and a trusted one at that. Whereas most student users of Wikipedia trust the community of writers that contribute to the development of its pages of information, many teachers still criticize or disregard Wikipedia because of its open participation in the writing process, possible unreliability, and at times shallow coverage (Purdy 209), since “anyone, at any time, can modify by simply clicking on an ‘edit this page’ button found at the top of every Web entry” (Hunt and Hunt 91). However, the disregard for Wikipedia appears to be on the de- cline, and more and more users each day believe the “information is trustworthy and useful because, over time, many, many people have contributed their ideas, thoughts, passions, and the facts they learned both in school and in the world” (91). Wikipedia and Google are so much a part of the research process for writers today that to ignore their role and refuse to work with these tools seems ludicrous.
Despite introducing research-based courses into the engineering curriculum, there are significant numbers of students who are unaware of the term “research” from their courses (24%) and many strongly felt that they lacked researchskills (11% felt they did not and 37% were unaware of whether they possessed them or not). This indicates that some courses are ineffective in imbibing the requisite researchskills among their students. It might be assumed that the whole purpose of introducing such courses is not clear to curriculum designers, faculty and the students. Furthermore, many students were not able to give a clear response when prompted about their ideas of the three main words or phrases that they would use to describe research. The responses tended to be rather vague across all years for undergraduate students and it might be inferred that many research-based projects were not adding value to their skill set. Our starting assumption has been supported by the fact that most of the students (63%) said that they were not taught researchskills. Though the focus of any nation is on increasing research and innovation, no researchskills are being inculcated, according to these results, in a specific region in India until the student passes beyond high school and pursues an undergraduate degree. However, a considerable number of students at the undergraduate level did not report possessing researchskills. Of all the requisite researchskills, students mostly possessed information searching skills (finding key information, finding research papers, using keywords for searches, and checking sources and evidence). The respondents did report that they had skills required to develop a project, but it can be argued that as project development is a compulsory part of the undergraduate engineering courses in Indian higher educational institutions, then a higher number of respondents would be found who would report that they felt that they had those skills. It is possible, nevertheless, that project development does not highlight the presence of researchskills among and for students. Engineering students (95%) certainly understood that researchskills were useful. This response level is in line with the investigations conducted among medical and management students. Students strongly felt (82%) that research should be part of the curriculum and adding it to the credit system would improve both scientific rigour and overall programme learning outcomes (stated by 80%). Over half of the students felt that research should be a major part of the curriculum.
It would be more realistic to implement programs teaching library skills at increasing levels of difficulty, moving from simple to more complex skills. The growth in informationskills programs should be cumulative, with each level of instruction reinforcing what has been taught previously. At the International Islamic University of Malaysia, library researchskills involving teaching of search techniques are taught to final year and postgraduate students. Freshmen are only taught OPAC and given library orientation which consists of a guided library tour. At the University of Malaya, the Science students are given a guided tour and library orientation during their first semester. They are only allowed to take the compulsory InformationSkills Program in their second semester. It was observed that there were less problems with these students during the GXEX 1401 course. They were able to understand the overall objectives of the course and were less confused.
instruction. Popham writes, “if you discover through affective assessment that your students are really bored or disinterested in the content you’re presenting or plan to present, then you can do something to address that problem.” 327 Person also has improvement of instruction in mind when he suggests, “If we believe students know a valuable course when they see one, we may conclude that courses in bibliographic instruction are appreciated by those for whom they are designed. We need to document that appreciation, and the reasons for it, in order to improve such instruction.” 328 Pre- and post-test comparisons of confidence inventories may also help educators estimate the effectiveness of their instruction. 329 Another possible result of using satisfaction measures is that librarians may be able to document levels of library anxiety among students. Stamatopolos and Mackay suggest that two important goals of library instruction, reducing library anxiety and improving students’ confidence in their researchskills, can be measured using satisfaction measures, according to Grassian and Kaplowitz. 330
An important step in information literacy development is to obtain data on students’ abilities. These data will indicate areas of improvement and the most appropriate training and services required. Data for this study were obtained using the test adapted from Mittermeyer. The test consists of 20 multiple-choice questions related to informationresearch process, which consists of five major steps, namely: 1) Defining which information is required, 2) Identifying the main concepts in the research, 3) Developing a search strategy, 4) Performing the search, and 5) Using the search results. Each of these steps requires information literacy skills to make the information search successful. Based on the Information Literacy Competency Standards For Higher Education published by the Association of College and Research Libraries and the International Federation of Library Associations guidelines on information literacy, the informationresearchskills are grouped into five major themes , , .
On reviewing the content of the face-to-face workshop in the context of a stand-alone tutorial, it was felt that additional content was needed, as the information provided on the standard slides did not incorporate the ad-hoc help or discussions which can occur within the classroom. The workshop focuses on Finding, managing and evaluating information. However in a face-to-face class, students have the opportunity to raise issues of particular concern that may be related to what is being covered, but not a planned part of the workshop (such as how to approach reading articles found during the literature search, and writing the assignment itself). It was therefore decided that the tutorial should offer students a clear structure to the process behind producing a piece of work, including the information covered in a normal IL session, but also addressing the steps in between that were usually covered by separate academic skills resources and (campus- based) workshops.
It is thus of great importance that we be clear on what we mean by interdisciplinarity. I have served on multiple interdisciplinary research granting adjudication committees and always been struck by the superficial claims to interdisciplinary orientation of many applicants. If the world will hail interdisciplinarity, but not define it, then we will be deluged with superficial interdisciplinarity.
Moore Library at Rider University has created several online tutorials to teach information literacy (IL) skills for a distance learning Psychology course and a traditionally taught Organic Chemistry class. Both tutorials involved course integrated library instruction based on the research papers assigned to these classes. The students in the distance learning course were able to find appropriate resources for their papers but it could be assumed that they learned IL skills to do so. This experience led to the addition of challenge questions for review as a means of assessing student learning. This Psychology class was taught in the traditional manner for the spring semester and as an online course during the summer in 2010.
MAR-APRIL 2017, VOL- 4/31 www.srjis.com Page 66 In Korea, innovation in higher education and research institutions regarding ICT has been promoted. Korea‟s Ministry of knowledge Economy (MKE) is supporting universities to develop e-skills under Nurturing excellent Engineers is information and Technology (NEXT) Programme.
For expert task performers, some task aspects require reasoning and problem solving while other aspects are performed as routines. In order, these are called variable or non-recurrent and routine or recurrent task aspects (van Merriënboer, 1997). Experts can effectively perform non-recurrent task aspects because they have cognitive schemata available to reason about the domain and guide their problem solving. An experienced researcher searching for relevant research literature can, for example, reason about the effectiveness of different queries thanks to a well-developed mental model of the organization of bibliographical databases; and (s)he can effectively approach new search tasks thanks to the availability of cognitive strategies for translating research questions into relevant search terms. Such mental models and cognitive strategies are examples of complex schemata with a general or abstract nature. They allow for multiple use of the same, general knowledge for performing different tasks. Teachers often call this supportive information 'the theory'.
A number of issues arise from the review of the literature including that highly successful project managers need to have (a) people and management related skills as opposed to only having technical project management skills, (b) a good understanding of the political environment that the organisation exists in and (c) a good understanding of the way in which project teams can function and be created. 4.1 People and Management Related Skills It is clear from the literature review that there is more than one type of skill or understandings that are required by highly successful project managers. Some of the writers, including Cowie (2003), Gillard and Price (2005), Neuhauser (2007) and Kerzner (2006) have separated out the skills into a group of technical related skills and people or management related skills. The technical related skills identified typically include the planning, scheduling, organising and allocation of resources amongst other things. The people and management related skills identified by these particular writers include leadership, motivation, team building, and other people management related activities.
If we compare our reliability, value with the standard value alpha of 0.7 advocated by Cronbach, a more accurate recommendation or with the standard value of 0.6 as recommended by Bagozzi & Yi. Cronbach‟s alpha values were calculated to determine the reliability of the questionnaire as a measuring instrument. The calculation of Cronbach‟s alpha values was for each employability skills was constructed. Hocking, Stacks and Mc Dermott indicate that Cronbach‟s alpha values determine the consistency according to which respondents answered the various items on the questionnaire. Cronbach‟s alpha values were calculated for the four constructs. Since all the Cronbach‟s alpha values are 0.6 and above, the questionnaire can be regarded as a reliable research instrument. Researcher ascertains that the scales used are highly reliable for data analysis. Validity
Enhancing students’ ability to conduct cutting-edge research in the digital information age is an important objective in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses. The scientific research enterprise is a multi factorial process that involves more than simply understanding how to conduct specialized experiments and operate state-of-the-art equipment but also how to locate and utilize literature and empirical data to formulate hypotheses and design elegant experimental methodologies to address research questions. To that end, integration of beneficial information literacy skills in traditional and online STEM courses will prepare students for future success in other courses, graduate school, professional school, or the STEM workforce (Jang, 2016). As college educators, we observe countless students who demonstrate poor information literacy skills. Moreover, observational evidence from several decades of STEM teaching has revealed that a large majority of students lack even the most basic information retrieval skills. Students’ inability to identify the most appropriate source of data and inability to understand how to exploit electronic resources for scholarly gain typically result in less than stellar academic performance and marginal professional performance after graduation. This article provides helpful websites, Smartphone applications, and information literacy teaching strategies that will undoubtedly help faculty overcome challenges associated with information retrieval instruction (Leckie, 1996) and help STEM students at all classification levels gain confidence in locating and synthesizing essential information for course assignments and projects beyond the use of basic search engines most familiar to undergraduate students (e.g., Google or Wikipedia) (Laurent & Vickers, 2009; Peters, 2011).
our perceptions, as in every thinking. There may be individual differences in approaches used during this effort (Alkan & Bukova, 2005). It can be said that mathematical thinking is a form of thinking that is realized not only in cases with numbers and abstract mathematical concepts but also in daily life (Yesildere & Turnuklu, 2007). Mathematical thinking involves all important skills such as logical and analytic thinking as well as quantitative reasoning (Devlin, 2012). Developing mathematical thinking is the main goal of mathematics education. In today's information-based society, it is desirable to develop process skills such as innovative ways to find a solution to a problem. As for the extent to which mathematical thinking is effective, it is important to have the proficiency to mathematical processes of questioning; to understand the content and areas of application of mathematics; to cope with emotional and psychological situations, and to be confident to use the adverse situations to one’s own advantage. In certain situations, mathematical and statistical thinking develop creative and critical thinking (Mason, Burton, & Stacey, 2010, Isoda & Katagiri, 2012). When looked at the studies on mathematical thinking, it is evident that the studies on mathematics education are more common. (Alkan & Bukova, 2005; Yesildere & Turnuklu, 2007; Arslan & Yildiz, 2010; Ersoy & Baser, 2012; Tataroglu, Celik & Erduran, 2013; Ersoy & Guner, 2014; Gibney, 2014; Herlina, 2015; Saragih & Napitupulu, 2015; Hudson, Henderson & Hudson, A, 2016). The authors emphasize the need for continuous improvement of mathematical thinking in mathematics education.
If you wish to make a copy of a source of information it is your responsibility to ensure that you do not infringe copyright law. If you are making a single copy of information for your own use it is likely that this copy can be made under the “fair dealing” guidelines. Many libraries and institutions own licenses that allow additional copying under certain guidelines. More information about these licenses is available from several sites listed in the further reading section of this chapter. Copyright applies to all types of information, including print and electronic information, sound recordings, sheet music, art and drama.
2.48 This vision of a free and competitive market for learning provides only minimum scope for compulsion or statutory requirement. It can be argued that such a voluntary approach has consistently failed to deliver the training necessary to create the skilled workforce required. A statutory framework (where there were statutory obligations to train or obtain qualifications) might, it has been said, ensure that the necessary skills were acquired. Such an approach would force the pace of skill acquisition, have a direct impact on employers and make the task of communicating the purpose of the policy to all concerned more straightforward. This approach was rejected, both by NSTF and the DfES, on the grounds that it would be bureaucratic and costly, would place a burden on business, and would necessitate a national approach that would make it difficult to meet the various needs of different sectors and localities. Statutory obligations to train might also risk creating an antipathy to training activity, rather than winning 'hearts and minds'.
The web address, or URL (Universal Resource Locator) will appear on any printouts you make from the websites. Internet addresses vary, but have some things in common. For example, the Internet site and address for the Godiva Chocolate Company is http://www.godiva.com. The Internet address for the L.L. Bean catalog is http://www.llbean.com. These are commercial enterprises with something to sell. For Yale University, the URL is http://www.yale.edu. An academic (“edu”) site will tend to include scholarly research. The address for the U.S. Census Bureau is http://www.census.gov. State, local and federal government websites contain facts, information, statistics and instructions. And the address for Habitat for Humanity International is http://www.habitat.org. Non-profit organizations often lobby to change people’s opinions, or advertise a philosophy or political party.