IndusValleycivilization represents the late stage of a cultural tradition that dates back to at least 6500 BCE. The IndusValleycivilization included a variety of ethnic groups and it flourished for 800 years, from approximately 2700 BCE until 1900 BCE. Many archaeologists and scholars focus on Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa when studying this culture because they were the earliest settlements discovered and have, therefore, been most thoroughly excavated. In fact, however, scientists have now uncovered cities throughout the region.
mong the four great ancient civilizations of the Old World, the IndusValleyCivilization (IVC) has the distinction of being the most enigmatic of this notable group (Kenoyer and Meadow, 2000). Mindful of the inevitable comparisons to its better represented, recorded, and studied Western contemporaries Mesopotamia and Egypt, four major comparable aspects of the IndusValley will be presented and discussed in this review. Beginning with settlement patterns, special attention is paid to Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro and specifically to the urban layout of these two exemplary cities. Second is the Indus’ sphere of influence as suggested by possible interaction with Mesopotamia, including motifs found in artwork and seals. Next is a synthesis and discussion about the current debate over the IndusValley script and its decipherment. Lastly, possible theories are reviewed regarding the collapse and disappearance of the IVC. By focusing on the standard components of urbanization, expansion, interaction, language, and decline that are attributed to the trajectory of ancient cultures, it is hoped that the uniqueness of the IVC becomes evident and invites further discussion and investigation.
Expressions of traditions, linguistics, arts, social practices; festive events, rites and rituals, and traditions craftsmanship are the domains of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Such aspects of this civilization have been traced out after the conduction of the Cultural Mapping methods. IndusValleyCivilization has its phases like Early Harappan Phase (3500-3300 BCE Circa), Harappan Phase (3300- 2800 BCE Circa), Matura Harappan (2800-1900 BCE Circa), Late Harappan (1900- 1300 BCE Circa), and Post Harappan (1300-600 BCE Circa) and then Iron Age. The Intangible Cultural denomination of these phases has been traced out through the application of the Mapping process. In this regard, the surveys, excavations, laboratory works, a database from museums, and archaeological and anthropological materials, are best sources to carve out the culmination point of this civilization. The previous studies put the IndusValley people lives in the picture which depicts that the people had proper arts, unique agricultural activities, marvelous craftsmanship, language or script (which is un- deciphered), religious system, social system, and artistic values.
The Harappan or the IndusValleycivilization flourished as a manifestation of urbanised Chalcolithic culture in the regions of Punjab, Haryana, parts of Rajasthan, Sindh, Gujarat and in adjoining areas with a high level of standardisation in more or less every aspect of life and also with certain degree of formalism. Gold, silver, lead and copper were the metals that the Harappans had mastered and used for ornaments, tools and vessels. The recent chance find from village Harinagar (Teh. Chandpur, Dist. Bijnor) is the first find of the Harappan artefacts east of Ganga. The find – a mix of vessels, tools and implements; and weapons – is very interesting as it not only the largest collection of copper objects outside the Harappa but also is the second largest of all the collection/hoard of Harappan copper objects found so far. The paper is an attempt to critically study the objects in the context of find, context of typology, in the context of composition as well as in the context of technology used in forging them.
The script of the Indusvalleycivilization has defied decipherment. Several attempts have been made in the past to decipher the script but there is no consensus about its content. The lack of definite knowledge about its structure makes it difficult to objectively evaluate any claim of decipherment. We have tried to fill this lacuna by analyzing the structure of the script using various computational techniques including machine learning and data mining. The focus of our study is to identify patterns in the Indus writing and explore its underlying logic without making any assumptions about its content. The methods identified in the study can also be used to analyse the structure of other undeciphered scripts. In the present paper we summarize our studies of the Indus script.
The main aim of this project was to study and apply statistical and linguistic methods in order to understand the nature and the structure of the IndusValley Scripts. The focus was on the application of the Markov Chain Method on the Indus Scripts. A new method based on Metropolis Algorithm has also been used for deciphering the scripts. IndusValleyCivilization was one of the most technologically advanced civilizations of the ancient world. It existed roughly between 6000 BC-1800 BC and was at its peak between 2550 BC-1900 BC. This civilization was contemporary with the ancient river valley civilizations of Nile, Euphrates and Tigris. It had well established trading relations with its contemporary civilizations. It was an urban civilization with very well planned cities and ports. There were magnificent drainage systems, well built roads, facilities of water storage, great public baths and very well planned houses made of burnt bricks. One feature that is quite unusual from its other contemporary civilizations is the relative even distribution of their wealth. There is no evidence of any extravagant monument building by any king or any influential person of that era to placate any supernatural and superstitious beliefs if at all existed(Kenoyer, 1998). These salient features described above makes it more superior civilization than its contemporaries. However, unlike its counterparts in Egypt, Persia and
represented civilization. But its very impor- tant to take into account, that Christianity concluded idea of linearity of time and, therefore, progress. The European Christiani- ty civilization assumed this idea and kept the connection with culture. So, the law in the European countries admitted as fundament norms of Christianity traditions. Thus a great number of functions of a state justice have been taken from the church. So, the church had solved the problem of inheritance for a long time, but afterwards the juridical law begun resolving these questions. The family law is based on the wedding. Religion idea of swear underlies to the contract law. The church authority under sins is the basis for the criminal law. This connection between the court of a church, the court of state de- termined the connection between culture and civilization.
There is no historical evidence that the primary aim of civ- ilizations is the establishment of internal peace. Historically, all civilizations (except the democratic civilization) have produced internal conflicts resulting in war. In fact, internal conflicts have been the main source of the decline of civilizations. In other words, a clash within a civilization has been more frequent and more damaging than a clash between civilizations. This is a gen- eral remark, valid for all civilizations including the pre-demo- cratic Western civilization. In fact, Western civilization has been one of the most war-haunted civilizations. Here, I am not referring to the innumerable, bloody and horrifying external wars related to Western colonialism and imperialism. I refer to internal wars such as the Hundred Years’ War, the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648), the Napoleonic Wars, and the First and Second World Wars. Similarly, the powerful Roman Em- pire could not escape its fate of division and the rise of the Byz- antine Empire as a new rival. The Islamic Empire followed the same path and was divided into many parts (Abbasids, Fati- mids, Seljuqs, etc.) causing its final decline as a civilization.
improve his living standards further. Alternatively, Crusoe could spend the newly freed time pursuing non-productive but no less satisfying activities, such as appreciating the sunset, bird watching or reading Treasure Island. Whether Crusoe spends his time on increasing his productivity to free more time in the future, or to enjoy his time in the present, makes no difference. In both cases he has a greater amount of options available to him from which he can select which will provide the most satisfaction and thus directly or indirectly increase his standard of living. This increase in living standards is what we refer to herein as civilization, and “saving and the resulting accumulation of capital goods are at the beginning of every attempt to improve the material conditions of man; they are the foundation of human civilization” (Mises 1998: 260).
interwoven with the other, neither civilization nor technization is the leading process or the cause of the other. Both are dependent on the human ability to postpone gratification through self-regulation in the hope of a future increase or stability in gratification – however, at times one of these processes seems to be more dynamic and to create unintended effects in the other. Mobility provides gratification for humans either through the experiences it opens up or through the sheer pleasure in effortless movement and speed it provides. The revolutionizing of transport throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries seems to have been progressive; increasing power (speed, distance), increasing independence from natural processes (such as animal or wind power), increasing control, and operability in increasingly alien media (land, water, air, space). 11 Elias points out that this trajectory of development
The study of a culture and civilization cannot be mastered within the limited opportunities provided by the class timetable only. Both the teachers and the classroom must create the necessary environment. This should include activities for interactive learning as well as self-learning. This will be made possible by providing a resource room where learners will have easy access to reading material and technology like tape recorders/ TV etc. Although libraries are available in most schools they are not utilized. Some activities requiring library reading must be made part of the teaching / learning process.
This modeling approach allows us to give a great deal of importance to the idea that cooperation is the basis for civilization. In our model far sighted individuals will cooperate. This behavior is not necessarily altruistic. Far sighted individuals interacting with other far sighted individuals, get a bigger private benefit than short sighted individuals acting on their own. This lays out the strongest possible case for the cooperative basis for civilization. In fact, short sighted individuals who interact with far sighted individuals also receive a higher payoff than if they act alone. However, far sighted individuals are punished quite severely for their willingness to delay gratification when they interact with short sighted individuals since without cooperation the long term benefits are unattianable. 3
Abstract: It is increasingly recognized that certain fundamental changes in diet and lifestyle that occurred after the Neolithic Revolution, and especially after the Industrial Revolution and the Modern Age, are too recent, on an evolutionary time scale, for the human genome to have completely adapted. This mismatch between our ancient physiology and the western diet and lifestyle underlies many so-called diseases of civilization, including coronary heart disease, obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, epithelial cell cancers, autoimmune disease, and osteopo- rosis, which are rare or virtually absent in hunter–gatherers and other non-westernized popula- tions. It is therefore proposed that the adoption of diet and lifestyle that mimic the beneficial characteristics of the preagricultural environment is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of chronic degenerative diseases.
secondary literature contemporary science is indeed based on an compromise–ethical–standard that would rejects the idea that the world is knowable a priori. That probably is due to the fact that the most interesting objects of science are aware of what is not yet scientifically measured– calculated–proved. Science cannot, in any case have, by its very nature, the characteristics of a activity that produces monotonically by simple iteration: i.e., principles, conceptual tools, procedures, control criteria, etc.. This is to address issues related to the history of science and teaching in comparative terms, i.e. science education (teaching), scientific civilization (society) and history of science (culture of foundations). One can think:
Around 800 AD, the Mayans were at the peak of civilization with a population of about 15 million occupying the area from Mexico’s Yucat´an peninsula to Honduras, before they ultimately and rather suddenly disappeared. In addition to hypotheses concerning epidemic disease as the agent, evi- dence has emerged that a long period of dry climate, punctu- ated by three intense droughts, may have contributed to the end of Mayan society (Haug et al., 2003). Here we exam- ine multiple and consistent evidence to suggest that climate played a central role in the downfall of Minoan civilization and that the ultimate mechanism was a fundamental change in the dynamics of El Nino/ Southern Oscillation (ENSO).
this paper discusses the dynamics of discourse between so-called transnational ideology and the local wisdom of religion, with an anthropological approach and description based on phenomenological observations. this discourse needs to be well understood in relation to religious life in indonesia, for a good reason. Some transnational ideologies have succeeded in attracting the attention of some Muslims and generating movements that have the potential to disrupt the sustainability of the state and religious diversity in indonesia. One of the interesting phenomena that transpired with transnational ideology is its attempt to showcase the glorious past of islamic civilization as a dream to be rebuilt through the ideology. Some examples are the Khilafah idea propagated by Hizb ut-tahrir, and the Jihad as political movement popularized by iSiS after being brought out to the surface as ideology by al-Qaeda. this paper will analyze the reasons why some islamic groups are very interested in this movement. Originally, the transnational ideology offered islamic solidarity based on the geo-political and conflict situation in the Middle East. However, this transnational movement developed and gained support and fanatism in the name of islamic solidarity and the dream of islamic glory based on the historical example of the golden age of islam. the ideal thought of the transnational movement is to build a new islamic world Order based on islamic teachings and forms that fit with their framework and paradigm. in their propaganda, the new islamic world Order is believed to free the suffering of the Muslims from the unfair treatment of western domination. in indonesia, it is important to consider the local wisdom of religion as a filter to overcome the propaganda of this transnational ideology movement. Local religious wisdom will provide a deeper understanding to the people to understand their religious teachings based on the context of their lives and the legacy of their local wisdom without deviating from the nature of the religion. Keywords: transnational ideologies, religious local wisdom, islamic