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Bill to Restrict Indoor Tanning for Minors in The State of Maine

Bill to Restrict Indoor Tanning for Minors in The State of Maine

The first step in policy change is to identify the problem that requires attention. In this step, the integrative literature review on the impact of indoor tanning for minors internationally, nationally, and statewide was conducted to gain understanding of the scope of the problem, limitations, and possible solutions. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were used to help identify the policy problem. The integrative literature review demonstrated a link between indoor tanning devices and non-melanoma skin cancer (squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma) (Wehner et al., 2012; Boniol, Autier, Boyle, & Gandini, 2012). In addition, the literature showed a strong link between indoor tanning and melanoma skin cancer (Boniol et al., 2012; IARC, 2007), correlation between indoor tanning and melanoma with a focus on frequency of use and use of newer tanning devices (Colantonio, Bracken, & Beecker, 2014); and information on the international prevalence of indoor tanning. In addition, the information from the Maine State Legislature website was used to track similar bills that have been attempted in previous years. The process of problem identification provided strong evidence to support the restriction of minor’s access to indoor tanning devices that will decrease the health-related burdens associated with the development of skin cancers.
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Early-Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma and Indoor Tanning: A Population-Based Study

Early-Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma and Indoor Tanning: A Population-Based Study

OBJECTIVE: Indoor tanning with UV radiation – emitting lamps is com- mon among adolescents and young adults. Rising incidence rates of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have been reported for the United States and elsewhere, particularly among those diagnosed at younger ages. Recent epidemiologic studies have raised concerns that indoor tan- ning may be contributing to early occurrence of BCC, and younger people may be especially vulnerable to cancer risk associated with this exposure. Therefore, we sought to address these issues in a pop- ulation-based case – control study from New Hampshire.
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Indoor Tanning, Sunbathing, and the Hazard of Skin Cancer: The Effect of the Tan Tax

Indoor Tanning, Sunbathing, and the Hazard of Skin Cancer: The Effect of the Tan Tax

In July 2010, a 10 percent federal sales tax on indoor tanning, known as the tan tax, went into ef- fect. Applauding the imposition of the new tax, the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) fo- resees that by discouraging indoor tanning, the tan tax will significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer and consequently the future costs of its treatment, currently amounting to $1.8 billion each year. Recognizing, however, that an alternative to indoor tanning may be the riskier practice of sunbathing, the present paper offers a rational-choice model for addressing the individual’s indoor and outdoor tanning decisions, which is applied to examining his or her response to the imposi- tion of a tan tax and the consequent effect on the hazard of developing skin cancer. The paper chal- lenges the AAD’s forecast, identifying conditions under which a tan tax will rather exacerbate the hazard of skin cancer.
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Stronger Laws Are Needed to Protect Teens From Indoor Tanning

Stronger Laws Are Needed to Protect Teens From Indoor Tanning

In the United States, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) re- gulates tanning beds as class I medical devices, the same category as tongue depressors and elastic bandages. Although the FDA rec- ommends that speci fi c precautions be taken when consumers use an indoor tanning facility, 16 the agency places no age restrictions. It is therefore up to state governments to regulate minors ’ use of these devices, including imposing age restrictions. In October 2011, California

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Teens and Indoor Tanning: A Cancer Prevention Opportunity for Pediatricians

Teens and Indoor Tanning: A Cancer Prevention Opportunity for Pediatricians

of UVR is monitored and controlled and that it neither increased skin cancer risk nor posed a danger to consumers. The ITA also claimed that research showed that vitamin D supplements may harm the body ’ s ability to fi ght disease, and that a study from the Na- tional Academy of Sciences determined that “ the risks of not getting enough ultraviolet light far outweigh the hypo- thetical risk of skin cancer. ” The ITA stated that indoor tanning is approved by the government, misrepresenting the nature of FDA approval. In January 2010, the FTC issued a consent order and the ITA agreed to a settlement bar- ring it from any further deception. 38,39
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Exposure to indoor tanning in France: a population based study

Exposure to indoor tanning in France: a population based study

These last years, some studies have reported the fre- quency of tanning bed use in different contexts [9,10]. They reported the prevalence of tanning bed use, indi- vidual characteristics associated with this practice. For example, Börner et al. [9], found positive relationships of appearance and health related beliefs with tanning bed use and some misconceptions in users about the posi- tive effect of artificial UV radiation A systematic litera- ture review reported that users are characterized by a lack of knowledge about health risks of UV, and prompted by the frequent use of sunbeds by friends or family mem- bers and the experience of positive emotions and relax- ation by indoor tanning [11]. These characteristics are context dependant however [12], and it is important to study specific user profiles in the French context, given the fact that today, limited data are available to accurately describe the frequency of use of UV booths in France and user profiles. Level of knowledge about the risks associated with artificial UV radiation as well as the reasons that bring a certain clientele to use UV booths are poorly documented. For the first time as part of this study, the French population was surveyed on its use of tanning sessions. The first goal was to determine the proportion of French users of artificial UV radiation as well as their characteristics and level of knowledge of the risks asso- ciated with artificial UV use. Some local studies have ex- plored beliefs and practices about tanning bed use in France, but never in a population-based study [13,14]. This study provides a first look at the national current situation among 15–75 year olds, which will eventually help us to evaluate changes in exposure of the popula- tion as a result of future regulatory, information or risk awareness actions.
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Counseling on Sun Protection and Indoor Tanning

Counseling on Sun Protection and Indoor Tanning

protection during recent summer months with ≥75% of patients. This pattern held across all patient age groups (each P <.001). Female and suburban pediatricians counseled more; those in the South and West counseled less. More pediatricians in 2015 than in 2002 named time as a barrier. Sun protection ranked lowest among preventive topics in both years. In 2015, approximately one-third of pediatricians reported discussing indoor tanning at least once with 10 to 13 year-old patients; approximately half discussed this with older adolescents. Most (70%) did not know if their states had laws on minors’ indoor tanning access; those stating they knew whether a law existed counseled more.
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Use of Indoor Tanning Sunlamps by US Youth, Ages 11–18 Years, and by Their Parent or Guardian Caregivers: Prevalence and Correlates

Use of Indoor Tanning Sunlamps by US Youth, Ages 11–18 Years, and by Their Parent or Guardian Caregivers: Prevalence and Correlates

There are a variety of emission spectra in indoor sunlamps and sunbeds for use in commercial tan- ning parlors, although many, if not most, currently emit a spectrum similar to sunlight, and most pa- trons of these facilities are generally unaware of the emission spectra. The popularity of indoor tanning booths and sunlamps among the young should be of concern for various health-related reasons. Experi- mental animal studies have shown the direct effects of tanning salon-type radiation on the cutaneous car- cinogenesis process, 4,5 and another experimental

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Lane_unc_0153M_15391.pdf

Lane_unc_0153M_15391.pdf

Transcriptions from each focus group were read and coded independently by two coders, and potential themes were independently identified by each coder. The two coders then came together to agree on a common set of themes in the data. The analysis used a primarily directed form of content analysis (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005). A codebook with predetermined themes and concepts was used, based on constructs of the Extended Parallel Process Model and the messages themselves, and concepts from prior research, which helped guide coding and analysis. These included things like “Comparison of narrative vs. direct messages”, “Perceived harms of indoor tanning,” “Perceived severity of indoor tanning,” etc. During analysis, researchers read through transcripts and coded any content that related to the predetermined theme. Any content that researchers felt warranted a new code was given a new code. All pre-determined and new themes are reflected in the final results (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005).
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Practices of Unregulated Tanning Facilities in Missouri: Implications for Statewide Legislation

Practices of Unregulated Tanning Facilities in Missouri: Implications for Statewide Legislation

RESULTS: On average, 65% of 243 tanning-facility operators would allow children as young as 10 or 12 years old to use indoor- tanning devices, 80% claimed that indoor tanning would prevent future sunburns, and 43% claimed that there were no risks associated with indoor tanning. Intrasalon inconsistencies involved allowable age of use, and UVR exposure type and duration. Morning tanning-facility employees were more likely to allow consumers to start with maximum exposure times and UV-A – emitting devices (P , .001), whereas evening employees were more likely to allow 10- or 12-year-old children to use indoor-tanning devices (P = .008). CONCLUSIONS: Despite increasing evidence that UVR exposure in indoor-tanning devices is associated with skin cancer, ocular damage, and premature photoaging, tanning facilities in Missouri often misinformed consumers regarding these risks and lack of health bene fi ts and inconsistently provided information about the Food and Drug Administration ’ s guidelines for tanning devices. Pediatrics 2013;131:415 – 422
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PubMedCentral-PMC4927451.pdf

PubMedCentral-PMC4927451.pdf

The 6731 tweets (i.e., 23,558–16,827) not classified as burns included 838 tweets ambiguously describing an indoor tanning burn (e.g., “I think I got burnt in the tanning bed”), 444 tweets anticipated a future burn (e.g., “This tanning bed is about to burn me up”), 291 tweets described a tanning bed burnt smell, and 252 tweets described burning at the time that the tweet was sent (e.g., “I can feel myself getting burnt but I’m just too lazy and it’s too cold to get out of the tanning bed!”). In addition, 293 tweets contained messages that were truncated or cutoff mid-statement and were ex- cluded. The remaining 4613 tweets did not describe cases of tanning bed-caused burns, and no data were extracted from these tweets. Examples of the types of tweets not describing tanning bed-caused burns in- cluded references to a tanning bed scene from a movie, indoor tanning marketing, and public health messages about the dangers of tanning, among others. Figure 1 contains a flowchart of how tweets were classified.
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Teenagers and Artificial Tanning

Teenagers and Artificial Tanning

These legislative actions are first steps; for the most part, they do not go far enough. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that young adults should be discouraged from using indoor tanning equipment, and restricted access to sunbeds by minors should be strongly considered. 12 The American Academy

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A population-based survey on tanning bed use in Germany

A population-based survey on tanning bed use in Germany

Although indoor tanning behaviour of adolescents and young adults are regularly investigated [2,15-20], only sparse data is available concerning adult tanning bed users' characteristics and tanning bed use frequency [4,27,30]. Our results showed an interesting age-related pattern for tanning bed use. While young women (<18 years old) use tanning beds more frequently than men in the same age group, in later age groups up to the age of 44 the difference between women and men in frequent tan- ning is diminishing. Men seem to start tanning later in life, a conclusion that is also supported by data from Mathys and colleagues indicating higher percentages of the 30+ age group using tanning beds [4]. Contrary to other studies [e.g. [4,9,14,30]] tanning bed users more often had a high school diploma (or higher) than non- users. This particular result might be due to the underrep- resentation of participants with less than high school diploma in the present survey, and particularly those who were tanning bed users. With regard to frequent tanning bed use, no associations were found with demographic variables.
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A STUDY OF OPERATIONAL PROCESS AT LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY

A STUDY OF OPERATIONAL PROCESS AT LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY

Tannery owners opined that unhygienic working conditions lead to health hazards for the workforce; the information sources about tanneries were the buyers, the CLRI, the CLE Website and leather magazines; vegetable-based tanning solutions can be substituted for chrome; institution of SIDO, SISI is helping tanneries to revive; tanneries are treated as priority sector by the government to help them financially; reservation of certain products for tanneries avoids competition from large-scale industries; technical tannery assistance is given to tanneries by the Government to increase production and state tanneries corporations ought to rationally distribute the raw materials during scarcity.
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Index Terms - Tanning, Fish Leather, Hydrothermal Stability,

Index Terms - Tanning, Fish Leather, Hydrothermal Stability,

extent of the crosslinking between the collagen molecules and the thermodynamic stability of the crosslinking bonds. The stability is assessed by the determination of the shrinkage temperature of the leather. Satisfactory tanning effect is characterized by complete penetration and uniform distribution of the tanning materials[22]. There are several tanning methods and materials and the choice depends mainly on the properties required in the finished leather, the cost of the alternative materials, the plant available, and the type of raw material. Tanning may be done in many ways like mineral tanning (Chrome tanning, Alum tanning, Iron tanning, Zirconium tanning ), Non-mineral tanning (Aldehyde tanning, vegetable tanning, Oil tanning, Resin tanning, Synthetic tanning, Combination tanning) which are discussed later in this paper. After tanning basification is done using sodium bicarbonate to increase the pH to favor the subsequent processes such as retanning dying and fatliquoring[23]. The basification process fixes the tanning material to the leather, and the more tanning material fixed, the higher the hydrothermal stability and increased shrinkage temperature resistance of the leather. The degree of tannage is determined by boil test or using shrinkage testing apparatus where each tannage has its shrinkage temperature. Chrome tanned leather have a shrinkage temperature above 100℃ of as reported by Covington. Vegetable tanning have a shrinkage temperature of 80-85 ℃ depending on the various species of tannins as reported byKuria, Ombui [5]. A research conducted by Shi, Li [24] indicated that wet white leather have a shrinkage temperature of 85 ℃. Combination tannage increases the shrinkage temperature as reported by Valeika, Sirvaityte [25]. Masking is also done using masking agents such as sodium formate, sodium acetate, and sodium oxalate. Masking is the modification of metal complexes, by replacing aquo ligands with other less labile ligands. The purpose is to render the complex less susceptible to additional complexing reactions, including precipitation[11].
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Cooperative Localization Bounds for Indoor Ultra-Wideband Wireless Sensor Networks

Cooperative Localization Bounds for Indoor Ultra-Wideband Wireless Sensor Networks

Effective cooperative localization in indoor WSNs does, however, hinge on the ranging technology. Among the emerging techniques, ultra-wideband (UWB) time-of- arrival-(TOA) based ranging has recently received consid- erable attention [5–7]. In addition to its high data rate communications, it has been selected as a viable candidate for precise ranging and localization. This is mainly due to its large system bandwidth which o ff ers high resolution and signaling that allows for centimeter accuracies, low-power and low-cost implementation [5–8]. The performance of this technique depends on the availability of the direct- path (DP) signal between a pair of sensor nodes [9, 10]. In the presence of the DP, that is, short-distance line- of-sight (LOS) conditions, accurate UWB TOA estimates in the range of centimeters are feasible due to the high time-domain resolution [11–14]. The challenge, however, is UWB ranging in indoor NLOS conditions which can be characterized as dense multipath environments [9, 10]. In these conditions, the DP between a pair of nodes can be blocked with high probability, substantially degrading the range and localization accuracy. Therefore, there is a need to analyze the impact of these channel limitations on the performance of cooperative localization in indoor WSNs.
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The role of tyrosine in the tanning and sclerotization of the puparium of Drosophila melanogaster

The role of tyrosine in the tanning and sclerotization of the puparium of Drosophila melanogaster

TITLE INTRODUCTION MTERIALS AND METHODS Stocks and Culture Methods Chemicals and Enzymes Injection Synthesis of Tyrosine Derivatives Storage Homogenization and Extraction Acid Hydrolysis[r]

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Glowing like phosphorus: Dorothea Tanning and the Sedona western

Glowing like phosphorus: Dorothea Tanning and the Sedona western

the Sedona landscape, as well as to have borrowed the iconography of young women from the Western film genre. In her painting Interior with Sudden Joy, one of the girls seems to borrow Dorothy’s ubiquitous ruby slippers from The Wizard of Oz (1939). Meanwhile, The Guest Room (1950-52) offers a variation on the typical cozy environment of girlhood. Here a maiden in a white, crumpled nightgown caresses a life-size mannequin, an alternative comforter to the traditional porcelain doll. Two ambiguous figures are positioned at the threshold to this space: a little person wearing a balaclava and cowboy boots with spurs stands next to a naked female figure on the brink of adolescence whose silhouette is reflected behind the door as a nightscape. In the background a shrouded figure oversees the scene, comparable to the ominous presence holding a glowing orb in the background of Interior with Sudden Joy. Such esoteric interiors complicate any straightforward connection with the Western genre, and possibly even subvert it into the territory of nightmares. However, in Angel and the Badman, Quirt does spend a period of the film convalescing in bed after a shootout while angelic Penny cares for him domestically. Later in the film, when Penny minds her neighbor’s baby, she spookily replicates Tanning’s painting, Maternity, made the same year (1946-47). In both paintings the adult and child are dressed in glowing white garments. Maternity was prepared during an autotopographical moment of lonely dreaming when Tanning and Ernst were apart. 41 However, the painting had been photographed in a double-portrait of
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Indoor pedestrian dead reckoning calibration by visual tracking and map information

Indoor pedestrian dead reckoning calibration by visual tracking and map information

reckoning, and device-free methods [8]. Although there is still no optimal solution which satisfies the requirements of accuracy, availability, continuity, and reliability when comparing to GPS for outdoor positioning [9, 10], the latter two classes have the advantages of higher flexibility in operation and lower cost in infrastructure installation [11]. One the other head, the signal-based approaches need the pre- installed beacons, which are more expensive, less flexible and easily affected by physical variations from environment and multipath effects [12-14]. Common sensors for dead reckoning and device-free approaches are MEMS-based Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) and Charged-Couple-Device (CCD) cameras, respectively. These two kinds of sensors have experienced great advancements in manufacturing with products in more compact, cheap, low energy consumption and precise format [8, 15-19]. In addition, with the ubiquity of IMU sensors in smartphones and surveillance cameras in public building areas, the possibility of applying these sensors in daily life is growing as well [11]. With a wide range of applications in indoor scenarios, it infers a promising future market for the technologies based on these two kind of sensors.
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Coordinate references for the indoor/outdoor seamless positioning

Coordinate references for the indoor/outdoor seamless positioning

However, the complexity of an indoor environment has not been considered in the above methods. In many cases, the coordinate reference system is not built for the whole building, and it may be just a small area in an irregular building. In this situation, and the origin point may not be located in a corner of the building. So, the connection between a indoor local Cartesian coordinate system and a geocentric coordinate system is difficult to establish. The existing research have not proposed a universal coordinate system frame for both indoor and outdoor spaces, as it would ignore some specific details in different indoor spaces. After analyzing and classifying different indoor space, this paper proposes a method to establish the indoor positioning coordinate reference system, and the indoor and outdoor coordinates conversion method is also provided. Some specific
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