During the tender process of construction projects information and documents are provided to tenderers. Such tender documents contain information about the requirements and wishes of the client to help tenderers to submit their bids. In many cases, however the information provided leads to problems especially in renovation projects where an UAV-GC contract is used. An UAV- GC contract is a Dutch contract that contains the general terms and conditions for integrated contracts, such as Design and Build or Design, Build and Maintain. In the Netherlands, many of the moveable bridges are built in the 60’s and 70’s of the previous century. To guarantee safety of the users and to meet the current requirements, many of these bridges require renovation. These renovations are mainly contracted using the UAV-GC in order to allow the tenderers to use their knowledge to come with innovative and optimized design and construction time. Since the use of UAV-GC contract in renovation projects is still in its early stages of development, several problems related to information provision has been encountered. One of these problems is, that the provided information is not always the right information that the tenderers need to submit their bids. Due to the difference between the provided and required information, disagreements between the client and contractor about the information exchange often arise. To minimize such conflicts the information provision process in the tender phase need to be analysed. In this paper, a model for information provision is proposed as a guideline for the process of information provision during the preparation of the contract. By considering the required information provision, the client would become aware of the choices and consequences needed to be made
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Information provision has been considered as a possible method for the enhancement of PEBs. Several studies have investigated the effectiveness of various types of information, such as social/personal norms - and declarative/procedural knowledge -. However, these studies have seldom discussed which type of informa- tion is most appropriate for the target behavior. In addition to information content, the media through which to provide the information is another important issue. Various studies have tried to use mass media for information provision -. However, they have shown that information provision via mass media has a minimal effect on behavioral change and that its effectiveness cannot be maintained for a long period of time  . Refer- ence  compared the effects of three types of media (mass, local, and personal) on recycling behavior. They conclude that mass media can only affect “goal intention”, but that local and personal media can have a direct impact on behavior.
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paternalistic relationships between medical professionals and patients (Hou & Shim, 2010). While some doctors appear to welcome active information seeking by patients as leading to more productive consultations, others are reported as feeling their expertise is devalued and that they have lost control of information provision (Hughes, Joshi, & Wareham, 2008). Negative reception of patient-sourced information may lead to avoidance of the doctor in future and increased searching for information and other opinions (Bowes et al., 2012). Statement such as ‘patients should be more active and effective managers of their health’(J. Greene & Hibbard, 2012, p. 520) appears to have been accepted uncritically: there is a growing body of literature relating to patient empowerment (see, for example, Schulz & Nakamoto, 2013b) and patient activation whereby patients ‘have the motivation, knowledge, skills and confidence to make effective decisions to manage their health’ (J. Greene & Hibbard, 2012). While empowerment is growing in popularity as a concept, how it can be most effectively achieved remains under-researched (Calvillo, Román, & Roa, 2013), with statements such as patients being ‘properly informed’ by doctors open to interpretation and offering little guidance to processes or measurement. An implicit assumption behind PE is that it is unproblematic and medical professionals operationalize it. The impact of support for, versus resistance to, active patient involvement in treatment decisions remains under researched.
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In particular, among the aforementioned information provision devices, the most accessible and frequently used is the bus information system (BIS). BIS provides not only bus information but also different other daily life information (weather, events, etc.), but more studies have yet to be conducted regarding the usefulness of the information that it provides as well as the users’ satisfaction with the system, the level of importance of the system as perceived by its users, and how to use such system. As most studies have focused on a comparative analysis of information provision devices, the users’ need for contents and the importance of the contents for the users have somewhat been neglected. If bus information provision devices or more information using these are provided, it will boost the BIS use rate and will reduce the people’s boredom while waiting for buses, thus increasing the bus use rate. Also, bus stops will develop into shelters
Hence, the objective of our study is to explore to what extent information about proposed highway projects provided by governmental authorities (i.e. project teams) is related to residents’ responses to those projects, the latter measured by expectations with regard to changes in residential satisfaction. In this, residential satisfaction i.e. the match between housing needs and conditions (Lu, 1999) could be seen as a proxy for quality of life and future coping strategies (e.g. Speare, 1974; Lu, 1999), which may be expected to change by the consequences of the project. More positive expectations could then be seen as a sign for a higher project acceptance. In studying this relation we also consider residents’ information permeability (i.e. the extent to which residents report to have actually received information) (e.g. Perloff, 2003; Dunwoody and Griffin, 2015) and the satisfaction with the received information (e.g. Schively, 2007; Frewer, 2004) as research indicates both aspects to be important in understanding the effects of information provision. One should keep in mind that, in most developed countries, influencing acceptance of projects by information provision is not an explicit policy aim in itself. Nevertheless, government information provision may implicitly increase acceptance of plans when it contributes to transparency and consequently trust in governmental actions (e.g. Schively, 2007; Olander and Landin, 2008). Gaining insights into the consequences of governmental information provision could broaden our understanding of the effectiveness of involvement efforts. From a planning policy perspective, general insights into differences in residents’ information permeability and satisfaction could help to better adjust information to specific information needs.
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The needs of users will vary, but an important user group concerns those individuals with learning disabilities. Whilst research has been conducted into the accessibility barriers to transport faced by this user group (e.g. Carpenter, 1994; Lavery, 1998a; Hunter-Zaworski, 1999) it appears that dyslexia, as a ‘Specific Learning Disability’ (SpLD), has received very limited if any attention. Yet dyslexia is one of the most prominent SpLDs in the UK – estimated to severely affect 4-6% of the population (BDA, 2003b). It is not unreasonable to assume that the problems individuals with dyslexia face on a daily basis will cause them difficulty in the transport environment, and specifically that such problems may be associated with, exacerbated by, or ameliorated by the provision of information. All users of the transport network should be able to obtain the information they require during the journey lifecycle (the process from deciding upon the need for a journey and planning it to undertaking the journey and arriving at the destination). However, at present, it would appear that a strong ‘design-for-all’ (i.e. design for the needs of the majority) philosophy exits in travel information provision, overlooking minority groups such as those with cognitive disabilities. Dyslexics see information access as essential. However, information is often either unavailable or inaccessible.
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Public transport firms typically offer various types of information (e.g., about time tables, changes in schedules, or expected delays) through several different channels, including websites, information boards on platforms, etc. The main purpose of providing high quality information is that this facilitates trip planning by passengers. Of course, the cost of providing information can be very substantial, and it increases with the quality of information offered. It may involve, for example, designing and maintaining websites, providing real-time information about route and schedule changes, etc. The model we study below applies to any type of information that is made available by the firm, but where passengers incur a cost of learning or extracting the exact information they need. It is assumed that this cost is lower for higher quality information. Moreover, the cost to the firm of providing the information is assumed to be independent of the number of travelers. As an example, think of the information about the time schedules and expected delays public transport firms offer on their website. Extracting the required information is costly, but the firm can reduce this cost by offering high quality search procedures and investing in a user-friendly website; moreover, the cost of providing the information does not depend on the number of travelers 4 .
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- Quick Search (combining the following fields with “and”, “or”, “not”: all fields; name of the invention; publication date; number of patent document; application number, type and serial number; inventor, his country, city, state; applicant, his country, city, state; party receiving rights, its country, city, state; classifier (US or IPC); abstract; filing date in the US; by date of application publication or priority date; other legal and procedural information, including US interests);- Advanced Search (by script containing specific syntax, including the abbreviated names of the search fields provided in Quick Search section, as well as special symbols. It is also possible to define the search interval).
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identified in the picture. The first two are electronic and print media. They use environmental information in their “news” gathering and select information and packages to reflect their perceptions of their audiences’ interests and concerns. Two other user groups are professionals, or researchers, and decision-makers. Professionals can obtain information as part of their job - for example, when an official is scrutinising an EIA. Sometime, information is produced and used by other researchers or professionals. Decision-makers might use information that was prepared for use during the decision-making process, or ask for specific information. The fifth type of user group consists of the various interest groups - it can be a national environmental Non Governmental Organisations (NGO) such as “Friends of the Earth” (FoE) or a local community group. Finally, any information that is publicly available can be accessible by any member of the public. It is important to note that even though the producers of information sometimes package it with a specific user group in mind (such as a scientific report prepared for “internal use”), it does not mean that the information will be used by the designated users or that other users will not pick it up. Furthermore, the packaging of information in a specific way does not guarantee that it will be interpreted and reproduced in the way that the information creator intended. The various groups transfer information amongst them: a professional might receive a report and pass it on to a journalist, who will publish it; and an interest group might come across an opportunity to obtain environmental information and publish it (as happened when FoE in the UK obtained and published the Chemical Release Inventory database). Of all these sources, printed media is the major source for a “general public user”.
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Patient satisfaction and adequate sources of information provided by health professionals may help improve health recovery and prevent complications from GDM. This study evaluated women’s satisfaction with the diagnostic process for GDM, provision of information, and satisfaction with sources of information recom- mended by health professionals. Overall, we found that the majority of women were very satisfied or satisfied with the manner in which they were informed of the diagnosis, although more than one-third of women were not referred to sources of information at the time of diagnosis of GDM. There were significant differences between younger and older women, and women born in Australia and overseas, as to the most useful sources of information. This study also investigated women’s needs and expectations about the best sources of information on GDM. Most women expected to receive advice and diabetic information from their GPs but this did not eventuate and instead women sought information from diabetes educator nurses.
The simple answer to the question “Is it possible to develop a universal conceptual model for PAEIS?” is no. As was reviewed throughout this study, the use of environmental information depends on the context: the area and place for which the information is needed, the activity for which the information is required, the interests and positions of the information user and so on. As such use might happen in a conflict situation, such a model ought to deal with opposing perceptions of the problem situation. For example, while the developer of a NIMBY project may favour PAEIS that does not provide access to information that can potentially stop the development, the citizens that oppose it want the exact opposite. The fact that environmental politics exist points to the complexity of arguments and to the fact that the meaning of “environmental”, and the solutions to environmental problems, is a contested issue where different actors view the problem and the solution differently. Therefore, their “filters” toward environmental information and, subsequently, toward PAEIS must be different and are likely to be incommensurable.
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information (Beard and de Vekey, 2004) and a separate study which looked at access to the National Electronic Library for Health (NeLH) in public libraries (McNicol and Nankivell, 2002). In an assessment of US-based projects around access to electronic health information, Ruffin et al (2005) highlight the theme of community engagement, which is of particular interest in the context of Informing Health: “Involving the target community in planning and designing activities increases each group’s investment in the project” (Ruffin et al, 2005, p444). However, a 2006 report on UK public libraries and community engagement found that while some library services were working closely with their communities, many were not and that staff within the sector have fears about working in this way (MLA, 2006). The report goes on to make recommendations about how to build capacity and share good practice within the public library sector. Alongside the traditional provision of health information and the more recent move towards more inclusive working, public libraries are also expected to contribute to the wider health agenda of their local authorities. Supporting and promoting the health and well-being of communities is one of the key policy strands adopted by the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council (MLA):
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A detailed study of careers information provision in secondary schools and its impact on students’ decision making in relation to future careers, training and employment is long overdue. Through interviews with Connexions partnerships and case studies in four schools in the West Midlands region, this research aimed to investigate how careers information (in the library and elsewhere) can be provided most effectively in schools to ensure it is accessible and useful to students. Although the time allocated within the curriculum for careers education is being reduced and not all students are now automatically entitled to a careers interview, few students are likely to spend time investigating careers independently. Even careers libraries or information centres which are attractive and well stocked are not well-used by students. The skills of library staff might be harnessed more effectively than is the case at present to help to improve careers provision in schools.
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Addressing provider biases through interventions that help pharmacist become comfortable communicating out- side of the norms of society could help reduce stigma. Another approach could be recruiting and training more female pharmacists. Additionally, engaging pharmacists who do not provide information for fear of losing business (due to lost time or fear of clients being scared) is essen- tial; the same is true for clinicians who could also view MA as taking away business opportunities. Bringing creative approaches used in other countries to UP to incentivize pharmacists and providers, such as financial incentives for providing counseling or providing infor- mational materials which clients can read/view on their own or even take home with them, could remedy these issues. Successful related interventions include a project in Peru involving pharmacist training, dispersal by pharma- cists of “ STD/HIV prevention packs ” with information to clients, and the creation of a referral system to clinics for STI management . Training pharmacists on MA using a harm reduction framework has also demonstrated successful abortion and quality of care outcomes . While training at scale for pharmacists and pharmacy workers throughout India may be difficult to implement and sustain, there is the need for further innovation to improve the information provision and quality of care in
Service Characterization: A battlefield network consists of many information sources including in-theatre sensors, platforms, intelligence reports and remote information such as archival intelligence and satellite data. These information sources not only provide information to enable a variety of problem-solving and fusion-related activities, they also serve as resources that can be directed and re-purposed to meet the information demands posed by the particular operational environments. In conjunction with information resources, the future military information environment will feature a variety of systems with diverse capabilities, and the operation of such systems needs to be orchestrated and exploited in a variety of operationally-useful ways. How can we architect technology solutions that utilize and maximally exploit the range of information sources and system capabilities in the future operational environment? One solution, proposed by Sycara et al (2003), is to model information sources and system capabilities as service providers, which can be exploited within the framework of a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA). Effective resource exploitation within such a framework is, however, not without its problems. Key issues concern how to interact with the service (i.e. how to describe the capabilities and parameters of the service). This is typically referred to as the Service Profile. A second issue concerns how to represent the operation of the service in terms of the workflow and possible execution paths (Process Model). Thirdly, how can we enable opportunistic discovery of new services that may become available throughout the operational lifespan of a system without being explicitly told of their existence from the outset. Finally, the question still remains as to how we can best enable the inter-operation of these services in a manner that permits the construction of ever more elaborate workflows to meet the demands of increasingly complex service requirements. The answer to many of these questions may reside in the use of ontologies to describe services within the context of a SOA approach. Languages such as DAML-S (Ankolekar et al., 2002; Ankolekar et al., 2002) and OWL-S (Martin et al., 2004) are specifically aimed at providing these service descriptions. The confluence of SOA approaches and Semantic Web technologies may therefore provide a suitable technological basis for the integration and exploitation of future military capabilities.
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Another limitation is that we were only able to obtain information on provision of CR from 96% of the munici- palities in contrast to 100% of the hospitals. This could potentially underestimate the results from the munici- palities. Moreover, it was only possible to collect infor- mation on interpreter services, multilingual information material and socially vulnerable patients from hospitals and municipalities that offered socially differentiated CR, leading again to a potential underestimation of our results. New surveys will be conducted in 2018, and we plan to include the same items, and this time all hospi- tals and municipalities are included in order to follow the development on this area.
We exploit the public good attributes of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and theoretically analyze an aggregate economy of two smart cities in which ICTs are provided in either a decentralized or a centralized manner. We first determine the efficient ICT levels that maximize the aggregate surplus from the provision of ICTs in the two cities. Second, we compute the optimal level of ICT provision in the two cities in a decentralized regime in which spending on the ICTs is financed by a uniform tax on the city residents. Third, we ascertain the optimal level of ICT provision in the two cities in a centralized regime subject to equal provision of ICTs and cost sharing. Fourth, we show that if the two cities have the same preference for ICTs then centralization is preferable to decentralization as long as there is a spillover from the provision of ICTs. Finally, we show that if the two cities have dissimilar preferences for ICTs then centralization is preferable to decentralization as long as the spillover exceeds a certain threshold.
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To reduce the level of imperfect information, the pro- vider can engage in information gathering. At times, this can be straight-forward. Imagine, for example, a public health care provider that has to provide care for a patient that presents herself with an injury to her arm after a fall. An X-ray is likely to provide a sufficient amount of information to determine the patient’s true need for ser- vice. But what if a patient presents herself with a raised temperature, loss of appetite and mild abdominal pain? The initial diagnosis could include mild gastroenteritis, appendicitis or even cancer. In a world of limitless re- sources the provider would simply perform as many tests as necessary to determine the true need for care. How- ever, in an environment of severe resource limitations, the provider needs to carefully assess if the amount of additional information obtained by a test is sufficiently large to justify the expense. The model presented in this paper explictly links the quality of information to the cost of obtaining that information, in a setting where the service provider can choose the quality of information (but at a cost). This formulation allows us to characterise the optimal level of costly information gathering, in, for instance, a health care setting.
In the consultation with the existing soft fruit producers it was made clear that the main technical difficulty encountered with organic cane and bush fruit production was that of weed management, controlling weeds both within and around the crop rows. Most, if not all growers cited weed control as the main demand on labour at times when other important operations such as harvesting are also necessary. Most growers appeared to use whatever materials were at their disposal for weed control, including old potato sacks, carpet and turkey feathers to mulch around crop rows. Many growers used mypex mulch or black plastic, though the results were mixed. Surprisingly, most growers report relatively few problems with pests and diseases, although problems with raspberry beetle, reversion disease and gall mite on blackcurrants, and gooseberry sawfly were most common. There was considerable demand by growers for up-to-date information on varieties suitable for organic production and also for clear guidance regarding crop nutrition and soil fertility, as well as guidance on appropriate pruning and training techniques for ease of management. In addition to cultural advice and information supplied by growers, some limited information was also collected relating to economics and marketing of soft fruit crops for inclusion in a brief section on this topic in the booklet.
The importance of competitor intelligence information, noted above, reflects the need, of a kind unique to the pharmaceutical sector, for an awareness of drugs in the 'pipeline' from discovery through development to clinical trials and marketing (Snow 2008, Breton 2003, Parkar and Toeg 1999). Numerous database services have been developed to meet this need, originally provided as index card files (Bottle and Linton1971): examples are Pharmaprojects, Adis R and D Insight, IMS R and D Focus, Prous Ensemble, Derwent's World Drug Index, the MDL Drug Data Report, and the Investigational Drugs Database (Snow 1993, 2008, Mullen et.al. 1997, Cheeseman 2002, Fenton and Hutton 1993, Blunck et.al. 2003). These are typically structured by drug substance, and provide 'value added' evaluated and summarised information. Studies have shown that there is little overlap between their content (Snow 2008); as with the bibliographic databases, a combination of sources is needed for comprehensive information collection. Sources of this kind, more than others, have undergone a constant process of rapid development, renaming, consolidation and changes of ownership.
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