Development of the country can never be possible without ensuring expansion of education among masses. Education is one of the pillars on which the whole edifice of social sector reforms rests on. The huge number of the people who are disadvantaged from education means a colossal waste of human resources. Human development is a growth paradigm that is about creating an inclusivesociety which includes the people who are disadvantaged socially, physically or mentally. Inclusiveness aims at building capabilities and self-esteem in the citizens so that they lead better lives, and significantly contribute for the progress of society. Besides many efforts made to universalize the education to all, but the target to bring all especially who remain disable and disadvantaged from many aspects could not be achieved. Inclusive education in India is in forefront with many emerging challenges and constraints. The present paper using data from the secondary sources discusses the need and status of inclusive education in India.
Russia has always had a compassionate attitude to people with disabilities. Churches and monasteries had shelters where they could get food. However, it was far from being a system of state support of the disabled. First attempts to make care of people with disabilities systematic were taken at the beginning of the XIX century. The first educational establishment for the disabled people was a specialized school for the blind, opened in 1803. Alongside studying arithmetic, reading, writing, students of the school learned primitive crafts: basketwork, woodwork. Unfortunately, the school didn’t work long. Due to numerous obstacles V. Gayui, who opened and maintained it, had to leave Russia . The development of the specialized school for the deaf-and-dumb in St. Petersburg was more fortunate, students got general and craft education there . Having being reorganized many times, having changed conditions of its work and affiliation, it still exists today. It is worth understanding that the government was far from the humanistic ideas of people’s equality while opening specialized schools for the disabled in the XIX century. It was the utility, helpfulness of people that was of importance. In the first specialized schools foreign models of school practice and maintenance were introduced by foreign teachers . It was likely the desire to imitate the western way of life in different spheres. That brings the historical peculiarity in developing inclusive education in Russia. There were no socio-cultural grounds to accept the necessity of education for people with disabilities. Practices introduced were alien to the Russian mentality. Moreover, those specialized schools were initially maintained by the sponsors, not the state.
Building an inclusive educational space is impossible without building a so called “foundation of values” An inclusive culture serves as such a foundation. This phenomenon is considered in the works of such researchers and scholars as T. Booth, M. Einsko (2007), S.V. Alekhina (2011), V.V. Khitryuk (2012) and others, and is interpreted as 1) a special philosophy according to which values, knowledge about inclusive education and responsibility are accepted and shared between all the participants of this process; 2) a part of the general school culture aimed at promoting the values of inclusion, which helps to increase the efficiency of the inclusive process as a whole; 3) a unique microclimate of trust, contributing to the development of relevant relations between the family and the school, avoiding conflicts between the participants of the process; 4) a special inclusive atmosphere, in which the implemented modifications are adapted to the needs of a particular school and organically woven into its general structure, and teachers are given the opportunity to receive various support, both from the administration and from other teachers, to reduce the risk of many contradictions ; 5) the fundamental basis for creating the inclusivesociety culture, where the diversity of needs is welcomed, supported, accumulated by society, providing the opportunity to achieve high results in accordance with the goals of inclusive education and ensuring the preservation, acceptance, cooperation and stimulation of continuous improvement of the pedagogical community and the society as a whole ” 
dominating logics, are actually the separations and the disciplinary barricades – t ake , f or example , t he longstanding, and in some way, unbelievable distinction between the humanities and scientific studies, between humanistic and scientific training (one of the reasons for our current cultural lag, which is still wreaking so much damage) that not only stifles the observation and compre- hension of reality (regarding both social systems and complex organizations), of social production and of knowledge sharing (backbone of the new ecosystem), but which also reveals itself to be incapable of reflecting that overview and that global perspective that our current social, political and cultural processes require. In this sense, I am still convinced, and on this basis I have de- veloped my research, that technological innovation has always been a strategic factor of change in social systems and organizations, but that if it is not supported by a culture of communication and by a systemic view of complexity, and with respect to political deciders, by long-term social policies capable of sparking and supporting cultural change (strategic centrality of schools, education, universities), it will always turn out to be a “would-be” innovation. The knowledge society and the new global ecosystem  – which, for this and other reasons, I have preferred to term “ Interconnected Society”, are destined to become more and more closed- off and exclusive, even in those settings where it is not possible to put up walls and barriers to manage diversity, inequality and conflict. These are the seeds of what we have defined the “asymmetric society” [1, 2, 8, 23]: an apparently open and inclusivesociety that, in reality, guarantees opportunities of inclusion and mobility only along theoretical lines and within a purely legal frame of reference. The latter, necessary but not sufficient for building, and indeed, guaranteeing the pre-requisites for a complete, fully participatory, and non-hetero-directed citizenship [25, 26, 28, 57, 62–65], as I have defined it in previous works [2, 9, 10].
The findings of this study have important implications for realising the vision of New Zealand’s Digital Strategy to create an inclusivesociety where all members, including recent immigrants, are able to access and use ICTs and hence be able to fully participate in the Information society. The consequences to society resulting from inequalities in the skills in, and usage of, ICTs have been discussed by van Dijk and Hacker (2003). These researchers note that a fundamental task of society is to prevent these inequalities from cementing into structural inequalities where they “so- lidify” and become barriers to advancement in society.” (p. 324).
Children those who are deviated from average towards left side in normal probability curve or below from average physically, intellectually, emotionally, and socially consider as challenged or disabled to instruct in general class with other students. These children can be categorized as mild, moderate and severe. There is a provision of special education and integrated education for the children with disabilities, but it is expensive, limited to their reach, and create exclusion in the society. Education of children with disability has shifted from no education at all to inclusive education to achieve the goal „education for all‟. Therefore to develop inclusivesociety (learn to live together), inclusive education is the approach to include all children irrespective of their diversity in the general school environment. World conference on special need education
goal for students who have obstacles is the actual involvement of each child in the whole school life. Inclusion can also mean the acceptance of children who have obstacles into the curriculum, environment, social interaction and vision-mission of the school . Inclusion in education is a process of increasing student participation and reducing its separation from culture, curriculum and local communities. What is built in inclusive education are: (1) cultural, policy and practice restructuring to respond to students' diversity in their environment; (2) learning and participation of all students who have opportunities for exclusion pressure; (3) improving the quality of schools both in increasing the ability of staff and students; (4) overcoming barriers to access and participation; (5) it is the right of all students to be educated within their community; (6) views diversity as a source of wealth, and not as a problem; (7) maintaining relationships between schools and the community; (8) views inclusive education as an access from inclusive communities . Creating an inclusive culture is one of the dimensions that must be restructured in inclusive education. In this dimension what must be built is to create security, acceptance, collaboration, stimulate society, where everyone is valued as the foundation for the highest achievements. This develops with inclusive values which are conveyed to all teachers, staff, principals, students and parents / guardians. Principles and values, in an inclusive culture in schools, guide the decisions of policies and practices in the classroom, so that school development becomes a continuous process. In the dimension of creating an inclusive culture there are two parts, namely building a community and upholding inclusive values . The part of building an inclusivesociety can be seen from several indicators, namely everyone is made to feel accepted; learners help each other; cooperation between staff and teachers; staff and students respect each other; there is cooperation between employees and parents of students; staff and headmasters work well together; and the local community is involved in the school. The part of upholding inclusive values can be seen from expecting all students to develop their potential; all parties share inclusive values; all students are valued fairly; treat each other as fully human beings and have the same role; staff and teachers try to remove barriers to learning and encourage active participation of students; and schools try to minimize all forms of discrimination .
It is therefore necessary to raise awareness of society to respect diversity, this fact should spread as a positive energy. We have already said that children with disabilities can and want to contribute to society, and it does not depend on them. Every day we live and respect the diversity of each child, respecting different cultures, socio-economic, national, linguistic diversity, racial diversity, as a great professional challenge.
The sample characteristics with respect to distribution with respect to educational qualifications between under graduate and graduate is 20% and 80% respectively. However the distribution with regard to teaching experiences between 1 to 15 years and 15 to 30 years with valid percentage 82.5% and 17.5% respectively, therefore the frequency distribution of number of years of teaching experiences between the age group 15 to 30 years are less participants and their attitudes are also positive towards inclusion. The findings of study on attitude of inclusive teachers trained by Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan towards inclusive education of children with mental retardation with respect to variables such as age, gender, educational qualification and teaching experience are almost found positive attitude towards inclusion. However the comparison of attitude of inclusive teachers towards inclusive of children with mental retardation with respect to the variables such as age group, gender, education qualification and teaching experiences within the group was found that there is no significant differences in the attitude of the subjects towards inclusive education of the children with mental retardation. Therefore the hypothesis formulated by the researcher that their will be a significant differences in the attitude of inclusive teachers towards inclusive education of the children with mental retardation with respect to age, gender, educational qualification and teaching experience has been rejected at 0.05 level. Hence the T-Test is statistically not significant and the hypothesis is rejected.
INTRODUCTION: Inclusive growth is a concept that advances equitable opportunities for economic participants during economic growth with benefits incurred by every section of society. The microeconomic dimension captures the importance of structural transformation for economic diversification and competition, while the macro dimension refers to changes in economic aggregates such as the country’s gross national product (GNP) or gross domestic product (GDP), total factor productivity, and aggregate factor inputs. First and most important is the objective of equality in growth i.e. That the growth is Shared equally by all the population. Related to this objective is the desirability of Growth being equal to or perhaps even higher for the poorer sections of the Population. Note that these objectives say nothing about the static distribution of income. It can be equal, or highly unequal. If the growth rates are similar, then the Distribution of income will broadly stay at its original value. Equal growth rates will Mean that whatever growth occurs, it was inclusive. There should be some growth, preferably high growth. One can think of growth inclusion Tradeoffs i.e. If high growth comes at the expense of some
Mattingly. J et al., (2010) in a guidance note by Department of International Development discussed about perceived barriers (physical, social, financial) to educating children with disabilities and talked about low school budget resulting in lack of appropriate facilities, inadequate teachers training in inclusive methodology, lack of awareness of disability among teachers and many others that acts as a barrier in educating children with special needs. Kaur, (2013), examined access to physical environment as well as access to curriculum and the teaching environment of children with special needs and emphasized on adoption of inclusive approaches in education so that the goal of „Education for all‟ can be achieved. MHRD, Guidelines for Inclusive Education for CWSN (2014) also discussed about major challenges and Issues in education of CWSN which includes Assessment of CWSN, Lack of Resource teachers, Lack of well equipped sufficient resource rooms, Removal of Architectural Barriers and Quality access to CWSN and so on.
Health researchers must actively promote the societal benefits arising from their research, so that it becomes part of the public con- sciousness that research using patient data results in benefits for society. An Understanding Patient Data initiative stipulates that researchers should routinely acknowledge their sources of data in publications and press releases, with the view that by continually acknowledging the use of such data, the public will see that it is being used for the common good and thus feel more positively about its use in general. 54 To maximise public involvement, researchers should pro- vide details of their research in open and accessible manner through public web resources and public ‐ facing engagement events (eg, Pint of Science and Cafe Scientifique). Where a sense of community has been fostered, it will be most obvious who the key stakeholders are, and communication can be tailored to their needs and preferences.
The paper is about how inclusive education can be turned into reality through inclusive planning. It focuses on planning of disability as well as disable; it is something like personality and person. Disability planning revolves around planning in terms of less restricted architecture, curriculum, and administration and budgeting. The disable planning is all about using one’s strengths and offering resources to give expressions to these strengths. A disable child also has same kind of hierarchy of needs as suggested by Maslow for a normal child. Author stressed that building self-esteem can be instrumental in planning growth and development of a disable child. In the end there are given some implications for teacher in terms of Physical, Social, Academic, Emotional and Cultural inclusion planning of a disable child.
In the feuilletons and the daily publications you will find reports of experiences which refer to the current state of inclusion. Not only the forms of work were redefined, but also the social references. Children and adolescents with learning and development disorders have not been sorted out for a long time, but assigned to the rule systems. Children with disabilities have the right to inclusive schooling, and educational institutions located above the special education system have the duty to admit all pupils without reservation, without a minimum qualification, without conditions. This is how things could be summarized in the narrowest sense, without regional differences, without naming any subtleties in school law or school organisation. The enforcement of a right - nothing else means inclusion for many - has its price. It is difficult to say how the individual groups will come to terms with the new circumstances. However, the mood is very clear when one summarizes individual contributions, critical comments, the formation of initiatives or the general pressure on the school authorities.