The Hindi film, Achhut Kanya is basically a love story between a Brahmin boy, Pratap (Ashok Kumar) and a Dalit girl, Kasturi (Devika Rani). The film was made under the banner of prominent production house, Bombay Talkies and was released in 1936. The film was revolutionary step in the history of IndianCinema at that time. Mahatma Gandhi had been in the forefront in the freedom struggle and was vying for various social reforms also in the decade of 1930‟s. The issue of untouchables was very close to the heart of Mahatma Gandhi. Himanshu Rai (the owner of Bombay Talkies) and Franz Osten (The German director) decided to put the story of inter-caste love on the celluloid. The film was first of its kind in which the director used the force of mob violence to stop the male protagonist marrying the female protagonist belonging to a lower caste. It is mob which is instrumental in bringing the traditional morality on the forefront. The film was successful commercially. It had a tragic end to it. The love story of a Brahmin boy and a Dalit girl was accepted by masses and filled the heart of the audience with contempt. The film made Ashok Kumar, a star in his own right. The theme of inter-caste love and mob mentality to oppose this love is still relevant today.
Indiancinema, this is probably the beginning of the idea of having to necessarily cater to audience needs and conform to existing value systems. Actresses in Indian films typically begin their careers when they are teenagers as opposed to male actors who start in their twenties. Even if the actress has completed only a decade in the industry and is just about 30 years old, though she may not have actually aged in terms of years, the industry considers the actress an ―old face‖ and directors begin their hunt for ―fresh faces‖. On the contrary the male actor‘s career period is much longer lasting unto his early fifties, sometimes. It is very common to see an aged actor in his fifties playing the male lead, opposite a female lead of 19. However, if slightly older female leads are cast opposite younger male actors, the actresses are criticized by the press, industry and audiences of having lost their ―youthful charm‖ (Ganti, 2004, p. 114), because the audience likes to see young women in the lead, who is attractive to the male lead and performs sensuous song and dance sequences.
We may consider the track record of a producer, personal investments and net worth and ability to repay if the production flops and then take a short-term loan backed by sound collaterals. But will this attract the film wallas? They might get a better deal from sources they have been tapping so far,’ said an official of one of the older private banks”. (‘Industry status: Cinema may find itself going round trees’, Sugata Ghosh, The Economic Times 12 May 1998). On 10 May 1998, the former Information & Broadcasting Minister, Sushma Swaraj, declared, at a national conference on ‘Challenges before IndianCinema’ that she would shortly pass a Government Order declaring ‘industry status’ to the film industry in India. Hollywood, for instance, achieved in the 1930s and what the Indiancinema has been denied since its inception. K. D. Shorey, the General Secretary of the Film Federation of India had already in 1996 sought to include this declaration into the Ninth Five-Year Economic Plan.
In India, today films are the most popular form of mass communication and Bollywood has the largest film industry in the world, producing over nine hundred films annually and attracting over fifteen million viewers daily. Indeed, the Bombay film is assumed to be “the opium of the Indian masses” and undoubtedly popular Hindi cinema purports to be nothing more than pure entertainment, enjoyed for the lavish spectacles of dance and song, action packed adventures and glamorous actresses. IndianCinema has been portraying the different images of women and it has also influenced the society to a great extent. However, the reflection of women through cinema has also raised various issues that need to be addressed and this paper is an attempt in this direction.
The difference in perception whether a cinema is melodramatic in its mode of expression or belong to a different genre will be conditioned not only by the politico social cultural milieu of the country in which the cinema is created as also by the socio cultural psychological make- up of the reviewer of the film. This explains why Ray‟s modernist projects are often perceived as melodramatic in the eyes of a Western theoretician. However, to understand the reality one cannot be oblivious of the fact that emotional exuberance is a natural attribute of the Indian people at large, though scientific and rational principles have been accepted by the people at large yet they have not been able to make inroads into the private life of the individuals; development is measured here not in terms of economic data alone but also in terms of happiness of its population. Thus the Western melodramatic studies cannot evolve any universally accepted formulas rather one must appreciate that the Aristotelian poetics which shaped European thinking does not influence the Indian vision of life. The Indian „rasa‟ theory speaking of the nine strings of emotion needs to be appreciated in order to explore the melodramatic interventions in Indiancinema. Ray has always displayed a wonderful control over the narrative style. Images sometimes play truant but apart from his last few films Ray was the absolute master of speech. In his last few Films like Agantuk, Shakha Prashakha, Ganashatru Ray was a bit theatrical and emotional. His Supreme control over words was missing as he used dialogue whenever there is an opportunity.
circulation and consumption of Indian film. Moreover, the creation of a dedicated festival constituted additional proof that Indiancinema was definitely becoming more visible in the Irish context, suggesting that my proposed research was needed and timely. Moreover, as a Bollywood fan I was thrilled by the possibility of being part of the festival and of collaborating in its smooth running, in addition to having the opportunity to participate in screenings and festival events and to meet the guest stars from India that Siraj planned to invite. I hoped that Siraj would let me volunteer at the festival and when I asked him about it, he put me in touch with Silvia, the manager of the first edition of the festival, who interestingly was also an Italian woman. Luckily for me, they needed all the help they could get and she scheduled me for festival desk duties at Swan Cinema 20 in the southern suburb of Rathmines, where the festival was being held. I thus got to volunteer at the event from its inception and since then I have participated in its organisation annually for a period of six years. This afforded me the opportunity to conduct participant observation in the role of participant-as-observer (Gold 1958; Junker 1960; Kawulich 2005) and to gain an understanding of how the event was organised and promoted, alongside its impact on people and localities. Siraj and other members of the festival team knew about my research and that I would want to thematically address the festival in my thesis. However, they did not see it as a problem, but rather as a way of raising the profile of the event and of attracting extra attention.
The decade of the nineties in Hindi cinema was one which popularized the genre of family drama. There were several family films which went on to become blockbusters and which reinforced the patriarchal values of the Indian society. Directors like Sooraj Barjatya and Karan Johar were at the forefront of such films. These films also appealed to migrant Indians staying abroad because through them they were to connect to their roots and culture. While women were very much important characters in these films, their identities were absent. Their roles were defined in relation to their family especially the male characters in the family. Most of these films also laid down the conditions for ideal womanhood. There is a relationship between patriarchal values and popular cinema and how such values get reinforced through this medium. Ironically though, they are never shown to be in their work place. They mostly occupy the house and the kitchen. Even though they are modern and confident women, they submit to the desires of their family and are eventually domesticated. This was an indication of an era which saw the educated and economically independent women as insensitive and uncaring thus concluding that women are successful only in nurturing roles. Her family identity dominates her professional identity. In films such as these, the homely role of the women was reinforced by use of symbols like mangalsutra, sindoor and elaborates wedding customs. The modern woman was seen as a threat to the hierarchical family structure and was hence during the course of the film transformed into a simple and sacrificing wife/partner.
linked to the absorption of actors or national filmmakers into the American film industry (Phillips and Vincendeau 2006). While the shaping of, or failure to shape, the national edges of filmmakers into a Hollywood mould is part of narrating Hollywood cinema as hegemonic and dominant in global cinema (a loss of national traits), this hides the fact that American cinema is far more diverse and engaged in cross-cultural co-production than is acknowledged. Contrary to those European co-productions, which are deemed impure, American co-productions gloss over such a notion by passing as universal. However, the absorption discourse is the prevailing approach in accounting for Hollywood’s transnational filmmaking, which is also a practice that best suits filmmakers of Bodrov’s status. Again the incorporation of the auteur, the art creator, into Hollywood’s working practice is painfully full of sacrifices and loss of artistic control, which on the other hand makes the cross-over of the craftsman or the storyteller easier, as the willingness to compromise is greater. Very few Russian filmmakers have made it into Hollywood in recent times. Andrei Konchalovsky was a case in point. He emigrated from the Soviet Union in the early 1980s and made a string of US-produced films, only to return after 1991 to restart his career in Russian cinema (Jäckel 1997, 112). That said, Konchalovsky’s filmmaking career points to a more traditional sense of migrant cinema, which can be seen in the fact that his chief producer in the US was Menahem Golan, who together with Yoram Globus formed the production company Cannon Group, which was very influential in the 1980s. 16 Golan is an Israeli of Polish decent, which points to a shared communist diasporic experience. This sets Bodrov apart from Mikhalkov-Konchalovsky, because, as it has been mentioned, he floats freely from abroad to home. It is Bodrov who chooses, not his migratory condition.
Reforming science education – from educating educators, to developing standards, to improving access for all – is a worldwide challenge that is essential if overall improvements are to be made. In science education, it is more and more widely discovered that “horizontal teaching” – when teachers take students by the hand and lead them on a voyage of discovery, stimulating their observation and experimentation skills, imagina- tion, curiosity and reasoning capacity - enhances students’ intellectual and manual capacities enormously. This purpose discusses the role of cinema as a tool for the science education. The target was to explore the effect of using movies on the learning and retention of simple and integrated science knowledge. New educa- tional approaches and methods that are inter- and transdisciplinary and issue-driven need adopting, and participatory practices and methods must be endorsed, to prepare young generations to live in a world of constant change. Based on the socio-interacionist approach by Vygotsky, it is acceptable that an audience can interact with the characters and share their emotions and actions showed in an audiovisual language. On this way we analyze some movies considering the potential of audiovisual, scientific and common lan- guages to be used as a tool to mediating science teaching and learning. Furthermore, the audience can learn values, information and knowledge present into the movie discourse and thus, the cinema shows the science in a society. Moreover, audiovisual language may be important mediating variables that determine the effec- tiveness of cinema for enhancing science teaching and learning. If science and society want to get along they must learn to communicate more and better. No one says that it is easy, but it is the price today in a mature democratic society.
This course gives an overview of Cuban cinema, from its origins to the present. The course, taught entirely in Spanish, is interdisciplinary and cross-cultural, emphasizing the socioeconomic-economic and political issues that gave rise to each specific stage in the evolution of Cuban cinema. This course is designed to introduce the students to the cinematic work of a number of Cuban film artists, and to develop a more comprehensive and creative reception of each film. Topics to be discussed in class include post- colonialism and expressions of national identity; constructions of gender; the importance of censorship; political exile and cultural Diaspora; postnationalism, the role of the audience, as well as aesthetics and film structure.
More recent revisionist works on the New Wave have proposed to expand the New Wave canon constructed in these early texts, but it is not clear that they have done so. They tend to focus on the same five filmmaker-critics, and the so-called Left Bank Group, a split which does not accommodate Demy. Richard Neupert’s A History of the French New Wave Cinema (2002) lists Demy as a Left Bank filmmaker alongside Agnès Varda, Alain Resnais, Alain Robbe-Grillet and Chris Marker, yet Demy barely features in the chapter on the Left Bank Group added for the 2002 second edition of the text. In fact throughout the text, Demy is mentioned only to help Neupert describe the work of other filmmakers, or because of his personal relationship with Agnès Varda. Other recent texts which attempt to expand the canon have the same blind spot, including Michel Marie’s The French New Wave: An Artistic School (2009), Naomi Greene’s The French New Wave: A New Look, Antoine de Baecque’s La Nouvelle Vague: Portrait d’un jeunesse (2009), Jean Douchet’s Nouvelle Vague (2009). These all make conspicuous attempts to deviate from canonical descriptions of the New Wave, yet they all work with a very similar canon. Some are even more blunt: Alan Williams’ history of French cinema, for example, praises Demy for his ‘quixotic efforts’, and remarks that his film is ‘odd’ (Williams 1992, 361).
masturbating youths as Brigitte Bardot sunbathes nude in ...And God Created Woman (Et Dieu... créa la femme) (Roger Vadim, 1956). Simultaneous to this, the boys’ older counterparts visit a makeshift brothel at the back of the stalls. Divisions along class lines are maintained. A running joke is repeated over several scenes in which the same audience member in the circle leans over and spits on the hoi polloi below him in the stalls, signalling his disdain for the lower- class patrons. This small subplot is resolved when he finally receives what looks like a soiled nappy thrown from below in his face. Since the audience’s social identities are acknowledged in the way they inhabit the auditorium, the cinema straddles private and public space. On one hand, it is a place in which people regularly spend their leisure, and so treat it somewhat as an extension of home. Yet on the other, they assemble according to how they are identified in public.
O presente artigo devota-se a descrever e analisar o endereçamento à infância em algumas obras cinematográficas de Abbas Kiarostami. Para tanto, a argumentação volta- se inicialmente à contextualização da Revolução Iraniana de 1979, responsável pelo fim do regime monárquico do Xá Reza Pahlavi, que tinha a laicidade e a modernidade como motes, e pelo o início da República Islâmica do Irã, centrada na figura do Aiatolá Khomeini e apoiada na tradição islâmica. Nesse cenário, destaca-se o papel do Instituto para o Desenvolvimento Cultural da Criança e do Adolescente, referido como Kanun. Fundado com o propósito de criar obras de cunho educativo durante o regime do Xá, o Kanun foi de fundamental importância para a produção artístico-cultural do país, tanto antes quanto depois da Revolução. Especialmente, seu departamento de cinema, no qual vários cineastas iniciaram suas carreiras (entre eles, Kiarostami, o primeiro diretor do departamento), é considerado o berço do movimento reconhecido como o Novo Cinema Iraniano. Assim, o presente trabalho debruça-se sobre as narrativas acerca da infância presentes em tais filmes, considerando a ambiência pós-revolucionária e, presumidamente, a tarefa de construção de um novo sujeito histórico a partir de um marco outro para a infância. Mais especificamente, o trabalho oferece uma análise articulada de seis obras cinematográficas de Kiarostami produzidas no período de 1970 a 1989. Em todas elas é possível testemunhar uma interrogação sobre a posição das crianças naquele contexto societário. Após uma discussão sobre o uso de filmes como fonte investigativa, apresentam-se três movimentos argumentativos identificados em tais obras, intitulados respectivamente: a criança à margem da sociedade; a criança no centro da sociedade; e a criança da revolução. Ao final das discussões, propõe-se que o cinema de Kiarostami consistiu em um ponto de inflexão das modalidades de veridicção- subjetivação ali correntes. Tratava-se, assim, em um tipo peculiar de exercício ético- político, por meio de uma experimentação narrativa que se valia do universo infantil como ocasião de prospecção dos ideais do processo revolucionário.
symptom of an affliction the nature of which remains undisclosed, and the mark of distinction in a world bereft of singularity. Compared to the automatized milieu, this loner is perhaps committed to the noetic and the spiritual. However, according to Stiegler’s pharmacological account we should not be looking for opposites but for difference. In that sense, isolation and loneliness might not be simple opposites of an alienating and impoverished reality. Qohen’s loneliness and the real world might be asymptotic, two planes that could never meet, just like himself and the universe in the opening scene. The narrative fleshes out this disparity in terms of time. In cinema we do not always know at which point we join a narrative; whether we start, for instance, from the beginning or from the end. Cinema often produces clarity in retrospect, as well as surprise at the unexpected, the anelpiston (Stiegler 2013) which may dash our expectations and hopes.
With a 9-pin RS-232C port, the Sony home cinema projectors can be integrated into a room control system which blends elements of lighting control and audiovisual management with other automated room control functions. Via the RS232C input, you can activate the projector, lower the screen, dim the lights and start the film – without touching a remote.
Immigration, especially from poor to rich countries, but also from the rural countryside to the big city, is a major thematic trend in cinema. The absorption of immigrants provides drama and pathos, but also humor. In Perry Henzell’s The Harder They Come (Jamaica, 1972), notable for its soundtrack highlighting many reggae artists, Ivanhoe Martin comes to Kingston to make it big as a singer. However, he finds life in the city to be harder than he thought, degenerates into criminality and is finally hunted down and killed by the police. Sean Ellis’ Metro Manila (UK/Philippines, 2013) is quite similar thematically, but takes place in a far different cultural context. It is an unpredictable movie with a poetic and searingly realistic migrant drama that gradually becomes a crime story, Metro Manila is a thoughtful drama/heist movie set in the Philippines that not only captures a beautiful internal view of the capital’s desperate underside, but also delivers some superb twists and turns as the central crime story starts to reveal itself.