Implementation of BPCR interventions to improve the use of skilled care at birth requires careful consideration of con- textual factors influencing implementation. When develop- ing programmes and interventions, BPCR messages and strategies should match and respect the target audience and the different decision makers in maternal health and their values, as well as the organisation and capacities of the local health system. When mismatch occurs, such as when in- creased demand for facility births meets unprepared facilities in contexts where essential and comprehensive emergency obstetric care services are not available, this could cause considerable damage to the often already fragile trust the community has in the formal health system and increase complications or mistreatment of women giving birth at facilities. For this reason, it is important that BPCR is imple- mented alongside other interventions and activities to strengthen the supply and improve the quality of maternity care services. Implementation of BPCR should always in- clude preparedness for both routine childbirth care and for complications, ensuring women and families have discussed the plans. Local socio-economic realities and determinants however remain a heavy burden for effective implementa- tion of BPCR, and therefore require actions with the com- munity and other stakeholders. BPCR messages should therefore be adapted to the local context in terms of avail- ability, accessibility and affordability of health facilities and services. Inclusive and active involvement of all levels of stakeholders, including health officials and policymakers, ap- pears to be a crucial step for securing linkages between the actions of all respective stakeholders that optimizes chances for women and newborns to reach needed care and contrib- utes to the success of BPCR.
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Regulation is amongst the central instruments through which governments seek to deliver on their policy priorities. However, a lack of consensus on how regulation should be conceptualized can make studying its nature and effects problematic. Therefore this study assessed the factors influencing implementation of financial regulations in national Sub-County Treasuries in Nakuru County, Kenya. The study examined the effect of technology on the implementation of financial regulations. A descriptive research design was employed. The target population was 68 finance officers in the national Sub-County Treasuries in Nakuru. The study conducted a census. A questionnaire constructed on a five point Likert scale was employed for data collection. The data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistic using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study established that technology significantly influenced implementation of financial regulations. The study concluded that implementation of financial regulations is significantly influenced by technology. The study recommended that for effective implementation of financial regulations in national Sub-county treasuries, the government should reinforce the use of information technology in treasury operations. The national treasury should put systems in place to check for internal accountability among staff operations.
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According to (Duignan, 2005), the outcomes theory provides an incorporated outlook on the functioning and ideal design of outcomes systems. Duignan cites that outcomes systems are the range of related systems used in various sectors, disciplines and professions which attempt to specify or measure results to attribute changes in such outcomes to parties such as individuals, projects, programs, organizations, coalitions, joint ventures, governments etc. Outcomes systems are known by names such as results management, performance management, monitoring, evaluation, evidence-based practice, contracting and strategy. The theory provides a rigorous set of definitions and principles for analyzing and improving such systems. On the basis of the foregoing explanation of what outcomes theory provides it can be seen that it aims to integrate the design and functioning of outcomes systems. Furthermore, the theory sees outcomes as an encapsulating term for a number of concepts that are frequently used in monitoring and evaluation including results. At planning stage, things like goals, developmental objectives, outputs, inputs, targets, indicators, sources of data and even assumptions that are put down in a plan are all objectives because they are what we plan to attain or realize through effort during implementation. Attainment of all the foregoing will be expressed in results. Therefore, the outcomes will be seen in the results of effort applied during implementation, hence, the logic that an outcome is a form of result and one can achieve any form of result but not have an expected outcome.
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When a majority of teaching and none teaching staff report that autocratic and dictatorial leadership styles influence their change readiness to a very little extent, it is an indication that these two styles of leadership produce the least positive impact in the process of change implementation in public universities. Additionally, when a majority of respondents find themselves in a neutral state with regard to the extent of influence transformative, laissez-faire and transactional styles of leadership have on their readiness to embrace change, it points to a great likelihood that the management has not sufficiently invested their efforts towards making these styles of leadership where they exist, take one particular desired direction that is positively influential on employees so as to realize real output of these styles of leadership. Employees at this state are still capable of swinging to any direction and as such the management can take advantage of this situation and influence them to their desired direction.
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partnership working within the context of camps for in- ternally displaced populations in the eastern border. The supervision of partnership working together with strong referral mechanisms was acknowledged more generally as a way to facilitate good working relations . As part of the TBA-midwife partnership project in Indonesia, TBAs no longer help women give birth but their ‘social status’ has been retained helped by the formal acknow- ledgement of the TBA in the health system . In many countries identifying new roles for TBAs (for example adapting facility care to include TBAs as birth compan- ions) involved consultation with all stakeholders, which was found to facilitate better partnership working and helped to overcome rivalry between TBAs and skilled attendants [7, 11, 19, 27, 28, 30]. Many reports emphasised the importance of defining new roles for TBAs (for example, ANC, family health, postpartum care, breastfeeding and weaning, as advocates for MNH needs) and committing to these at the policy level . The introduction of formal agreements (‘contracts’) between TBAs, SBAs and health services was reported to facilitate implementation in Brazil  and Indonesia .
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Some factors influencing implementation and adop- tion of eLearning interventions include characteristics of the educational intervention, problem addressed by the intervention, features of the health system, the adopting system and other contextual factors . A number of qualitative studies have been conducted to evaluate factors affecting implementation and adoption of mLearning interventions. However, no qualitative review has been done to systematically evaluate the factors influencing the successful implementation and adoption of mLearning in- terventions for medical and nursing education. Our review considers the broader issues of implementation, adoption, and the educational impact of mLearning. This is import- ant because mLearning is a relatively new area of develop- ment compared to other eLearning approaches and having a systematic and in-depth exploration of the range of potential barriers and facilitators to adoption, use, scalability and sustainability of mLearning in health pro- fessional education would deepen understanding of the topic and allow insights to be obtained. It is also import- ant to understand mLearning in terms of the underlying assumptions about teaching and learning (pedagogy) of different approaches so as to maximise the potential rich- ness of the learning process and enable teachers to plan for optimal learning .
There is a vast knowledge on strategic planning practices and strategy implementation that have been put forward by many researchers. Most of researches have been done in strategic planning practices for profit or business organizations; there are very few researches that have been done on planning practices and strategy implementation on not-for-profit organizations. Out of the few that have been done on not for profit making organizations only a few dealt on churches. This study therefore sought to fill that existing research gap by carrying out a study on organizational factors influencing implementation of strategies in the Anglican Church of Kenya, Kirinyaga Diocese. It explored alternative approaches that could be adopted to facilitate effective implementation of the strategic plans. The study investigated the influence of resources, leadership, church culture, and church structure on the implementation of strategic plans. Both primary and secondary data were used for this study. To obtain the primary data semi-structured questionnaires were distributed to 73 respondents out of a population of 367. These were drawn using stratified random sampling from the senior clergy, departmental heads, Vicars, and vice-chairpersons of local church councils. A simple random sampling procedure was used to identify the respondents. The return rate was quite high as 70 questionnaires were collected out of the 73 distributed, which was a 98% response rate. The secondary data included the already documented materials such as the strategic plans and annual reports of the diocese and various departments among other published materials. The qualitative data collected was analyzed through content analysis while the quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS in order to establish the relationship between
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Ondo State, Nigeria. The study objectives assess the strategies used in retaining talented employee in deposit money banks selected and also examine the factors influencing implementation of talent management policies in deposit money banks. Descriptive statistics and appropriate inferential statistics were employed for the data analysis. The study revealed the strategies used in retaining talented employee in deposit money banks. It shows that compensation and rewards are both financial and nonfinancial in deposit money banks has a mean value of (3.82). Deposit money banks attract and retain key workers by applying total rewards strategy has a mean value of (3.50).According to the result, some of the factors influencing implementation of talent management practices in deposit money banks are; culture and relationship between top management and employee, salary and promotion contribute to retention within the organization, retention strategy in retaining talented employee, and compensation and reward management policies on employee retention.Test statistics shows that the chi-square value is 106.62, with 4 as the degree of freedom and the significant value is 0.001. Since the significant value is (0.001) is less than level of significant (0.05), the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected, and alternate hypothesis (Hi) is accepted. Thus, talent management practices implementation have significant effect on employees’ satisfaction in deposit money banks. The study concludes that it is equally of value that organizations should train and retrain their work force to develop needed talent in the staff. The correlation between profitability and talent management cannot be overemphasized.The study recommended that strategies used in retaining talented employee in deposit money banks must be improved upon and must be a long-term focus of every deposit money banks in the study area.
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Exploring factors influencing guideline implementation Individuals affiliated with organizations that issue prac- tice guidelines will be interviewed to explore the factors that influence guideline implementation. Standard meth- ods of qualitative research will be used for sampling, data collection, and data analysis . Individuals involved in sponsoring, developing, or implementing Canadian guidelines for four topics examined by content analysis will be identified on organizational web sites and through preliminary discussions with key contacts at those organ- izations (known sponsor approach). Ten consecutive individuals at each organization will be purposively recruited to represent different roles and perspectives, including sponsors, executives, managers, members of guideline development panels, and other individuals involved in coordinating guideline development or implementation, both internal and external to the involved programs, for a minimum total of 40 interviews. During interviews participants will be asked to recom- mend additional stakeholders that could provide relevant information (snowball sampling). Detailed information from representative, rather than a large number of cases is needed in qualitative research. Sampling is concurrent with data collection and analysis, and proceeds until no further unique themes emerge from successive interviews (grounded approach). If after 40 interviews new informa- tion continues to emerge, further interviews will be pur- sued. Data will be collected by conducting semi- structured telephone interviews with consenting partici- pants. To enhance validity, a single investigator will con- duct the interviews for internal consistency. They will be audio-recorded, then transcribed verbatim by an external professional. An interview guide will be pilot tested on one manager and clinician. Participants will be asked about their knowledge and perceptions of implementa- tion; resources that were consulted to guide implementa- tion decisions; their organization's incentives and capacity to implement guidelines; processes actually used for implementation; and suggestions for improving implementation capacity and processes. Unique themes will be identified in an inductive, iterative manner as pre- viously described. Coded transcript text will be tabulated by theme and professional role.
is operating the business at International level and also using the sophisticated I.T. Logistics systems to monitor and manage all their processes and partners. This company has been implementing Tier-1, Tier-2 and Tier-3 WMS systems at the facilities per business and customer requirements. A decade ago, the company has seen that there is a potential growth of the Logistics business at the range of 10 to 15% a year and started to make remarkable investments in IT WMS solutions and infrastructure. A few years later, the company has started enjoying the advantages such as great improvements on the Operational efficiency which directly contribute to the cost benefits to the business by implementing the Warehouse management System. It was observed and determined that the advantages that the business are gaining due to the very successful implementation strategy and applying the lessons learned from the previous implementations. The vital factors that were evaluated and monitored very closely for every implementation for the successful delivery are listed down and explained below.
Based on the problem statement, researcher creates three research questions regarding the factors influencing the implementation of lean manufacturing in Oriental Food Industries Sdn Bhd in Melaka, Malaysia. These research questions are the keys activities for this research progress.
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The purpose of the tessellation control shader is to determine tessellation factors to be applied by the tessellator. As we are using quad patches, we must supply four outer tessellation factors and two inner tessellation factors. We have extended an existing implementation , which uses the screen-space edge lengths of each side of the current quad-patch to determine the tessellation levels. This is performed by using the model-view-projection matrix to project the four corners into screen-space. We can then measure the lengths of each edge. Our implementation also takes into account the HAM. We sample one of the components of the HAM, at the given texture coordinates, from which we obtain a scalar value between zero and one. This is used, along with a constant scale factor, to derive four outer tessellation levels. The remaining two inner tessellation levels are obtained by taking the minimum of the left and right outer levels as well as the minimum of the upper and lower outer levels. We use the following equation to determine each outer tessellation level:
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The second objective of this study is to identify influencing factors for contractors’ practices of IBS implementation in the construction industry. The influencing factors for contractors’ practices of IBS implementation in the construction industry at Johor Bahru as shown in Table 3 with ranking number 1 until number 10 from highest to the lowest mean value. The highest ranking has the mean of 4.39, while the lowest ranking is 3.58 with 0.46 differences in mean score value. This ranking provides an indication of influencing factors for contractors’ practice of IBS implementation in the construction industry, which faced during implementation of IBS at Johor Bahru construction projects. The highest ranking of influencing factors for contractors’ practices is the financial problems on implementing IBS in construction projects. However, there is a constraint among small contractors to implement IBS in construction project due to financial capability. Nawi et al. (2015) supported that, in order to overcome the financial funding problems, some of the contractors essential to have a finacial bond from the creditor as an assurance. In addition, the finding regarding the coordination problems with others was also positively given which most of the respondents were agreed to the statement, this finding to this problem supporting research by Mohamad Kamar (2011).
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not to be transparent enough such that some staff complained and wondered which criteria were applicable in selecting staff for training. The researcher discovered that TPC had no official assessment mechanism specified to measure training success as well as performance degree on the activities of the corporation. Another research undertaken by Hamis, 2000 at the Tanzania’s Ministry of Health (MoH) found that the training at the Ministry was not effective because the Government did not allocate sufficient funds for the training purpose. Moreover the training programs were not implemented and worse still there was no training evaluation conducted to measure training acquired and actual translation of such training into actual work performance. However the training function has been affected by several factors some being that, the concept has not been understood in organizations. People in managerial positions have remained idle on training responsibilities thinking that the job is solely a responsibility of the Training or Personnel Departments. In fact training is a responsibility for every manager and supervisor. Training activity in some organizations has further suffered from financial constraints and lack of well-qualified personnel to coordinate it because many organizations disregard it. Kilugwe,2007 in her study to Morogoro Municipal Council revealed that some of the factors limiting implementation of training program are age limits, lower level of education and limited budget. A study by Seleman,2009 revealed that one of the factors limiting implementation of training program at Mzumbe University was shortage of funds. The literatures above appreciates the importance of training in organizations, for example, Torrington and Chapman (1983) argue that after completion of employment process, the next stage of a contract for work is training and developing the employees to perform. Studies made have cited the gaps that they found to be hindrances of implementation of trainings in various
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uniformity in the structure of quality management systems or uniformity in the documentation, but to follow the company's approach to meeting the demands of customers. The basic issue that has been addressed in this study is the entry of Iranian products into overseas markets and increased competition for expansion of markets, which the IS09001 quality management system can provide valuable assistance in this regard, considering that The quality and price of products in the eyes of the customer today and world markets, paying attention to the system that is an effective tool in the long run, will boost the growth of Iranian companies. Unfortunately, the time has come for the implementation of this system to be difficult and in most cases this system has not been effective or Iranian organizations have not been able to keep it and then have lost their certification time. The study attempts to identify the factors that contribute to the failure of the ISO9001 implementation, and the results of such a study may highlight existing deficiencies, shortcomings and fundamental problems, and serve as useful guidance for consultants, managers, auditors, and Experts are quality assurance. Due to the problems, factors such as market policies, values, organizational structure, management, staffing, and customer orientation have been studied in this project. The Damavand asphalt plant as one of The largest asphalt plants in the east of Tehran play a significant role in providing asphalt to the eastern roads Tehran and Mazandaran, but unfortunately, because of the lack of ISO standards, it has always been costly to road construction projects due to the low quality and low costs of the project. Therefore, this study seeks to examine the infrastructure required for the implementation and deployment of the ISO scale step To
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organizational change agents to plan and execute environmental changes. The wellness team was provided with a framework as a guide to assist them in developing strategic plans for environmental changes. ENRICH employed a flexible and adaptive intervention approach to assist the wellness team in attaining environmental changes. The framework consisted of four essential elements for creating a health-promoting RCH environment: (1) providing opportunities for enjoyable physical activity, which could be achieved through scheduling and provision of equipment; (2) developing, strengthening, and/or enforcing policies that support physical activity; (3) strengthening adult social support and modeling for physical activity; and (4) increasing positive media messages. To facilitate implementation, the investigative team worked in partnership with the RCH staff to identify goals and develop strategic plans for effective environmental changes. Training and ongoing technical assistance, such as workshops, in-service training, consultations, site visits, and resources were provided to the wellness teams to increase their capacity of assessing environments in the homes, and developing and executing the strategic plans. Saunders et al. 10 and Dominick et al. 9 provide detailed descriptions of the
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The shift in emphasis from the organization to the community has seen the development of program logic templates as the accepted framework for effective implementation and evaluation (Goodman, 2000; Goodman, Wandersman, Chinman, Imm, & Morrissey, 1996). This model is a useful way to show the theoretical frame by which the intervention intends to achieve its aims, thereby increasing the efficacy of the intervention’s evaluation (Savaya & Waysman, 2005). However, it does not take into account the fact that each program logic box represents a person or people and that each strategy relies upon the skills of people and their interactions with each other. Interventions change over time, the people within the implementing organization come and go, and each person brings their own skills, knowledge, passions and beliefs to the intervention.
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The Delphi method is extremely well suitable for this study. Using Delphi in expert studies where the questions are narrower and more specific in terms of subject, the result can guide the framing of further interview questions that are more specific (Okoli & Pawlowski, 2004). For example, the Delphi method is earlier used in a study where the top risk factors of a software project are identified (Schmidt et al., 2001). This is a similar research project where risks instead of influencing factors are being identified. In the first round of this Semi-Delphi study, several experts in the field will be interviewed regarding the organizational and individual factors that influence the implementation of Data-Driven Marketing. In the second round of this Semi-Delphi study, two people within the same organization will be interviewed to prove the answers given during the first round and find more in-depth answers. The combination of the two rounds in the Semi-Delphi provide on one hand the insights from different experts and on the other hand deep insights from within organizations.
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The issue of decommissioning to deliver savings also illustrates further the challenges of trying to evaluate the benefits of telecare. A research-driven approach would not risk the simultaneous decommissioning of aspects of exist- ing services alongside the commissioning of new telecare- enabled services, raising the potential to increase rather than reduce costs (as there will be an extended period during which both services require support). Further, the service change approach of aligning decommissioning of the old against commissioning of the new raises the criticism that reductions in apparent costs or other desirable outcomes may stem from reduction in capacity of the original service, not from successful implementation of the new telecare-enabled service.
The interviews were conducted independently; they were recorded on an audio recording device, after obtained the interviewee consent, and later transcribed. Twenty-one interviews were conducted in-person and fifteen on the phone. Each interview lasted on average between 30 and 45 minutes; the researchers followed the guidelines on audit interview associated with the qualitative research interview protocol. However, to schedule an inter- view, a notification via a phone call, SMS text message, or email was sent to each participant interviewed before each interview to arrange a date and time to meet. During the interview, in order for Jordan e-Government to improve its efficiency and effectiveness, the participants were presented with two major questions (to lead/guide the interview sub-questions): what are the challenges encountering the implementation of e-Government in Jor- dan? And, what are the factors affecting the implementation of e-Government in Jordan?
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