Increasing the trains’ speed has always been one of the goals of any railway industry and train manufacturers. Also, the influence of the train speed on bogie’s dynamics has an immense importance. Therefore, it is im- portant to analyze the effect of train speed on the stress distribution in different parts of train structure. In this study the result of the increasingspeed on the applied stresses of a biaxial bogie frame has been examined. For this purpose, a biaxial bogie frame has been modeled using finite element analysis. Static and dynamic forces applied on the bogie with biaxial frame have been obtained for different speeds and rail roughness. The Von Mises stresses are adopted as equivalent stresses in the strength calculation. The results show that maximum stress always has been induced in the bogie bowl also the increase in bogie’s speed has remarka- ble effect on the increment of applied stresses in the bogie frame.
In early 1980s, IEEE had given a standardization to represent a real numbers in the world of computing called as floating point number format; it is also known as IEEE 754. Floating point arithmetic is an interesting subject for many researchers. This is not surprising because floating point is used in almost every computer system. Almost every machine language supports floating point data types. Intel’s 80486 is the first microprocessor which has inbuilt floating point unit. Computers from PCs, laptops to supercomputers have floating point arithmetic unit, accelerators, compiler, etc., and virtually every operating system must respond to floating point exceptions such as underflow, overflow. Various algorithms have been proposed for the use of floating point number systems. Which algorithm is to be used is depends on the requirement of that system. Some algorithm has greater speed of calculation where some of them need more area to implement that algorithm. In most of the DSP applications, multiplier has great significance and it is require doing calculation very fast.
that tail beat amplitude increased strongly with increasingspeed. Hunter presents scaling of speed with length in anchovy larvae (Engraulus mordax) and found increasing tail beat frequency with speed (Hunter, 1972); however, a wider range of behaviors (and thus speeds) was included in the sample. Adding fast burst swimming (above the speed when the pectoral fins are actuated) would no doubt also result in an increase in tail beat frequency in larval zebrafish. The ability of zebrafish larvae to modulate tail beat frequency is demonstrated by physiology data on motor neuron activity during fictive swimming (McLean et al., 2007), and tail beat frequencies during swimming that follows the startle response are also higher than those recorded here (Müller and van Leeuwen, 2004). Thus, while we suggest that tail beat frequency is not modulated during the slow swim gait described in this paper (which combines pectoral fin movement and body undulation), it is clear that tail beat frequency is associated with a variation in speed through the broader range of rhythmic swimming behaviors. These data suggest that with increasingspeed through the entire range of swimming, larval zebrafish increase tail beat amplitude at a constant frequency and then further increase speed by increasing tail beat frequency. These data also imply that the motor control of slow swimming (combined fin and body movement) and fast swimming (body undulation only) may be modulated in very different ways;
on conventional methods of mechanical and hydro-mechanical system. The present generation aircraft are using fly-by-wire (FBW) and in future likely to migrate to fly-by-light (FBL) method for aircraft control system. Mechanical & Hydro- mechanical flight control systems have been replaced by Fly- By-Wire due to increasingspeed of modern aircraft. Due to inherent characteristics of FBL like light weight, compact size, large bandwidth, immunity to EMI & HIRF FBL, it is expected to be ideal futuristic flight control system. Fly-by- Light control systems offer inherent resistance to the new generation more hostile military environments. The inherent features are the motivator to achieve the technological advances to make Fly-by-Light systems a successful replacement aircraft control system technology for future. The application of optical fiber in aviation promises to be very exciting study, covering highly complex aircraft stability and controls.
have considered the application of this interchange of roles – a symmetry which is particular to the case of a uniformly accelerated particle. In the case of radial motion, outside the horizon and motion along the direction of homogeneity inside the horizon, one find that the equations of motion on both sides of the horizon are of the same form. In the case of circular motion on a photon sphere and “circular” motion on a photon sphere analogue, outside and inside the horizon, respectively, the equations of motion are found to be different. In both cases, with either the same or different equations of motion, one gets the very different solutions. Outside the horizon one reproduces more or less well-known outcomes; inside the horizon the outcomes are found to be rather unexpected. Outside the horizon a radially accelerated particle departs with ever increasingspeed (if the acceleration is larger than some critical value); the speed of a test particle uniformly accelerated along the homogeneity axis inside the horizon, whose equation of motion is the same as the one outside the horizon, initially increases but then decreases to zero when approaching the ultimate singularity. The radial acceleration during circular motion of the test particle on the photon sphere is independent of its speed; the speed of a test particle following accelerated motion along a circle belonging to the photon sphere analogue (of ever decreasing radius) increases to the speed of light when approaching the ultimate singularity. Having in mind an (intimate) symmetry (7) between the exterior and interior of the Schwarzschild black hole leading in the simplest case to the same equation of motion, one may wonder how it arises that the properties of the solutions are so different. The answer is: it is because 𝑟 and 𝑡, spatial (radial) and temporal coordinates, respectively, outside horizon interchange their roles, becoming temporal and spatial (in the direction of homogeneity) coordinates inside the horizon. Such an exchange of roles has a deeper consequence: outside the horizon spacetime is spherically symmetric and static and inside the horizon it is no longer static, it is dynamically changing (ie an “anisotropic cosmology”, see ) but homogeneous along one of its spatial directions.
The increasingspeed coefficients c1 and c2, together with the irregular esteems r1 and r2 keep up the stochastic impact of the intellectual and social segments of the molecule's speed individually. The consistent c1 communicates how much certainty a molecule has in itself, while c2 communicates how much certainty a molecule has in its neighbors . There are a few properties of c1 and c2: When c1=c2=0, at that point all particles keep flyingat their ebb and flow speed until the point when they hit the inquiry space's limit.
most animals studied implies that such animals expend the same amount of energy specifically to move themselves a given distance regardless of the speed at which they walk or run. From this we might infer that there is no energetic economy to be gained by an animal moving slowly or quickly. However, most animals appear to pay an energetic price simply for striking their locomotion posture; a fixed cost that is somewhat independent of speed, though has yet to be well explained (Fig. 1A) (see Halsey, 2013 for discussion). While moving, animals are also expending energy for bodily processes that are not associated with activity (Konarzewski and Ksia ̨ z ̇ ek, 2013); a further fixed cost. However, in contrast to the locomotion posture cost, this is one that would be paid anyway; thus, although it forms part of an animal ’ s energy costs during movement, it cannot be counted as part of the energy forfeited specifically to undertake this behaviour. Despite these fixed costs, at higher velocities the inference that speed does not affect total energy costs during movement is reasonably accurate, because fixed energy costs become a minor concern; the total energy expended while moving from A to B varies little with locomotion speed. It is when the animal is travelling at the lower range of its speeds and thus the payment of the fixed costs is being made for longer that variation in velocity has a substantial effect on total energy expenditure during movement; when the animal speeds up slightly its energy economy per unit distance improves considerably. Conversely, when the animal slows down substantially, tending towards a speed of 0, the total energy cost for it to move between two points increases considerably (Fig. 1B).
Srinivasulu et al.(2012a) develop a characterization of the process through the use of a particular classic DoE design (Box-Behnken), which is related with RSM (response surface methodology) evaluation of the results. Their ANOVA takes into consideration the importance of the degree of freedom. The RSM is able to predict the internal diameter in the selected range of variables with good approximation (i.e. the error is less than 0.08%). Jalali Aghchai et al.(2012) use fractional factorial DoE and graphical methods (i.e. RSM) in order to characterize the variables of their model for steel. They report that Analysis of Variance determines the reduction ratio has more influence on process than roller geometry and axial speed. The authors propose and optimized set of the variables built by simulation trials for validation. Wang et al. use only an interaction plot and analysis of means without producing optimization of output.
The quality and availability of cereals in the global market is highly dependent on the threshing process. A wrong selection of threshing conditions which in this case are the machine and crop parameters leads to low threshing performance and grain loss. Grain/threshing loss is measured in terms of grain damage while threshing performance is measured in terms of threshing efficiency, thresher capacity and threshing loss. In Africa and more especially Nigeria, the annual consumption of cereal is fast increasing. This rate has challenged the indigenous farmers’ production volume and is gradually catching up on the global market production. The scheme as shown in figure 1 below explains it all.
sequently, a higher heart rate implies a close relation- ship between heart rate and oxygen consumption, with the rate increasing in proportion to work inten- sity (Astrand et al. 2003, Apud et al. 1989). Therefore, the physical workload can be evaluated comparing heart rates measured during resting and working. The task heaviness can be benchmarked by compar- ing the heart rate attained for each activity with the individual maximal oxygen uptake. The anaerobic threshold is assumed to be below 40% for an 8 hour working shift (Astrand et al. 2003).
Investigations were carried out for examination of the effect of parameters on the mean drop size in with and without solute. Some investigators studied the influence of the impeller speed and the dispersed phase hold-up fraction on the mean drop size for different systems (Chatzi et al. ; Skelland et al. ; Zerfa and Brooks ; Kumar et al. ; Boye et al. ; Ruiz et al. ; Ban et al. ; Desnoyer et al. ; Riberio et al. )
ronmentally harmful ways of generating electricity. Of the installed capacity, wind turbines have a large share among the other grid connected renewable sources, close to 66.66% 1 . Obviously wind turbines need to be built where the wind blows reliably and strongly. The society is certainly not willing to give up private cars, air con- ditioning, computers, television, refrigeration, and all the other energy consuming equipment of the modern life-style. Accordingly, we must build sustainable energy supply systems. Earlier works promoted wind energy in many ways  . In our study we have worked on grid tied rooftop micro wind turbine. The major problem with such a system is synchronization largely due to wind variability. Due to this problem, the stability of avail- able grid gets reduced. This can somehow be achieved by the output power control of the turbine. India is the fifth largest wind power producer in the world. As of March 2014, the installed capacity of wind power in India is 21136.3 MW  , mainly spread across Tamil Nadu (7154 MW), Gujarat (3093 MW), Maharashtra (2976 MW), Karnataka (2113 MW) and Rajasthan (2355 MW). Wind power accounts for 8.5% of India’s total in- stalled renewable power capacity, and it generates 1.6% of the country’s power. Still it is not very much popular at domestic level due to the high initial investment and other problems as discussed above. Our goal is to achieve stable power supply to the grid from wind source. To this issue, we suggest a new method of small ex- ternal motor that will provide momentary impulse or external torque to the rotor through relay switch or voltage controller that helps to maintain the momentum of blades for sufficient time and provide stable power supply. In this method, the light weight external motor has been attached at the hub of the wind turbine and it works on the method of spring balance system. The motor aligns itself with the axis of rotation of blades when a mass of around 10 pounds is put to the groove attached to motor. This is done so as to not disturb the aerodynamics of the blades and the yaw system. The motor provides external torque to the rotor only during moderately low wind speeds, i.e., around 2.5 - 4 m/s. At other times, when the wind speed is self sufficient to produce stable power supply, the motor remains off-axis from the rotor and doesn’t interfere in its motion. This mechanism is cur- rently mechanical but could be automated for better performance. The concept presented in this paper is imple- mented and tested.
Endoluminal CTC is generally displayed from the perspective of a virtual colonoscope, and most workstations allow the reader to “fly-‐through” the lumen at their preferred speed (which we found was approximately 1.2cm/s). In this study, we found that as navigation speed increased, readers’ gaze narrowed progressively to the central portion of the display; “tunnel vision”. At the fastest speed, readers spent less than 5% of their time looking directly at the peripheral 75% of the image, thereby becoming almost entirely reliant on low-‐acuity peripheral vision here. A major advantage of CTC over colonoscopy is the former’s ability to readily visualise the entire colonic mucosal surface 16 ;
A Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) is a technology that uses moving vehicles as nodes in a network to create a mobile network. Vehicular communications like V-2-V and V-2-I with vertical handover decision process has to consider the speed limits and other real-time constraints such as lane-changes, emergency braking along with QoS parameters such as bandwidth, delay, jitter, bit error rate and cost. The proposed handover mechanism uses a game-theoretic Bayesian Nash-equilibrium based algorithm to select the network indicated by the Nash-Equilibrium point and uses a Extended Constrained MDP (Markov Decision Process) based algorithm with speed constraints in case of a tie between the networks.
D flip-flop is an important part of the modern digital circuits. Phase locked loop with an excellent performance is widely studied in recent years. Frequency divider and PFD are indispensable modules of PLL, which uses D flip-flop as an integral part. Edge Triggered D flip flops are often implemented in integrated high speed operations using dynamic logic. This means that the digital output is stored on parasitic device capacitance while the device is not transitioning. This design of dynamic flip flops also enables simple resetting since the reset operation can be performed by simply discharging one or more internal nodes. The conventional D flip-flop has higher operating frequencies but it features static power dissipation. However this causes small increase in power dissipation, since at the frequencies of interest dynamic power consumption is dominant. In the proposed circuit dynamic power consumption was reduced by lowering internal switching and speeds is increased by shortening input to output path.
217 | P a g e aluminium alloy composites using TiN (K10) coated tools and TP30 coated tools were presented. The effect of cutting speeds on tool wear and surface roughness was measured, and physical appearance of the chips produced using both cutting tools are observed. The following conclusions have been drawn:. The tool life of the TiN (K10) tool was significantly longer that of the TP30 tool. The tool life decreased with an increase in the cutting speed for both tools. Also the dependency of the tool wear on the cutting speed was smaller when the particle size was smaller. It is found that the major wear form of the tools were the combination of flank wear and rounding of the nose. For these tools, a removal of coated layer from the substrate material and BUE formation were appeared when cutting the compo- sites at lower speed. For the TP30 tools, however, edge chipping and nose rounding was evident due to high temperature and stresses at the cutting edge. 2. The surface roughness increased with increasing volume fraction of particles. The optimum surface roughness in the machining of MMCs was obtained at the cutting speed of 160 m min1 for both types of cutting tools while the maximum surface roughness values appeared in the machining of the 10% Al2O3 particles reinforced composite with particle size of 16 mm. In the machining of the particle-reinforced composites, the surface rough- ness of the TP30 tool was lower than that of the TiN (K10) tool due to not having a chip breakness geometry. 3. Physical appearance of chips produced by the TiN (K10) cutting tools on particle-reinforced composites were discontinuous and smaller sizes because of tool geometry while the chip appearance of the same composites but produced by TP30 cutting tools were continuous type and larger size. The length of the chips were shortened when the volume fraction of particles increased and the cutting speed was only effective for the alloy matrix or lower volume fraction of the composites.
In order to facilitate data collection, it was necessary to construct a case study protocol, the interview instrument for conducting the case study . It contains all the pertinent questions to be asked when investigating the company customer complaint management process. It is a major tool for increasing the reliability of case study research and is intended as a guide for the investigator in carrying out the study. The case study protocol must assure that data collection would involve converging lines of inquiry and triangulation of evidence. Within each data source there is an emphasis on depth and quality, rather than population size. Thus, a single case can add to the understanding of a phenomenon provided multiple data sources are used and over-generalization is avoided . There have been repeated calls for more qualitative case-study-based research in operations management , despite the clear difficulty of drawing generalized conclusions. The case study protocol included the analysis of all the organization activities affected by the customer complaints treatment process. This research proposed to identify how and why organizations manage and improve their customer complaints process, detailing the quality of the customer feedback and the delays in that process.
In this study, the focus on improving the rate of compression and quality of the frame in addition to the reduction of computations is an important factor in increasing the speed of processing where this algorithm proposed for search and matching is derived from the most common algorithms and efficiency (Three Step Search algorithm) with the reduction and redistribution of the research points where the proposed algorithm showed the efficiency of compression and processing speed in addition to the quality of the frame. From this we conclude that the lower the search points the faster the speed. Also, the relation between the compression rate and the quality coefficient inverse as the ratio of the pressure of the frame decreases in quality and vice versa.
The trivalent chromium baths was so acidic and Cr +3 ions were very positive to the aluminum surface on the electromotive scale and aluminum oxide would forms and it lead to prevent sufficient adhesion of the chromium coating on the aluminum surface. Burzynska et al.  found after 4 min, the zincates thickness will be stable. For increasing the zincates layer, this process was executed four times.
In this figure, we can see that the (Packet delivery ratio) is decreasing for both protocols as the number of nodes per route is increasing, but the decreasing in the case of (DSR modified) is much less than the decreasing in the (DSR original). The reason of decreasing in the PDR is that when the number of nodes in the route increases this means that the number of links in that route also increases, so the probability of link breakages occurrence also increases. Also, we can notice that the difference in PDR between the two protocols is big when the number of nodes per route is low (as it is clear when there is 5 nodes), but this difference is reduced gradually as the number of nodes per route increases (as it is clear when there is 50 nodes). The reason behind this is that the increase in the number of nodes per route reduces the efficiency of the new mechanism where link breakages will so frequently occur.