There are numerous ways and technics for helping BVI people to ease their navigation problem. Canes and guide dogs are two common ways to assist BVI users. However, they are used by only a few visually impaired people. Pending the availability of more current information, approximately 109,000 people with vision loss used long canes in 1990 (news service, 1994), while 7,500 individuals used guide dogs in 1995 and 1,500 individuals graduate from a dog-guide user program each year (Updates, 1995). In addition, the cane has some other shortcomings like no protection against obstacles in upper part of the body, or very limited preview about the ambient environment (Farmer and Smith, 1997). In other words, both guide dogs and canes are not able to detect overhead objects (Cui et al., 2010). A more flexible way is utilizing existing Electronic Travel Aids (ETA’s), (e.g. (Bousbia-Salah et al., 2011; Ganz et al., 2011, 2014; Guerrero et al., 2012; Ran et al., 2004; Zheng et al., 2014). There are some different types of ETA’s that some of them are based on optical triangulation such as LaserCane (Benjamin et al., 1973). Another type of ETA is acoustic-triangulation-based method, e.g. GuideCane (Borenstein, 2001). Minoru 3D webcam (webcam, 2010) (”Minoru 3D webcam,” 2010) plus a laptop is ad-hoc ETA based on stereo vision which can recover full depth map. In this paper, I reviewed five recent papers about this topic. The papers functionalities and limitations of some utilized techniques techniques for navigation by visually impaired people are reviewed.
While comparing three different approaches we found that the QR code recognition is very quick and precise. It doesn’t require powerful processors or devices to carry out the QR code decoding process. On other hand CNN based scene recognition is effective for identifying the doors or walls or other static obstacle in the navigation path. Same can be achieved in QR code system, but it requires pasting the QR codes in walls and doors. And it is not practically possible to paste QR codes in all walls and doors since it is not aesthetically pleasing for other people with normal vision. On the other hand CNN rec- ognition may fail in locations with similar appearance. The BLE beacons are not much accurate to estimate the exact position of the user. But it can be used to identify the rooms or corridor where the user is present. While navigating through straight paths in corridors BLE bea- cons are effective for getting real time position of the user. All of the three approaches have merits as well as limitations. But three approaches can be integrated to develop a hybrid navigation system for people with visual impairments where merit of one system will compensate the limitation of other such as QR code recognition or BLE beacons positioning can solve the issue of recogniz- ing locations with similar appearance using CNN model.
Efficient management of static and dynamic data is a key issue for processing these queries, since the result of a query is valid only for a particular location of the query issuer and the objects of interest. Therefore, continuously updating queries implies a communi- cation overhead and additional processing cost at the server side. A concept of validity region is introduced in  to lessen this problem by determining a safe area around the initial user position in which the result of the query is always valid. Many variants of these queries are summarized in . Most work on location-dependent query processing has been developed with an outdoor environment in mind (cf.  for a recent survey). However, indoor environments bring some special features and constraints that should be considered during query processing (i.e., the constraints that emerge from the architectural layout of space). More realistic approaches based on network and/or temporal distances are generally preferred.
Recently, the utilization of indoor localization methods has turned out to be progressively critical in an extensive number of uses and settings, for example, human services, homecare, checking, following, and so forth. In outside localization settings, the most notable and broadly spread innovation is the Global Positioning System (GPS). It can ensure fantastic execution in outside situations yet not work legitimately in indoor conditions because of poor inclusion of satellite flag. Additionally, acquiring position data in indoor situations is especially testing a direct result of a few reasons: mistakes by multipath
Abstract ----- Indoor way finding has recently gained high interest as one of the potential smartphone applications which helps people to find their destination especially in the big complicated buildings. Outdoor navigationsystems use GPS to guide the users to their destination. However, in indoornavigation, the GPS is not effective and accurate solution due to signal blocking inside the buildings. Many indoornavigationsystems use various infrastructures; such as Wi-Fi fingerprint, smartphone sensors only, NFC or extra hardware to construct the system. Also, most of the indoornavigationsystems present, at user smartphone, the real floor plan for navigation purposes. Actually, users are not familiar and cannot interact visually with such plan; also extra time is required for processing and scaling the real map on the smartphone screen in conjunction with user moving steps. In this work, an indoor way finder navigation system using building existing Wi-Fi WLAN infrastructure with smartphone accelerometer sensor is constructed. Also, instead of using real building map, the proposed system suggested and implemented an idea to mimic real building map that reflects and supports augmented reality of the building, by displaying images of real user location path while navigating to the destination. It also provides a friendly and easy user interface by displaying navigation information as a real environment images associated with directional arrow, speech and texts during the navigation process to show the route to the desired location inside the building.
ABSTRACT: Many blind people require travel aids to navigate in unknown environments. However, the majority of the corresponding devices are not designed for people with walking disabilities. In our project we provide walking assistance. But also enables blind users with mobility impairment to avoid obstacles. By leveraging existing robotics technologies, our system detects both positive and negative obstacles such as curbs, staircases and holes in the ground and transmits obstacle proximity information through haptic feedback. Our project aims to provide a solution for the above problem by using the modern technology by developing a robot to assist the visually impaired people to fulfil their basic needs like walking assistance in indoor environment.
Autonomous robot navigation is a popular ﬁeld of research, as more and more applications are found for robots that are able to navigate and discover the environment by themselves. One of the companies that is actively conducting research in this ﬁeld is Philips. The application that Philips focuses on is the autonomous vacuum cleaner robot. Such a device is able to clean the ﬂoor in a room, without intervention of a human being. The main functionality of a vacuum cleaner robot is of course moving around in a room, while picking up dust and debris on the ﬂoor. However, to clean a whole ﬂoor the robot needs a certain level of intelligence. It has to be able to observe its environment and react to it, by avoiding obstacles and do motion planning that steers the robot in directions where it has not cleaned yet. For this purpose, the robot needs to keep track of its position and the structure of the environment at all times.
 C. Randell and H. Muller, “Low cost indoor positioning system,” in Proc.Ubicomp: Ubiquitous Comput., G. D. Abowd, Ed., Sep. 2001, pp. 42–48. J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, ―Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,‖ Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 26, pp. 21 835–21 837, Dec. 2008.
In order to encode different functions in a home environment, we utilize three layers for a 2D floor map, visualized as an RGB image with some predefined pixel by pixel encoded semantics. One layer for objects and obstacles, one for dynamic entities (humans, pets) and one for the room property or function. For intelligent navigation, all semantic values are combined with a dictionary which contains the semantic map value, a keyword which is close human understanding and a property. Objects have the movable or unmovable property and regions have keepfree or usable for placing obstacles. The general format is shown in (1) and (2).
This system is based on indoornavigation using phones inertial sensors. In existing system when user walk from one point to another point, they use their phone for texting, gaming which gives result in step over-counting problem. These over step counting problem are solved in this system. Peak detection method used for measuring accuracy. System tested for accuracy for Normal walking-6.56%, free walking-9.54%, false walking-58.92%. Compared other step counting system this system gives high accuracy .
• Due to the variety of infrastructure, devices and deployment e ff ort requirements and lack of uniform testing methods, comparison of di ff erent approaches is relatively di ffi cult . So, in this thesis, a SHS system which is the current best method in dead reckoning approach, was re-implemented for the comparison purposes. As a next step, other exist- ing methods can also be re-implemented with similar indoor environment conditions. With the results from this experiment, it is observed that dead reckoning systems employing low cost sensors cannot track users for a long period of time because of the exponentially ac- cumulating drift from the actual location even with external corrections. So, dead reckoning can only be used to track only for a short time period using frequent initiations from reliable external location fixes. Fingerprinting systems, GPS fixes can be used for these initializations opportunistically. Indoor mapping guidance systems can use these dead reckoning systems to guide indoor passengers in an e ffi cient way. This leads to a hybrid method implementations. These have already been explored with the use of maps and particle filters.
The easy way to describe Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS) it’s like a GPS for indoor environments. IPS can be used to locate people or objects inside buildings, typically via a mobile device such as a smart phone or tablet. IPS relies on technology like wall- or ceiling-mounted beacons that work together in detecting a user’s or object’s location, deriving an exceptionally correct position. Like GPS, IPS systems can then detect the commend in which the device is travelling, it can predict the user’s pathway based on that information so the positioning remains exact as the space is traversed.
ABSTRACT: GPS is in fact the only solution for outdoor positioning, no clear solution has as yet emerged for indoor positioning despite the commercial significance. Therefore, the main aim is to develop real time indoor tracking system and using mobile phone sensors to provide reliable and accurate indoor localization. Indoornavigation is an important enabling technology for application such as finding a conference room in an office building, safety exit during an emergency or targeted retail advertisement in a shopping mall. Using this idea, an application can be made and by means of that application we are tackling indoornavigation using real time navigation. The android application provides: awareness, ease to find your way, advertisement and simplicity. To provide reliable indoornavigation for commercial buildings like malls, industries, colleges, hospitals, hotels. The indoor localisation system is comprised of several modules, the step detector, step length estimator and a personalisation module for adapting a step model to an individual user. Accelerometer and gyroscope data can be used by Motion mode Recognition to distinguish between different modes of movement Orientation Tracking which uses accelerometer and gyroscope data to estimate the device orientation.
An indoornavigation system for large public buildings is designed for resource efficient utilization. First, the hardware and software of the server is designed by adopting linux embedded framework. Communication between the client and server and reading-writing function are realized by developing program on application level. Second, the client software based on intelligent mobile devices is designed. Positioning method based on the signal intensity of WLAN is adopted. In order to ensure the accuracy of positioning, an improved WKNN algorithm is adopted in fingerprint matching. An improve A* path planning algorithm is adopted to reduce the time cost. Third, the client software is designed according to the algorithms to accomplish the indoornavigation system based on intelligent mobile devices.
A recent investigation of Baltimore University shows that our position in known environments is represented in a short of interior map located in cerebral hippocampus, formed by neuronal groups called “places-cells”. When we make a walk that we had make before, places cells are activated sequentially in our interior map, showing the right way. Working in a similar way, Labelee employ location tags which contains a QR code, which are distributed at indoor environments, acting as a places-cells, so users only needs to scan the QR code using their devices to find the way to go. These location tags act the same form as location cells, because they encode their position and orientation to allow guidance and navigation.
This paper develops a system to aid people who are physically challenged with leg impairment to navigate indoor with ease. It also aims to provide the traditional powered wheelchair with added features provided with low cost design. The system is divided into 2 units. First part consists of sensors and direction inputs which are interfaced with motors through microcontroller. The obstacle avoidance scheme is developed based on fuzzy algorithm to prevent accidents. The wheelchair is operated by two DC motors. The direction keys are used to change the direction of the wheelchair. The other part consists of Bluetooth module connected to microcontroller to control domestic electronic devices. An android app is built for user interface. Using Relay, we can switch ON/OFF the electronic devices.
A variety of indoor positioning technologies are being developed rapidly in nowadays, such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and UWB, which are used in hospitals, shopping malls, warehouses, underground car parks and other places (Song et al, 2011). The integrated positioning and navigation system of indoor/outdoor, called seamless positioning (Lau, 2005), is gradually applied in the real life. In general, the indoor positioning uses indoor local Cartesian coordinate systems, while outdoor positioning from GPS uses geocentric coordinate systems or Earth- centered-earth-fixed (ECEF) coordinate systems, such as WGS-84. The indoor and outdoor positioning are not applying the same coordinate system. The connection of indoor and outdoor spaces is an important requirement for seamless positioning, and it needs to unify the coordinate reference system for both indoor and outdoor spaces. Besides, analyzing indoor positioning data in different spaces also needs a unified spatial scale and coordinate reference. The traditional coordinate system is difficult to fulfil the wide range of application requirements of the current seamless location based service (Liu et al., 2012). However, a specific and practical coordinate reference frame in seamless positioning is lacking of research for a long time.
&& drivers can download specific areas. Once the system has the driver data, it will go into offline mode automatically and when the connectivity improves, it will change back to online mode (Ian, 2015). In our experiment, we also focused on the user’s flexibility. We have four kinds of conversational navigation interfaces, including the map only, the conversational only, the conversational with map, and the conversational with photos to enable the user to test and determine which interface has the best potential for future conversational navigationsystems. Thirdly, the quality of service - the overall performance of a telephone or computer network (Cardoso, Sheth, & Miller, 2003) that influences performance of the use of navigationsystems as along with users’ prospections. For example, Lin and Hsieh. (2006) reported the quality of display affects the user’s attitudes about using the systems as much as the service. This is because navigation devices for drivers and walkers have both a service factor - such as a navigation system which is an actual GPS - and an operating system (OS) which is an application launched on mobiles. The user will choose the service that they feel the most comfortable with and which displays the most benefit to them. The display factor is mainly related to user interfaces where the user is considered when the system is designed (Park et al., 2015). In today’s technology environment, everyone has a mobile phone and it has quickly become part of our routine lives. We use mobile phones for everything from calling, reading books or news, searching for jobs or information to navigating from place to place. As reported by Smith (2015), a high percentage of all ages of people use mobile devices use for navigating purposes. This is especially evident in young adults. There are many options for smartphone platforms on both IOS and Android. Many navigation applications can be installed for little or no cost and time, and many of the systems perform differently. First are visual modalities include maps, texts, and images. Second are non-visual modalities such as voice and tactile. Previous research by Rehrl et al., (2012) compared the performance of three distinct types of pedestrian navigations, including augmented reality, speech and maps by providing equal route information for walkers. They revealed maps and conversational-only interfaces had significantly better navigation performance compared to AR interfaces. The user feels easier viewing and more comfortable using maps and the conversational-only interfaces.
Nowadays, municipalities intend to have 3D city models for facility management, disaster management and architectural planning. 3D data acquisition can be done by laser scanning for indoor environment which is costly and time consuming process. We believe that the proposed surveying technique can be employed for basic indoor environment modelling to decrease cost and time for generating 3D city models. The proposed surveying technique could be utilized for most of municipalities. Future research attempts to investigate performance and efficiency of the proposed indoor topological navigation network against an accurate geometry of indoor building environment.
rates of 90 percent are not enough or the system will not be trusted and the user’s will continue to rely on other naviga- tion methods. If 100 percent successful guidance proves un- realistic then it will be necessary to investigate other ways of informing the user about the current situation, about what has gone wrong, maybe providing a reliable way to retreat back to a previously known position rather than all the way to the exit. Physically deployed beacons have the advantage of being visible, especially if the casing is carefully designed and they include lights or sirens, and thus provide a fallback navigation method. We believe however that the harsh light- ing and noisy environment of a fire scene combined with the high stress levels of the firefighters make our full guidance system far preferable since the cognitive load will be less.