Indian Diaspora In the West

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Nation and Identity : Global Mark of Indian Diaspora

Nation and Identity : Global Mark of Indian Diaspora

In the summer of 1991, a significant change in development policy and orientation occurred when the government initiated a series of reforms in the wake of a severe economic crisis. These economic reforms not only redefined the character of the Indian economy but also rearticulated the country’s engagement with the rest of the world and allowed for foreign intervention in its development strategy. Since a reliance on foreign sources was inevitable in order to meet demand for foreign exchange to fund crucial imports, the then Finance Minister Manmohan Singh turned to the diaspora or non-resident Indians (NRIs) as they were popularly called, for help. This elite segment of the Indian diaspora, mostly professionals located in North America and Europe, had acquired considerable wealth and resources and the Indian government wanted to tap their resources to bail out the economy. Though not as erudite and visible as their highly skilled counterparts in the West, Indian emigrants in the Gulf region had similarly shown their economic potential by contributing significantly to India’s economy through the inflow of remittances, which had reached US$3,289 million in 1991. This attempt by the Indian government to mobilise the resources of the Indian diaspora amended the perception of citizens at home towards this diaspora—they were now a ‘valorised subject’ rather than people who could not be trusted. This changed the nature of the relationship between India and this diaspora, from one that was essentially based on culture and emotion to one that was clearly pragmatic. When the right-wing-dominated Indian government conducted a series of nuclear tests in May 1998, the
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INDIAN DIASPORA: HISTORIES AND PRESENT

INDIAN DIASPORA: HISTORIES AND PRESENT

through the processes of colonialism and management, and with the aid of Enlightenment notions of science, rationality, and progress, been rendered powerless and superfluous. For instance, Indians must not, as they most regrettably do, consider the so-called demise of the black family in the U.S. (and elsewhere) as indicative of the moral degradation of black people, and smugly contrast this with the loving adherence to family life said to be ingrained in all Indians. The retreat into the family home, the concerted refusal to engage with a wider notion of the 'public', and the mindless replication of 'timeless' traditions have been among the more distressing characteristics of Indian existence abroad, particularly in the affluent West. We cannot but fail to recognize, when we consider the story of Indian indentured labor, that in the mockery of black people or in the constant humiliation of Hispanics in the U.S., there is also the humiliation of Indians and all those who have been victimized by dominant categories of knowledge as much as by brute force.
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Theorizing Indian Diaspora: Rooting for Roots

Theorizing Indian Diaspora: Rooting for Roots

a concise while and it was Anna Pavlova who roused her to research her own culture. The western contacts of Uday Shankar and Ram Gopal, two other remarkable figures in the renaissance of established move, are likewise well known. Ravi Shankar frantic sitar made a family unit name in the west. The number of samples can be increased Vishwa Mohan Bhatt, all the more as of late, won the Grammys and made Mohan Veena his own creation referred to in the west as well as in India. Consequently the east-west experience is not new to India. “Custom” and innovation‟, as well, are liquid terms. Traditions are restored, made and modernized and, regularly, innovation implies a removing of the overlay of times and retreating to the flawless virtue of the first roots for instance, to the Richas of Rig Veda. All these impact the outsider social movement and what develops is a worker culture as unique from ethnic character.
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Smelly Encounters: An Olfactory Reading of Indian English Fiction by Women

Smelly Encounters: An Olfactory Reading of Indian English Fiction by Women

Abstract George Orwell once described smell as the real secret of gender relations in the West: ‘The female sex smells.’ Gender connotation is writ large in almost every sociological/anthropological study of smell. Literature is also full of such references where women’s sense of smell has been considered stronger than that of men’s. Gaze being the masculine sense greater weightage has been given to it while smell has been deprecated as the feminine sense. Since smell has a deep cultural significance the literature of the Indian diaspora by women is replete with what may be termed ‘olfactory analysis.’ The smell of nostalgia, of memory and the past; the aroma of native food and all the native fragrances keep haunting; bringing much comfort to the aching heart. While Jhumpa Lahiri’s characters are particularly nostalgic about the native food finding refuge in the gustatory, Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni dedicated the space of one novel to spices where her protagonist is the ‘Mistress of Spices’ herself; Radhika Jha’s Smell reminds one of Patrick Suskind's Perfume. Replete with ‘olfactory encounters’, to borrow Janice Carlisle’s expression, the novel is a buildungsroman of Leela Patel, the protagonist whose very being is apparently governed by her nose. I propose to read the olfactory representations in the novels of these women writers with a view to exploring the social, cultural and moral connotations of the olfactory/gustatory.
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Diaspora, dedication and development (3d): Indian perspective

Diaspora, dedication and development (3d): Indian perspective

For first-generation immigrants, their education was mostly completed in their country of origin, and they remain loyal to the teachers and adults who supported them. They see education as the path out of poverty for India’s masses and as a politically noncontroversial subject. The focus on education has not only inspired many transnational development organizations in the United States, but has also forced several organizations that address broad-based development to rebrand themselves as education-oriented. Although ‘new Diaspora’ is a product of Indian emigration post-1960, with migration of Indian professionals, doctors, engineers, scientists, academics, and now IT professionals to developed economies in Western Europe, North America and Australasia. This new Diaspora includes the semi-skilled working class who went to the Gulf countries during the post-oil boom of the 1970s. This cohort includes low-wage workers in the West as well a large number of illegal immigrants. The origins of this Diaspora can be traced primarily to Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and UP, though this is a more pan-Indian Diaspora. The connection to home is much more real for this Diaspora because of frequent travels, social– cultural linkages, and inventions in communication technology. Both old and new segments of Indian Diaspora feature almost all the traits of home in terms of religious, social, cultural and regional diversities which have had a decisive influence on their relationship with India.
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The Viking diaspora

The Viking diaspora

The group consciousness of the Viking diaspora is perhaps best expressed in a term used of its common language, the dǫnsk tunga ‘Danish tongue’. This phrase encapsulates the linguistic unity of Scandinavia, perhaps because Danish territory would be where any Scandinavian returning home from the south would first feel linguistically at home. The phrase is recorded in the early eleventh century in a poem by the Icelander, Sigvatr Þórðarson, celebrating the return from the European continent of Óláfr Haraldsson to take up the kingship of Norway. 132 It is also used in one version of an early saga about King Óláfr Tryggvason, probably composed just before 1200, though describing that king’s Christian mission two centuries earlier. 133 The context is the difficulty of this mission since the foreign missionaries were ignorant of or inexperienced in using the dǫnsk tunga. Since the text credits Óláfr with converting Shetland, Orkney, Faroe, Iceland and Greenland, it has to be
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Diasporic interventions : state building in Iraq following the 2003 Iraq war

Diasporic interventions : state building in Iraq following the 2003 Iraq war

Though  there  is  no  doubt  that  diaspora  leaders  influenced  and  contributed  to   state-­‐building   in   Iraq   during   this   period,   one   can   critically   question   the   kind   and  quality  of  state-­‐building  diaspora  leaders  conceded  to  and  the  kind  of  state   they  were  helping  to  build.  The  IGC  leaders  were  after  all  cherry-­‐picked  by  Paul   Bremer  on  ethnic  quotas  and  were  allegedly  representative  of  Iraqis  (Barakat,   2008).   Political   appointments   by   the   Anglo-­‐American   coalition   and   the   acquiescence  of  IGC  members  to  go  along  with  coalition  plans  did  nothing  for   gaining  the  nation’s  support  in  re-­‐building  the  country.  Indeed,  as  mentioned   previously,  from  an  Iraqi  perspective  they  promised  liberation  yet  collaborated   in  occupation,  with  the  full  might  of  US  and  UK  military  power.  In  agreeing  to   an   ethno-­‐sectarian   political   system   they   undermined   state-­‐building   efforts   institutionalising   a   politics   of   sectarianism   rather   than   creating   a   national   vision  for  re-­‐building  the  country.  Consequently,  the  diaspora  leaders  did  not   endear   themselves   to   the   native   population.   Several   polls   and   anecdotal   evidence   indicated   their   lack   of   popularity   (Dodge,   2005;   Ismael   and   Ismael,   2008;   Al-­‐Ali,   2014)   revealing   their   inability   to   gain   legitimacy   as   Iraq’s   new   leaders  and  impeding  any  sound  state-­‐building  plans.    
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Gazetteer Preparation for Named Entity Recognition in Indian Languages

Gazetteer Preparation for Named Entity Recognition in Indian Languages

This is a 2-phase process. The first phase transliter- ates the Indian language string into itrans. Itrans is representation of Indian language alphabets in terms of ASCII. Since Indian text is composed of syllabic units rather than individual alphabetic letters, itrans uses combinations of two or more letters of En- glish alphabet to represent an Indian language syl- lable. However, there being multiple sounds in In- dian languages corresponding to the same English letter, not all Indian syllables can be represented by logical combinations of English alphabet. Hence, itrans uses some non-alphabetic special characters also in some of the syllables. A map table 2 , with some heuristic knowledge, is used for the translit- eration. For example, the Hindi word ‘surabhi’ is converted ‘sUrabhI’ in itrans.
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Thematic Report Two - The Engagement of Refugees in Transnational Politics: Lessons from the Migration, Diaspora and Refugee Studies Literature

Thematic Report Two - The Engagement of Refugees in Transnational Politics: Lessons from the Migration, Diaspora and Refugee Studies Literature

Such observations enhance understanding about how generational differences in political involvement are mediated by processes of integration within the new society, and the necessity to consider intra-group dynamics within refugee communities particularly where they relate to narratives of ‘homeland’ and ‘return’ in ways that differ from ‘voluntary’ migrant communities (Wahlbeck 2002). Research on Kurdish communities in Europe, and especially Great Britain, would suggest that the refugee experiences of parents and relatives has some impact on second-generation political activism (Baser 2011). Similarly, Hess and Korf (2014) analysing second-generation Sri Lankan Tamil’s political engagement in Switzerland, found that interest in transnational political action was favoured by ‘the multiple sense of belonging both to Switzerland and to the Tamil “nation” and…the pain of witnessing the brutality of war and suffering of Tamils’ (2014: 419). In particular, they argue that while first-generation activism had focused mostly on gathering financial and political support for the Tamil cause, the different ‘modes of belonging’ of second-generation members of the diaspora meant that Swiss and international norms of peace, human rights and democracy that ‘have practically no links with Tamil (party) politics in Sri Lanka’ (2014: 430) became central in second- generation political activism. For Hess and Korf (2014: 421) this suggests that integration and identification with the host society’s values can have a profound impact on how political action is carried out across
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Gendering the Diaspora: Zimbabwean Migrants in Britain

Gendering the Diaspora: Zimbabwean Migrants in Britain

The emergence of the concept of transnationalism has been an attempt to explore migrants’ simultaneous embeddedness in more than one society (Levitt 2001). Basch, Schiller, and Blanc (1994, 7) define transnationalism ‘as the processes by which immigrants forge and sustain multi-stranded social relations that link together their societies of origin and settlement.’ How, then, do we differentiate between diaspora and transnationalism? Several scholars describe diasporas as a distinct form of transnational communities (Vertovec 1999). Levitt (2001, 202-203) asserts that ‘transnational communities are building blocks of potential diasporas that may or may not take shape.’ Whereas transmigrants are predominantly first generation migrants with strong attachment to their countries of origin, diasporas constitute the most enduring outcomes of both voluntary and involuntary migration and permanent settlement in hostlands (Sheffer 2003).
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The Contribution of Diaspora on Household Poverty Alleviation: Zanzibar Urban West Region

The Contribution of Diaspora on Household Poverty Alleviation: Zanzibar Urban West Region

Majority of respondents when they were interview whether they received money or no, 90% of the response were yes, which means that they received money from their relatives living in Diaspora. Only 10% they claimed to have not received money from their relatives. The results from this study shows that 25 (64.1%) of the respondents reported to have received money from Diaspora between TZS 0 up to TZS 1,000,000 in the past one year and 11 (28.2%) received in the range of TZS 1,000,000 up to TZS 5,000,000 and only 3 (8%) had received money in the range of TZS 5,000,001 and above, hence indicates good image on the contribution of Diaspora on improving household income.
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Colonial Diaspora in the Ibis Trilogy of Amitav Ghosh

Colonial Diaspora in the Ibis Trilogy of Amitav Ghosh

Abstract— The Ibis trilogy of Amitav Ghosh, which comprises three historical fictions, Sea of Poppies(2008), River of Smoke(2011), and Flood of Fire(2015), is a documentary of the opium trade between India and China and the trafficking of people as indentured labors by the East India Company during mid nineteenth century. Diaspora and enigma of crossing the ‘shadow lines’, the geographical boundaries between countries and continents, find room in the trilogy which is a common feature of Ghosh. The merchants, the sailors, or the trading company agents, who crosses the ‘black water’ out of their own interests, share some common experiences of homesickness, anxiety, anguish and adversity with those of the unwilling overseas transporters like the coolies and convicts. Along with these effects, they also share some common grounds, an influential concern, the British colonization as well as the role of East India Company. Almost all the characters of the trilogy are diasporic, who undertake voluntary or forcible movement from their homelands into new regions, are revealed to be somehow connected with the colonization. This paper intends to trace out those functions of the British colonization, specially the opium trade run by the East India Company that constructed the socio- economic life of India and Canton, and how they are responsible for all these enigma of border crossings found in Ibis trilogy.
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"Diaspora is a Greek word: Words by Greeks on the Diaspora"

"Diaspora is a Greek word: Words by Greeks on the Diaspora"

If Gage and Kalfopoulou negotiate the essence of home in their narratives, other diaspora writers depict the multiplicity of identity. Jeffrey Eugenides was born in Detroit, Michigan, of Greek and Irish descent. In 2002, his novel Middlesex won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction and the Ambassador Book Award. Narrator and protagonist Cal Stephanides (initially called "Callie") is a hermaphrodite with a condition known as 5-alpha-reductase deficiency. Raised through the age of 14 as a girl, Callie runs away and later assumes a male identity as Cal. The protagonist’s gender identity conflict could also be interpreted as a diasporic identity conflict. Eugenides sets Middlesex in the 20th century constantly interjecting historical events, such as the Balkan Wars, the ‘Nation of Islam’, and the Watergate scandal. 20 th century history is recounted both from an American and a Greek perspective. The narrator admits this dichotomy: “Sorry if I get a little Homeric at times. That’s genetic, too.” 31 This “too” is
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Key Concept 4.docx

Key Concept 4.docx

During hisreign Akbar significantly reformed the Mughal bureaucracy. Previously, the Mughal emperors collected taxes by relying upon a decentralized network of local administrators called zamindars. Acting as local aristocratic landlords, they collected taxes from peasants and sent a set quota to the state. But much of this revenue never made it to the emperor. As profits from the Indian Ocean pepper trade increased, Akbar monetized the tax system (required taxes paid in currency rather than in kind) and required the peasants to sell their grain in market towns and ports for cash where oversight of taxation could be more controlled. Having been bypassed in the taxation process, the role of the zamindars as tax-collecting landlords decreased; political control was also centralized. State profits poured directly into the government’s purse. This windfall of revenue was used to fund military expeditions and to embellish the imperial courts. With the decrease role of the zamindars, Akbar began the process of political centralization.
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A lightning climatology of the South-West Indian Ocean

A lightning climatology of the South-West Indian Ocean

In the SWIO, some areas exhibit very low or almost null lightning density. The region 20 ◦ S–50 ◦ S, 70 ◦ E–110 ◦ E shows a gap in lightning activity that can be explained partly by the presence of the Mascarene anticyclone. Two other ar- eas of low flash density (< 2 fl km −2 yr −1 ) are located south of the Mozambique channel and near Somalia shores. This may be caused by the presence of subsiding air from the Walker circulation and the Hadley cell. Lau and Yang (2003) proposed an annual mean position of the different ascending and descending branches of the Walker circulation using the NCEP-NCAR (National Centers for Environmental Predic- tion – National Center for Atmospheric Research) reanalysis for the period 1949–1999. They showed that in the Indian Ocean near East African coasts there is a narrow region of subsidence with maximum descent in the upper troposphere. Concerning the Mozambique channel area, the region of sub- sidence may be caused by the Hadley cell.
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Critical junctures and transformative events in diaspora mobilisation for Kosovo and Palestinian statehood

Critical junctures and transformative events in diaspora mobilisation for Kosovo and Palestinian statehood

A transnational social field built through interactions among Albanians has emerged due to long-term nationalist movements related to state formation in the 20th century, and subsequent emigration from Albanians-inhabited areas in the Balkans. The movement for Kosovo independence dates to the Treaty of London (1913), when territorial adjustments left almost half the Albanian population outside the borders of the newly established Albanian state (Malcolm 1998). The First and Second World Wars did not resolve the issue of Kosovo, an adjacent territory to the north of Albania, inhabited primarily by Albanians. Kosovo remained part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in the interwar period (1918–1939) and of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) under communism (1945-1992). It declared independence for the first time in 1991, two years after its autonomy was curtailed in the SFRY, and for the second time in 2008, with US and EU endorsement. Throughout the long Kosovo state evolution process, emigration has been prevalent. The US started attracting immigrants in the early 20th century (Hockenos 2003). Switzerland and Germany became destinations in the late 1960s and 1970s, when interstate treaties sent “guest-workers” to support the rising West European postwar economies. Kosovo migration also took place after the 1981 Kosovo riots and their suppression (Malcolm 1998, Hockenos 2003), and especially during the 1990s, when Kosovo was an ethnically segregated territory within collapsing Yugoslavia.
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Diaspora Governance: The Instrumentality  of Informal Religio Politico Structures for Migrant Integration among Ghanaian Diaspora in Guangzhou, China

Diaspora Governance: The Instrumentality of Informal Religio Politico Structures for Migrant Integration among Ghanaian Diaspora in Guangzhou, China

are to the diaspora. The formal approach is often found to be backed by gov- ernment apparatus and this makes it appear to have a greater tendency to im- plement decision, laws and regulations with respect to governing the diaspora. In an observation that was made during a time where the government of Guangzhou decided to reduce the number of permanent residents, it was simply done by changing the requirements needed from qualifying for a resident visa. This became a formalized means of implementing the new law of residency (Bork-Hüffer & Yuan, 2014). Consistent with Bork-Hüffer and Yuan (2014) summation “Along with new provisions facilitating visa application, easing gen- eral entry and application for permanent residence, the new law introduces ad- ditional measures for stricter supervision of the entry of foreigners and specifies prohibited activities related to the entry and exit of foreigners. The new law also specifies penalties for foreigners committing illegal activities and for persons providing support to these foreigners”.
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The History and Shaping of Caribbean Literature

The History and Shaping of Caribbean Literature

The blacks responded in several ways, which included the total acceptance of foreign values which pre-supposed a negation of one’s racial roots. There was also the rejection of Western values and a nostalgic attachment to vestiges of folk tradition, or, a judicious blend of the best of both cultures. This situation gave rise to the creation of a plural society. The post-emancipation West Indies was thus, still strongly under foreign domination through colonialism. As a result, there exists in the Caribbean a complex situation created by the existence and interlocking of two different sets of cultural values. There is a foreign derived metropolitan culture which is mostly seen among the upper and middle classes and the black Creole culture which contains many African-derived elements and is practised mainly by the lower classes. Thus, the various social classes act and think differently and one class is elevated and aspired towards, to the detriment of the other. The upper and middle classes speak Standard English, contract legal marriages and practise the religion and culture of their former European masters. The lower classes on the other hand, generally speak the Creole dialect, engage in fetish practices such as the worship of gods like Shango, gold, and Ifa and usually do not contract legal marriages.
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Four types of diaspora mobilization : Albanian diaspora activism for Kosovo independence in the US and the UK

Four types of diaspora mobilization : Albanian diaspora activism for Kosovo independence in the US and the UK

Facing almost no preorganized diaspora groups, the LDK transnationalized its policies more easily in the United Kingdom. By 1991, only left-wing and right-wing political associations existed among the British with interests in Albania (A4 2009). The new wave of refugees determined the character of the diaspora institutions. Young, college-educated refugee men who had been barred by the Milosevic regime from studying at Prishtina University congregated in 1992 around two new clubs in London: the Cultural Club “Faik Konitsa,” transformed in 1995 into the Albanian Community Center, and the Kosovo Information Center (KIC), a politi- cal branch of the LDK (Centre for Defense Studies (CDS) 2002; IOM 2008:6).Fol- lowing the LDK’s central directions, the London-based KIC focused on lobbying parliamentarians in the early 1990s. The Conservative government was considered inaccessible, since along with other Western governments, it adhered to a statist principle postulating nonintervention in the territorial jurisdiction of the Yugoslav state. Moreover, the Foreign Office dismissed the majority of Kosovo’s claims (Pet- tifer 2005). The focus fell instead on parliamentarians inclined to support sover- eignty struggles abroad. LDK activists brought the then Labour Party MP George Galloway and Conservative Party MP Steven Norris to Kosovo (A5 2009). Yet, KIC’s activism remained ad hoc. It did not develop standing committees within the party system as did other diaspora groups such as “Labour Friends of Israel” or “Conser- vative Friends of Israel.” A parliamentary group was established only after Kosovo’s 2008 independence and recognition (A6 2009). The KIC also failed to receive major sympathy within the trade unions. Its ties to UK institutions remained weak. It managed, however, to collect the 3% informal tax from Kosovar refugees to con- tribute to the fund managed by Bukoshi in Bonn.
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Diaspora as aesthetic formation: community sports events and the making of a Somali diaspora

Diaspora as aesthetic formation: community sports events and the making of a Somali diaspora

The AFT is a transnational leisure event that is maintained by Dutch and European Somalis to foster ties with countries and communities of origin and destination. The tour- nament is organised by the Himilo Relief and Development Association (HIRDA) and receives some financial assistance from the Municipality of Amsterdam. Through AFT, HIRDA (2016a) aims to ‘empower and improve the integration of young Somali diaspora in Europe through sports, dialogue and network building’. More specifically, the event seeks to ‘convey to young immigrants in and around Amsterdam the importance and value of sports. To highlight the social, cultural and sporting sides in a community that has not yet made sport their daily routine’ (HIRDA 2016b). It further aims to give young people a chance to network and share experiences with other young people. AFT is currently held twice a year – a 32-team winter event and a smaller, 16-team summer tournament. Its focus on (indoor) football reflects the game’s popularity among Somali people (Abdullahi 2001). Many Somali men regard football with fondness and associate it with connection to life in both the homeland and the diaspora (Spaaij and Broerse 2018). As shown below, they express this connection in aesthetic ways during AFT, for example by wearing Somali football uniforms and logos, and through their interaction with (former) elite Somali football players.
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