Independent Candidates

Top PDF Independent Candidates:

Russian duma elections in the territorial districts: Explaining patterns of proliferation of independent candidates, 1993 1999

Russian duma elections in the territorial districts: Explaining patterns of proliferation of independent candidates, 1993 1999

These explanations are meaningful, but overly general. They cannot explain why parties do attract viable candidates and do win seats in some districts, but not in others. For example, the hypothesis that the success o f independents can be traced to their personal resources (notability) is not sufficient in the light of the spatial variation in their level of success. More precisely, while notable candidates are present in every district, they do not always run as independents, and, moreover, notable independents are not equally successful in all districts. Clearly, in districts where independents are not successful, either personal resources are not effective, or candidates with personal resources choose to run as party candidates. Additional takes on the sources of independents' advantage over party candidates have been proposed, which, however, also fall prey to the same inadequacy. In a passage of her doctoral thesis, Regina Smyth has suggested that independent candidates enjoy an advantage over party candidates because the former can move "more freely anywhere on the political spectrum" (Smyth 1998: 273). A more specific version of this hypothesis is the very widely shared perception that independents capitalise on their proximity to their constituent base, which enables them to declare themselves to be the genuine representatives of local interests and above ideological divisions. In support of this, Laura Belin and Robert Orttung note that "candidates in single-member districts frequently promised to lobby for local interests. A successful candidate in Khabarovsk Kray, for example, claimed that all Duma deputies should be independent o f parties and 'be guided only by the interests o f their own voters and regions'".60
Show more

303 Read more

Independent Candidates in a Parliamentary Election in India: A Poisson Regression Model

Independent Candidates in a Parliamentary Election in India: A Poisson Regression Model

The problem addressed in this paper and the issues raised are not just relevant for India, but for all democracies. Even in older democracies in developed countries, competition among the two mainstream parties could sometimes create a political vacuum leading to the emergence of a third party (e.g., Liberal Democrats in case of the UK) or independent candidates (e.g., Ross Perot in case of the US). Our results indicate that such situations may lead to the emergence of more independent candidates. Some of these candidates could be floated discreetly by the mainstream political parties to clone their rivals. Because of the nature of the incentives of the political parties, first-past-the-post electoral systems are especially susceptible to such phenomena. Such electoral systems, therefore, need to put appropriate institutional constraints in place. The institutional constraints could be different for different countries. However, the main idea behind them is to increase the transaction cost of smaller parties and independent candidates.
Show more

27 Read more

Emergence of Independent Candidates: A Negative Binomial Regression Model of an Indian Parliamentary Election

Emergence of Independent Candidates: A Negative Binomial Regression Model of an Indian Parliamentary Election

In the context of the US, recently Lem and Dowling (2006) have specified a model that attempts to explain the emergence of smaller parties and independent candidates in gubernatorial elections. In the empirical part, they have specified and estimated a Negative Binomial model to account for the count data properties of the number of such candidates. Lem and Dowling (2006) have identified several factors (e.g., political competition, constituency size, population density, legal and institutional hurdles across States etc.) that explain the emergence of independent candidates. However, this study – although it enhances our understanding significantly – suffers from two major limitations. First, it has not addressed the complex interaction among mainstream political parties and independent candidates in sufficient detail. Such interactions might have important implications in all democracies, especially in developing and emerging market economies with a FPTP electoral system in place. Second and more importantly, the Negative Binomial specification in the empirical part of their study is ad hoc and is based on statistical convenience. In particular, it does not emerge out of a set of deductive arguments.
Show more

31 Read more

Strategic Entry and the Relationship between Number of Independent and Non Independent Candidates: A Study of Parliamentary Elections in India

Strategic Entry and the Relationship between Number of Independent and Non Independent Candidates: A Study of Parliamentary Elections in India

The paper attempts to examine the nature and the extent of strategic entries of independent candidates in elections following FPTP rule. The paper observes that besides individual incentives of the candidates, a major factor behind the emergence of independents under FPTP systems could be the surreptitious strategic floating of such candidates by major political parties. Accordingly, the paper proposes to use the number of non-independent candidates in a constituency as a readily observable ex ante proxy for political fragmentation and hypothesizes a strong functional relationship between non-independent and independent candidates. Empirical results for all parliamentary elections in India since 1962 reveal that during the first four elections in our reference period (e.g., during 1962—1977), the relationship was weak, as many independent candidates during this period were regional feudal satraps who either participated in elections with Congress support or posed the only challenge to Congress in their locality. However, political fragmentation and bitter fight among political parties in India during the 1980s gave birth to a new class of independents whose entries into the elections were primarily strategic in nature, leading to a strong relationship between the above two variables during this period.
Show more

21 Read more

Political mediation and participation in the Czech rural areas

Political mediation and participation in the Czech rural areas

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to show the mediation between citizens and political power by political parties in czech rural areas. The position of political parties in rural municipalities is demonstrated in two perspectives. The top-down perspective is based on the distribution of several tens of thousands mandates in local municipal councils between political parties. The opposite perspective provides the bottom-up point of view – from the level of the individual municipalities, the- ir party systems and party organisational structures. The analysis of the municipal election results reveals clearly that the role of political parties in local politics depends namely on the size of the given municipality. in this sense, the czech republic represents a very interesting example as it is characterised by a dense and heavily fragmented population settlement with a large number of small rural municipalities. in rural municipalities, we encounter incomplete party spectra and the absence of political parties in the smallest municipalities. Besides, the lists of candidates in rural municipalities reveal the weakness of the local party organisations that cannot avoid cooperating with the independent candidates. The small distance between the citizen and the elected body in a rural community significantly determines the forms of the local politics; the ideological and party mediation is superfluous, in fact, it is often seen as something harmful which divides the rural community.
Show more

8 Read more

More can be Less: Hyper Plurality of Candidates, the Rationality of Electoral Choice and Need for Electoral Reform in India

More can be Less: Hyper Plurality of Candidates, the Rationality of Electoral Choice and Need for Electoral Reform in India

The problem of high number of candidates and the consequent malpractices bothered the ECI for a long time in India. 14 The ECI had time and again articulated the possibility that major political parties had surreptitiously floated fringe candidates for their own gain. The diagnosis of the problem by the Law Commission of India (LCI), and the National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution (NCRWC) were also similar. LCI (1999) highlighted the ―non - seriousness‖ of the fringe candidates. In Section 2, we noted that a particular form of cloning is to float candidates with the same name. In this context, it also observed that in order to ―mislead the masses‖, quite a few persons of the name ―V. K. Malhotra‖ stood as independent candidates against the ―real‖ V. K. Malhotra, one of the BJP candidates in Delhi in a Lok Sabha election (Para 3.3.3). NCRWC (2002) in this context observed that most of the so called independent candidates were ―dummy candidates or defectors from their parties on being denied party tickets‖ (Vol -I, Para 4.20.3). Despite these observations, apparently, the strategy of cloning was pursued with impunity by the major political parties in India. For example, in the Arakkonam constituency in Tamil Nadu in 2004, where the main fight was between ―Velu, R‖ of PMK and ―Shanmugam, M‖ of ADMK, t here were 4 independent candidates with names ―Velu‖ and 2 independent candidates with names ―Shanmugam‖ (Bhattacharya, 2010). Recently, in cases where it found evidence, the ECI had started to take action against this type of candidates. For example, finding that several independent candidates in Kadapa Lok Sabha and Pulivendula assembly constituencies were canvassing on behalf of major political parties in the by- elections scheduled on May 8, 2011, the ECI decided to crack the whip on them. 15
Show more

25 Read more

Anatomy of Indian Parliamentary Elections

Anatomy of Indian Parliamentary Elections

One possibility for the rise in independent candidates is not that they expect to win but that they want to undermine the vote of a party candidate. In a closely fought election (discussed in the next chapter) the presence of independent candidates can erode support sufficiently to have an appreciable impact of on the outcome. 11 Another reason for the reason for the rise in the number of independent candidates could be pique at being denied a party nomination. Since being a Lok Sabha member is a rewarding job - offering inter alia a good salary, generous pension benefits, government provided housing in the capital, and free travel across India - there is considerable competition to be adopted as a major party’s candidate for a constituency (“getting a ticket”, as it is termed in India). Alas, many are called, but few are chosen. Some of those not chosen seek to exact revenge by
Show more

18 Read more

We don't like (to) party : explaining the significance of Independents in Irish political life

We don't like (to) party : explaining the significance of Independents in Irish political life

In terms of gender, the profile of the candidates followed a tradition of under-representation of women in Irish politics, as 84 percent of all respondents were male. However, almost twice as many party candidates (19 percent) as Independents (11 percent) were female, while women were significantly more represented amongst policy Independents (23 percent) than either community Independents (3 percent) or temperamental Independents (7 percent) (at a p<.01 level) (see figure 4.3 below). Why did fewer women stand as Independents? One possible hypothesis may be that the obstacles that inhibit women standing for office in the first place are even greater as an Independent candidate, who tend to go against the grain without the support of a party organisation. In addition, the conservative social and cultural mores of Irish society may frown upon individual female candidacies. For example, Nora Owen, former Minister for Justice, said that she would never go into a public house on her own (where political ‘clinics’ or ‘surgeries’ are usually held), which she admitted did affect her ability to campaign, as it made her more dependent upon the assistance of party helpers (Hannon 2004: 52). The demands of political life that deter women from running may be even greater as Independent candidates, since they would not have the support of a party network. Finally, many women enter politics because of their family connections to previous incumbents. 79 Because there have been a lot more party TDs and councillors than Independents, the familial gateway to politics for women is far likelier to exist among parties than Independents (assuming of course that those who maintain a tradition of political representation within a family take up the same affiliation as their forebears).
Show more

361 Read more

Teacher Candidates' Critical Thinking Tendencies Research in Turkey: A Content Analysis

Teacher Candidates' Critical Thinking Tendencies Research in Turkey: A Content Analysis

Abstract In this study, empirical studies related to the tendency think critically of teacher candidates in Turkey were examined. These studies were evaluated systematically by means of thematic content analysis. In research the WEB OF SCIENCES, ERIC, SCOPUS, EBSCO and ULAKBIM databases were scanned for the years 2012-2017, and 45 academic articles were examined. It was found out that studies are concentrated in the screening and relational model and work in a limited number of experimental models. Furthermore, it was observed that the relationships between individual variables and the tendencies of critical thinking were positive and significant. Some findings reached the conclusion that experimental intervention programs are effective. Teacher candidates' critical thinking tendencies were generally low. In addition to the studies, common findings on whether socio-demographic variables make a difference were rarely encountered.
Show more

7 Read more

Range voting is resistant to control

Range voting is resistant to control

There is an additional variation in the tiebreaking rule that is chosen in the subelections. In the case of a tie, either all of the top scoring candidates are promoted to the final election, or none of them are. These two cases are called ties-promote and ties-eliminate. Notably, in the second case, an election can fail to elect any candidate. Though these may seem like subtle differences, many voting systems will resist one of the cases while being vulnerable to another. It is probably sufficient to skim this section and read a few definitions to get the flavor, and refer to it later to clarify a specific definition.
Show more

62 Read more

Design and Development of University Admission Management System

Design and Development of University Admission Management System

The primary objective of our research and development was to automate and computerize the process of admission in the educational institute which would improve the efficiency of the process. Objective has been achieved successfully. The Admin adds information into the database regarding various candidates, departments, programmes, hostels, documents, etc., using various forms provided in the system. At day of admission, status of candidate can be updated as required. Finally, the admission receipt of the candidate can be generated. Database access is made authorized and cannot be accessed by unauthorized personnel. So, this automated and computerized system can be said as secure, efficient and user friendly.
Show more

8 Read more

Comparison of Assessment Scores of Candidates for Communication Skills in an OSCE, by Examiners, Candidates and Simulated Patients

Comparison of Assessment Scores of Candidates for Communication Skills in an OSCE, by Examiners, Candidates and Simulated Patients

The candidates on self-assessment rated their overall skills markedly higher than the assessment of their overall skills by the examiners and the SPs. This could be explained by the fact that physician-patient communication is a complex process and often has high subjectivity and may be influenced by task fa- miliarity (Bianchi, Stobbe, & Eva, 2008; Taras, 2002). A few studies have shown that students tended to assess their skills much lower than expected by their teachers (Siaja, 2006); con- trary to this, another study (Jahan, Sadaf, Bhanji, Naeem, & Qureshi, 2011) has shown comparable results as regard to communication skills. The results of our study do not match with these findings. One obvious explanation for these mark- edly different results could be due to the fact, that our small-scale study was conducted on experienced general practi- tioners and might not be comparable with other studies, which were focused mainly on undergraduate students.
Show more

6 Read more

Tillamook School District / George Fox University Collaborative Partnership: An Immersion Practicum in a Rural School District

Tillamook School District / George Fox University Collaborative Partnership: An Immersion Practicum in a Rural School District

Writer/Foundation Director and the Tillamook TeachOregon Site Coordinator initially dreamed up the experience on their way home from a TeachOregon PAC meeting. Their initial idea was to have candidates live with a broad range of community members who were willing to host a candidate, but then thought that through having them live with Latino families, the candidates would become familiar with another culture (D. Klumph, personal communication, September 24, 2016). The district’s Grant Writer/Foundation Director has been an advocate on behalf of the school district, and helped to design what the experience needed to look like to support the district. His involvement with TeachOregon PAC is tireless. He was a part of the initial grant proposal for the TeachOregon PAC, and advocates strongly for the TeachOregon mission. He has been a part of the co-teaching celebrations, the district preview field trips, meetings with candidates and host families, and has helped the team navigate through challenging situations. He and his assistant have been responsible as well for ensuring that the teacher candidates and host families receive their stipends. Additionally, he is a resource for the candidates while they are in Tillamook in case of emergency.
Show more

211 Read more

Publishing Opportunities of Doctoral Candidates

Publishing Opportunities of Doctoral Candidates

Abstract: Publication activities of PhD candidates as a result of an independent creative exploration and research are becoming an important part of the publication outputs of the University. Seeking opportunities for publishing results of scientific research of young researchers is becoming a priority task of information management. Publishing papers in journals and proceedings of top international quality is the criterion for the University quality evaluation. Current academic milieu requires searching for new methods of using information and organisation of informational structures which are reflected into its new services and products.
Show more

7 Read more

Perspectives of Teacher Candidates on the Statements Related to Effect of Politics on Lecturers and Educational Administrators' Competence of Ensuring Unity

Perspectives of Teacher Candidates on the Statements Related to Effect of Politics on Lecturers and Educational Administrators' Competence of Ensuring Unity

As the stated in Bursalıoğlu [3], when the research topic is evaluated from the viewpoint of the following statement “Lecturers work without bestowing privilege on the students who are on the side of local politic powers.” it can be seen that lecturers should avoid the local impositions in the settlement in which includes the educational institutions of lecturers. In addition to the lecturers, administers of educational institutions in which lecturers work should stand out against the local powers which are active in the settlement in which includes the educational institutions. The fact that educational institutions in which lecturers work put some distance between politic powers and they makes the lecturers relaxed. Those teacher candidates put pressure on the educational institutions and lecturers by pulling some strings by the help of local powers should be considered as a problem that must be controlled.
Show more

8 Read more

Generating and Scoring Correction Candidates in Chinese Grammatical Error Diagnosis

Generating and Scoring Correction Candidates in Chinese Grammatical Error Diagnosis

To generate but not over-generate the correction candidates for similar string substitutions, we first collected all 2-character words in ASBC and Cilin. Correction candidates are generated by replacing each 2-character word in the given sentence by another 2-character word having at least one character in common, such as “仔細” and “細節” where “細” appears in both words, or “合適” (suitable, adjec- tive) and “適合” (suiting, verb) where both characters appear in both words. Examples of similar string substitution are given in the next page.

9 Read more

Dessler_HRM12e_Ch4-Personnel Planning and Recruiting.ppt

Dessler_HRM12e_Ch4-Personnel Planning and Recruiting.ppt

 Personal information privacy concerns of applicants Personal information privacy concerns of applicants... Advertising for Outside Candidates Advertising for Outside Candidates.[r]

37 Read more

Note  on  the  Robustness  of  CAESAR  Candidates

Note on the Robustness of CAESAR Candidates

Abstract. Authenticated ciphers rely on the uniqueness of the nonces to meet their security goals. In this work, we investigate the implications of reusing nonces for three third-round candidates of the ongoing CAESAR competition, namely Tiaoxin, AEGIS and MORUS. We show that an attacker that is able to force nonces to be reused can reduce the security of the ciphers with results ranging from full key-recovery to forgeries with practical complexity and a very low number of nonce-misuse queries. Keywords: Cryptanalysis · Nonce-misuse attacks · CAESAR

11 Read more

Stiele, Holger
  

(2010):


	X-ray Source Population Study of the Local Group Galaxy M 31.


Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Physik

Stiele, Holger (2010): X-ray Source Population Study of the Local Group Galaxy M 31. Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Physik

The main goal of the thesis was a study of the different source populations of M 31 that can be observed in X-rays. Therefore a catalogue was created, which contains all 1 948 sources detected in the 0.2–12.0 keV range. 961 of these sources were detected in X-rays for the first time. Source classification and identification was based on X-ray hardness ratios, spatial extent of the sources, and by cross correlating with catalogues in the X-ray, optical, infrared and radio wavelengths. An additional classification criterion was the long-term temporal variability of the sources in X-rays. This variability allows us to distinguish between X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei. Furthermore, supernova remnant classifications of previous studies that did not use long-term variability as a classification criterion, could be validated. Including previous Chandra and ROSAT observations in the long-term variability study allowed me to detect additional transient or at least highly variable sources, which are good candidates for being X-ray binaries. Fourteen of the 40 supersoft source (SSS) candidates correlated with optical novae and therefore can be considered the supersoft emission of the optical novae. Among them is the first nova/SSS detected in a globular cluster of M 31. Correlations with previous ROSAT and Chandra studies revealed that only three SSSs are visible for at least one decade. This result underlines the strong long-term variability found for the class of SSSs. In addition the correlations demonstrated that strict selection criteria have to be applied to securely select SSSs.
Show more

260 Read more

Community Action-Based Field Work: Training Counselors to Become Social Agents  in Schools and Communities

Community Action-Based Field Work: Training Counselors to Become Social Agents in Schools and Communities

Brock Education, 21(1), 63-83 67 In this journey, faculty and candidates begin their building process in quadrant A, a space where faculty facilitates and guides the analysis of differences between community- based needs in multiethnic neighborhoods with the goal of creating awareness and a knowledge base in candidates that translates into action plans developed through interactions among candidates. Community-based needs are analyzed with the common understanding that difference, as defined by Sue and Sue (1990), is “the identification of sharing, cooperation, non-interference, time orientation and harmony with nature”. With these five elements, candidates begin to develop the ‘practical framework’ of their action plans. At this stage, candidates and faculty work cooperatively in order to create a community of educational bricoleurs (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003) that searches for the preliminary woven strands of a communal knowledge expressed with the strategies, methods, or empirical materials at hand. Following this first phase, students move to quadrant B, where they work independently to create meaning by comparing and contrasting their thoughts, constructed during the preliminary discussions, with those of their peers.
Show more

21 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...