from Non English Speaking Backgrounds. A part- nership was formed to focus on the problem of CLED children’s disengagement from their academic learning. We focus on how a productive partnership between schools and a university impact on inclusive teaching and learning practices both at the school and the university level. We investigate whether such an intervention can have an impact on engagement levels and the learning and social outcomes of students from refugee, migrant and working class families. Privileging participant voice we analyze data from interviews, surveys and focus groups with students, teachers and parents to argue that such a program has the capacity to re-engage under- achieving students at a minimal cost to the community as an alternative model to other expensive and unsuc- cessful intervention programs. We conclude that at the core of this successful program is the need for both par- ticipants to feel they are empowered in the process. We know that student outcomes can be enhanced when the students feel connected to and involved in their community. Through this project, the students have the opportu- nity to experience greater community engagement leading to improved school attendance and retention, as well as better academic outcomes.
Case study feedback illustrated how support provided by and/or within the faculty (school or department) acts to implement the action plans, and operationalise the inclusivity practices. Academic units (schools, faculties, departments etc.) can have dedicated individuals with a remit for supporting disabled students. For example, one has designated school support officers and advisers, and another has recently introduced disability liaison officers replacing the previous model of disability tutors. These may be managed and funded by the academic unit or more commonly by the central disability services team. This provides the discipline-related specialism necessary for effective support and inclusive approaches. Another institution reported that deployment of dedicated individuals was a deliberate strategy to provide consistent support across the faculties, and to tailor support and advice to specific courses (as learning contexts vary between faculties). As one interviewee noted: “ … it is helpful to have someone on hand to talk to, put a face to a name and have a real presence in the faculties”. Institutions aim to create a network of support for students.
Developing inclusivelearning environments does not mean avoiding controversy. On the contrary, the discussion of controversial issues may help students to achieve desired learning outcomes. They may be used to raise the complexity of an issue about which students may believe there is only one perspective.
In the region, in inclusive education professionals are not properly utilized in their profession. This findings show that in everywhere in the region professional were not properly used. Furthermore, there is no budgetary plan for inclusive education in regional level.The findings of this study revealed that teaching methods are chalk and talk, questioning and answering. Teachers are dominated by this traditional way of teaching. Continuous assessment, cooperative and student centered learning are not actively used. The teaching system is not attractive for diversity of children; it is pouring in one direction. Teachers are not adequately trained/ skillful to modify the curriculum for these diversified children. Furthermore, the findings revealed that student with special needs are poorly beneficiaries in regular settings because of unfriendly learning environment. Little or no screening and assessment accessibility are in the learning environment. The other challenges in the schools are teachers are not ready/ committed to support, modify the curriculum based on their interest and ability of learning. This is because inclusive education by itself is a new challenge for regular teachers. In addition, this study finding revealed that current biggest challenge in the region is identification and screening problem of children with special needs and provision of individualized learning. This shows that there is high limitation of trained professionals to screen and identify special needs according to their learning needs and developing screening instrument in the region. The data show only11.3 % of the children with disabilities got a chance of education. The remaining 88.7 % of children with disabilities are still out of the school. The data revealed that a large number of children with disabilities are out of the school. The data revealed that grade one students are the highest repeaters of all grades in the primary schools of the region when compared to other grades. The reason for highest number of repetition in grade one is poor treatment and poor intervention problems. The data shows that still grade one student are the highest dropout rate in all primary schools. In all grade levels females drop out number exceeds male drop out number. This early period of elementary school level requires greatest treatment or intervention. Pertaining opportunities to implement inclusive education, most teachers
Menendez 2009; O’Mara 2010; Melhuish and Bletter 2015). Perry et al. (2009) suggest that universities in different metropolitan areas have worked mutually with government, business and communities to define and shape individual and collective interest regarding city planning and development. Perry et al. (2009) argue that the high real estate capital that universities possess should enable the institutions to shape city development through the construction of new buildings which serve both academic and commercial purposes as opposed to the town-gown divide approach. Universities also play a leveraging role through knowledge production. As research institutions, universities drive knowledge production and academic excellence within the knowledge economy. In addition, as stated by Birch, Perry and Taylor (2013) universities are, as part of the global knowledge network, expected to generate, translate and diffuse research-led innovation which makes them globally competitive as well as locally engaged. Innovation scholars have considered the way knowledge, innovation and commercialization support local industry and development (Tödtling and Trippl 2005). This contribution also places significant focus on the evolution of science parks, spin-off firms and incubators within a spatial context. Furthermore, universities support the adoption and exploitation of knowledge through engagement with local business, enterprise and policy makers which is achieved through continuous formal and informal exchange of tacit and codified knowledge ( Brubacher and Rudy 1968). The success of knowledge-led developments, such as in the Silicon Valley, is evidence of universities’ knowledge role in development. Universities also venture beyond the knowledge role by developing backward linkages. These econometric contributions to city or regional economies include, inter alia, job creation, university expenditures, as well as student, staff and visitor expenditures along with its trickle-down effects in the city or region’s economy. Hence, the various studies focusing on the economic impact of universities have significantly increased the understanding regarding universities’ contribution to city and regional economies (Axtell 1998; Altbach 2004; Ehrenberg 2004; Guerrero, Cunningham and Urbano 2015; Psacharopoulos and Patrinos 2004).
The aim of the present research was to determine the effectiveness of two different preschool preparation programs on math achievement in children with intellectual disability and children without intellectual disability. The results of this research clearly indicate that both preschool preparation programs, special education preschool program and inclusive preschool program, were very effective in improving the math abilities in children prior to their enrollment in elementary school. However, the largest improvement was in the special education preschool program, in which children with intellectual disability improved their math scores for approximately 1.7 standard deviations. It is also evident that inclusive preschool program had a larger effect on children without disabilities than on children with intellectual disability, with both of these groups improving significantly. There are several potential explanations for the obtained results. First, special education preschool groups are led by special education teachers who are specialized in providing evidence-based methods for improving children’s academic skills. Special education teachers need to have a wide knowledge base and need to master a complex repertoire of instructional methods (Brownell, Sindelar, Kiely, & Danielson, 2010). Another potential explanation regards the group sizes in these programs. Special education preschool groups are smaller in size and have a more favorable child – teacher ratio and thus the better math achievement. It is widely established that smaller group sizes have a positive effect on learning math, at least in older students (Springer, Stanne, & Donovan, 1999). The findings in this research are in line with a conclusion that small classes in early grades have many benefits (Nye, Hedges, & Konstantopoulos, 1999). A possible, but unlikely explanation is that special education preschool programs are better equipped to support
Nevertheless, access to information is a basic right and the increasing amount of publicly available information is even more important for people with disabilities and other groups at risk of exclusion. Today, a socially inclusive and universally accessible Information Society is a critical quality target and a global requirement that entails coping with diversity in: (i) the characteristics of the target user population (including people with disabilities); (ii) the scope and nature of tasks; and (iii) the different contexts of use and the effects of their proliferation into business and social endeavours .
The module is made up of readings, forums, and assignments. Readings in- clude Calvert & Kolter (2003), Mayer & Moreno (2003), Bandura (2001), Palmer (n.d.), Zanetis (2013), Merrill (2002), Black & McClintock (1995), and websites such as Center for Media Literacy, National Association for Media Literacy Education, Learning Connections and Sesame Workshop. Each reading presents foundational theories in media literacy, learning, multimedia, and instructional design theories. Assignments include brainstorming in project groups over how to incorporate media literacy, learning, multimedia, and instructional design theories into project design, selecting insights from media literacy, learning, multimedia, and instructional design theories and incorporating into lesson de- signed in Module 1 and 2, and providing meaningful feedback to classmates’ lesson designs.
Effective output from the computer is often key to effective use of computers by people with learning difficulties. Bright, colourful and active screens can be helpful – though take care not to make them too cluttered. Larger text and large monitors help and it is often suggested that to intensify the image it may be good to work in a darkened room.
Errors that are found by examining a method independently are the easiest ones to fix because the errors cannot have been caused by some other part of the program. When testing an entire program at once, this assumption cannot be made. If methods have not been tested independently, it is often the case that one has an error that does not become obvious until other methods have executed—that is, the signs of an error can first appear far from where the error actually occurs, making debugging difficult. Second, stepwise refinement imposes a structure on our programs, and we can use this structure to help us find bugs in a completed program. When debugging a pro- gram, we should first determine which of the methods is malfunctioning. Then we can concentrate on debugging that method, while ignoring the other parts of the pro- gram, which are irrelevant to the bug. For example, suppose our robot makes a wrong turn and tries to pick up a thing from the wrong place. Where is the error? If we use helper methods to write our program, and each helper method performs one specific task (such as positionForNextHarvest ) or controls a set of related tasks (such as harvestTwoRows ), then we can usually determine the probable location of the error easily and quickly.
University of Huddersfield Repository Cox, Graham Communities of practice learning in progressive ensembles Original Citation Cox, Graham (2003) Communities of practice learning in progressive ensembl[.]
iREC Inclusion Promotes Broad Student Success. To examine the in- clusive nature of the iREC, we compared student cohorts known to have poor science persistence early in college careers (33, 34), particularly first generation college students (Fig. 4C), women (Fig. 4D), underrepresented minorities (Fig. 4E), and underrepresented men (Fig. 4F). The broadly shared gains by SEA-PHAGES stu- dents strongly support the conclusion that the iREC model pro- vides authentic research experiences (Fig. 4 C–E) to all students with similar advantages. We also find that student responses are similar for different types of institutions (Fig. 5A)—with small additional project ownership gains at community colleges relative to other schools—and we hypothesize that the supportive iREC programmatic structure (Fig. 1) facilitates success at institutions, such as community colleges, that typically do not have robust investigator-driven research activity. Students with different socio- economic backgrounds (Fig. 5B), academic performance (Fig. 5C), gender (Fig. 5D), and ethnicity (Fig. 5E) also score similarly, reinforcing the inclusive nature of the iREC as exemplified by the SEA-PHAGES program. Finally, to confirm that students reliably self-report their intention to persist in the sciences, we measured the average numbers of science courses taken by subsets of stu- dents in each of the three subsequent terms after their introductory laboratory course (Fig. 5F). The SEA-PHAGES students enrolled in a consistently higher number of science courses than students taking traditional laboratory courses (Fig. 5F).
Thus, a need exists for students with LD in inclusive high schools to learn basic skills, yet it appears many general education teachers may not be prepared to meet that need at the current time. It seems reasonable to conclude that, just as with elementary schools, meeting student needs and helping to obtain desired academic outcomes may be able to be accomplished in inclusive classrooms but it is not a sure thing. Therefore, schools must ensure that they are helping students with LD by using the resources they have at present, while developing their capacity to do more in the long run. Figure 1 provides guidelines for how educators can consider their resources as they make placement decisions for students with LD.
Impacts of SEL on teachers: Although the focus of social emotional learning is on its effects on students, research has shown that implementing SEL programming in their classrooms can have both direct and indirect positive impacts on the teachers who teach these types of programs. Teachers who have implemented SEL demonstrated lower levels of stress and those with greater comfort in implementing SEL showed greater general professional commitment to teaching (Collie, Shapka, & Perry, 2011), together suggesting that ―implementation of SEL nurtures teachers’ own well-being‖ Teachers who have well-developed social emotional skills demonstrate greater enjoyment of teaching, and feel more self-efficacy (Goddard, Hoy, & Woolfolk-Hoy, 2004). SEL programs that reduce challenging behavior and improve achievement in the classroom are likely to further reduce teacher stress, given that student behavior and failure have long been known to impact teacher well-being (Schaubman, Stetson, & Plog, 2011). When teachers and students learn about SEL and take part in its programs, teacher stress is lowered and poor conflictual relationships between student and teacher are mitigated.
Color perception and temperature are also influenced by lighting. Placing a blue painting under a bluish light (such as a cool fluorescent) will heighten the blueness of the painting. However, a red painting under a blue light will become dull and grayish because no red color waves are being made by the light. A study by Styne (1990) showed that a space painted with cool colors under cool fluorescent lighting resulted in spaces that seemed larger, quieter, and cooler. A space with warm colors under warm incandescent lighting resulted in a more active space that seemed smaller, warmer, and louder. Fast food restaurants use warm bright colors to stimulate appetite and the perception of noise. As a result, sales increase due to the fast turnover. Such information provides useful insight when designing environments beneficial for learning.
The first example CLC focuses around a project to support learning in the broadcast, performance and creativity doma ins and has multiple stakeholders groups. The ‘artists’ wished to develop their interests, but lacked the opportunity, confidence or educational qualifications to progress their ambitions. The educators involved were not professional teachers, rather they came from young industry companies bringing a contextualis ation, enthusiasm and 'street credibility' to the community, which was considered to be one of the core reasons for success. Technologists developed a web tool to support any-time anywhere learning that was used in conjunction with face-to-face experiences with industry experts and industry standard equipment. This combination of technology and physical interaction was central to the CLC. A co-ordination function was provided by professionals experienced in more traditional training and social outreach programs. The local development agency, the project sponsor, provided both finance and the initial genesis and retained an interactive role as the CLC developed. The final groups of stakeholders were the local communities, to which the artists returned with the products of their learning and the wider industry community which attended sessions and with which some artists later worked.