The modern economies of the world are moving rapidly to a networked knowledge-based global economy where real time, distributed processing capability and access to information in real time is preferred and often considered critical. Organizations increasingly need to develop E-Commerce applications in short time frames to support their business needs such as the delivery of products and services over the Web. Failure to deliver E- Commerce applications to tap the opportunities presented by the market may leave adverse effects on the business and its competitive advantage. Traditional InformationSystems (IS) development approaches that focus on processes and documentation, not only struggle to deliver in the time frames demanded by a networked business environment, but also fail to match the needs of customers. On the other hand, web informationsystems are changing continuously to address the challenges and opportunities posed by the electronic commerce paradigm.
The objective of this research is to investigate InformationSystemsDevelopment Methodologies (ISDM) adoption in the federal higher education sector of a developing country, namely the United Arab Emirates (UAE). An empirical study was con- ducted by means of a survey, using a questionnaire and a num- ber of face-to-face interviews with InformationSystems (IS) ma- nagers in federal higher education institutions in the UAE, to empirically examine ISDM practices and ascertain the extent to which there was a need for an ISDM adoption model for these institutions. The survey was also intended to enable the testing of hypotheses formulated at an early stage of the research pro- gram. The Delphi method was undertaken to generate a confir- med list of ISDM adoption variables for decision making.
Traditional approaches often apply a singular perspec- tive onto either the technical subsystems (e.g. code bases and bug trackers) or the business subsystems (e.g. wiki co- authorship networks). A comprehensive instrument that facilitates fine-grained understanding of the participation of stakeholders in the evolutionary co-development of complex informationsystems is still missing. Hence, we address primarily the following research question within this paper: How can we reveal detailed co-development structures within a business information system? Accord- ingly, we present two main contributions of this paper: Firstly, we propose an approach based on a multilayered perspective for the analysis of co-development in busi- ness informationsystems that facilitates to examine the interplay of the business and technical subsystems via a deliberate juxtaposition of the co-development struc- tures among individuals in both subsystems. The goal is to reveal detailed co-development structures within business informationsystems, that can identify devel- opment shifts between the subsystems and that can be used to measure the effectiveness of domain-specific lan- guages for co-development. A key property of the pre- sented approach is that it explicitly identifies layers at the intersection of these subsystems within the information system. Secondly, we conducted an in-depth case study that demonstrates an application of this approach to an actual business information system. The approach and its exemplary application provide a practicable template for researchers and practitioners who aim at evaluating the impact of end-user enabling measures taken in the past.
Much of the development of technology appeared to be driven by the desire for increased speed and volume of information processing [Milochik 1991], and the fear of falling behind competitors [Angell & Straub 1993; Ciborra 1991]. Technology was assessed on a case-by-case basis, rather than as part of an organisational whole, often leading to incompatibility between, or even within, departments [Smith 1989]. Some companies were beginning to implement organisational standards for some applications, such as e-mail and word processing, but the ongoing development of departmental systems meant companies could end up with stratified informationsystems [Gould 1986]. If issues such as data formats and linking between components are carefully managed this could be an advantage for companies as it will increase their flexibility, but there is also increased potential for localised departmental power to predominate if the central standards are not enforced [Pettigrew 1992]. The development of such stratified systems appeared to be more by accident than design on the part of the pharmaceutical companies, and the lack of organisational change meant fragmentation was still an issue for many [McGrath et al. 1994; Doswell & Asnani
number of trust related concepts. Our argument is consistent with a number of arguments presented in the literature. We have reviewed a number of related works and we have identified a number of important limitations. To overcome these limitations we have concentrated our efforts in developing a novel ontology that considers trust and its related concepts in one ontological framework. We have also illustrated the development of such ontology by focusing, due to page limitations, to the development of one of the ontology’s concept, initial trust. We have also illustrated with the aid of a case study from the health sector how our ontology can assist informationsystems developers to analyse a number of trust issues related to the environment of a potential information system. However, our work is not complete. We are aiming to formalise our ontological framework and apply it in full to a complex case study that will help to evaluate the formalisation.
Abstract— The principles of agile informationsystemsdevelopment (ISD) have become an area of great interest for practice as well as research. So the goal of this literature survey is to validate, update and extend previous reviews in terms of the general state of research on agile ISD. The importance of theory is highlighted by evaluating the theoretical foundations and contributions of former studies besides including categories such as the employed research methods and data collection techniques. Since agile ISD is rooted in the IS as well as software engineering discipline, important outlets of both disciplines are included in the search process. The findings show that quantitative studies and the theoretical underpinnings of agile ISD are lacking. Extreme Programming is still the most researched agile ISD method, and more efforts on Scrum are needed. In addition, multiple research gaps that need further research attention are also identified.
Much time and effort has been invested in devising better ways of creating software specifications through the process of specialised methodologies (Avison and Fitzgerald 1988). There are a large number of methods which use approaches that range from data flow diagrams, entity-relationship models, to more practical methods such as prototyping. However since the 1970’s, during the period when Royce and others (Royce 1970, Boehm 1976) began to develop methodologies for systems analysis and design, there has been an ever growing debate about the appropriateness of these methods (this is further discussed in chapter 2). Design methodologies and the informationsystems produced by them have been criticised for their inherent limitations which render these systems open to a high level of failure. Several problems are apparent. These can be sub divided into three areas: firstly those relating to the time elements of development; secondly, those where there is a direct causal relationship between the defects of the information system and the methodology used; and finally those where mis- implementation and low confidence cause product failure (Avison and Fitzgerald 1988, Davis and Olson 1987, Pressman 1987). These three areas are discussed in more detail in the following paragraphs.
We have observed and followed a number of attempts to introduce new methodologies and techniques for coping with some of the problems related to the challenges in web- applications development. The success of these initiatives were very limited. Some of the encountered problems were caused by introducing a methodology, which was perceived as designed primarily for product development. This did not conform to web-application development. A better understanding of the specific requirements for methodologies supporting development of web-based applications and informationsystems is required. The general knowledge of what characterizes web- development is too limited. From our observations we would argue that the methodologies should not be to complex or require a lot of skills in formal modeling and specification. However, the systems are becoming complex, and it is difficult to think of solutions not involving some structured formalization. Iterations and prototyping might not be useful either in order to cope with some of central characteristics of today’s web-applications, e.g., systems with known, but highly complex information structure. A more elaborate discussion on relevant approaches along the dimensions of complexity vs. uncertainty and modes of operation vs. means of expression (cf., Mathiassen and Stage, 1992) is required.
Informationsystemsdevelopment is human activity. It is the human aspects that are important in the success of ISD projects. That many are overlooked might help to explain why ISD projects fail. This paper argues that many methodologies and academic discussion of ISD take an approach that focuses on certain aspects while overlooking others, and that a more lifeworld-oriented approach would be beneficial. It examines the notion of lifeworld as it has developed in philosophy, showing how a lifeworld-oriented attitude makes us more sensitive to the wide range of human aspects. Making use of Dooyeweerd's philosophy in particular, this notion is then applied to ISD, to propose lifeworld-oriented ISD (LOISD). The lifeworld of the IS developer is revealed as four interwoven multi-aspectual human activities, which helps separate out diverse issues while retaining an holistic perspective. The challenge of the background nature of the lifeworld is met by reference to intuitive grasp of the kernel meaning of aspects, which enables cross-cultural understanding.
Abstract: Metamodeling is becaming an important part of informationsystemsdevelopment. When metamodeling we are working with metamodel which define the syntax and the semantics of models. There are a lot of standards for definition of metamodel e.g. COMMA, GOPRR, MOF. Metamodeling is used for defining and creating of new methodologies, their implementation into CASE and metaCASE tools. Metamodeling is used for manipulation of data and metadata and for optimalization of information’s system design with utilization of generic models. The aims of this article are: to discusse fundamental concepts of metamodeling, demonstrate some theoretically and practically important meta-metamodels and to position metamodeling principles in the development of informationsystems.
Mah and Stone (2000) discuss four early warning signs of IS development contract breakdown. The first is identified as ‘a shot gun wedding’ where contracts are entered into quickly as the parties believe they will fix the contract later. The second is a poor or inadequate metrics framework - often contracts do not contain metrics. These metrics are vital for project estimation, service level determination and productivity benchmarking (Dakin 1996). The third is treating outsourcing as a transaction. A theme in soured contracts is that the relationship failed. Relationship management is an area where parties experience a breakdown. Outsourcing deals are business transactions but are also relationships. The final warning sign lies in contractual dispute resolution clauses. When you see dispute resolution clauses you often don’t see processes for managing conflicts - what you find are ways to escalate them.
Agile team members are meant to be democratic, all team members are equal [17, 20]. Moreover, the Agile Manifesto guarantees that all team members have equal opportunity in the decision making process . This enhances the self-organizing ability of teams and introduces it as a mean to achieve the best design, architecture, and customer requirements [6, 17]. Self-organizing teams in agile are characterized by communication, feedback, coordination, and collaboration . But this collaborative nature introduces obstacles that team members face in relation to the decision making principles. A major obstacle is the unwillingness of team members to commit to a decision. Rather, team members tend to consider decision making as a burden rather than a privilege and rely on the Scrum Master for decision taking . In these cases, Scrum Masters tend to choose either to take the decision and inform the team members, thus violating an agile principle, encourage team members and wait for their response, or use decision making support systems to aid in the process .
subset or specialization of SOA for the web technologies. WOA is, as mentioned, a sub part of SOA, however, there are some differences since SOA uses WS-security while WOA, for instance, HTTPS. In addition, it is believed that WOA in conjunction with the web 2.0 technologies can facilitate what was expected of SOA to deliver, i.e. code reusability, cost and complexity reduction, as well as high flexibility (Thies and Vossen, 2008). The web services (WS) are the application software that is designed to support interoperability among the distributed applications over a network (World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), www.w3.org). WS facilitates conveying of the messages from and to the client machines. The potential of WS is that it can be consumed through the web to any application program independent of the language used. It consists of three basic components (Newcomer 2002, Meyne & Davis 2002, Lee et al. 2003, Venkatraman 2004). The first component is the XML. It is language that is used across various layers in the web services. The second is the SOAP listener. It works with packaging, sending and receiving messages over the HTTP. The third component is the web services Description Language (WSDL), which is the code that the client machine uses to read the messages it receives. Other important component in the WS is the Repository for Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) protocol. The UDDI produces a standard platform that the WS can use and provide various applications to find access and consume the WS over the internet (www.uddi.org). However, for WOA there is no available or generally accepted modelling technique. Haron et al. (2014) indicate that this is a common situation, since different modelling techniques have been used over time, which were anticipated to be favourable and have proved to be no more than case-by-case oriented methods. However, it is important that a proper IS methodology is chosen for the ICTs development, since if not, it might result in software that does not meet the demand of different stakeholders. In this case the web applications have characteristics that differ from regular software. It is, therefore, important to choose the right methodology and modelling technique for the proper development of ICTs.
The model embraces, to a large extent, other models as special cases. The most significant difference between this model and other, more traditional approaches, is the explicit recognition of alternative means of meeting project objectives and the identification of risks associated with each alternative. Basically, the idea is incremental development, using the Waterfall model for each step. However, the Waterfall model alone requires that all specification and design be done first and followed by the coding. Unfortunately, it is too difficult for the human mind to comprehend and understand all unknowns at first. Therefore, the spiral approach suggests specification, design, and coding of one subsystem at a time. Consequently: do not define in detail the entire system at first. The developers should only define the highest priority features and implement those. With this knowledge, they should then go back to define and implement more features in smaller chunks.
An important determinant of the quality of research is through its relationship to sound theory. IS researchers have frequently borrowed and adapted theories and methodologies from older, more established disciplines. New theories and methodologies are also evolving appropriate to the unique socio-technical nature of the IS field. Kaptelinin (1996) describes the computer as a social and psychological tool unlike any other in the history of human endeavour because of its capacity to mediate human learning and communication. The objects of study in IS research, informationsystems, are therefore a complex interaction of human, social and technical components that mediate organisational processes. While IS researchers continue to rely on a wide variety of existing and new theories for the range of topics covered by the field, the identification of a single unifying or at least prominent, theory for IS is proving to be difficult.
The influence of corporate values is considered in Chapter 6. Evidence from document analysis shows the prevalence of corporate values, standards and procedures at the financial institution. Analysis of results shows that the organization is effective in communicating its values to IT staff mainly via use of a structured and disciplined systemsdevelopment methodology that supports the corporate values and is enforced by line management and documentation. IT staff were found to be mainly compliant with the standards and procedures demanded by the methodology and their line managers, leading to a co-operative culture or a ‘controlled organization’ as defined by applying Mumford’s (1981) framework. Differences in the amount of control exercised by heads in different departments support the case for the influence of management on project outcomes. Evidence of value conflict was presented and discussed. It was concluded that value conflict is not a major problem at Prosper pic and that there is a high degree of values congruence.
A principle crucial to NORMA is that the user community is central to the design process. This is made easier than in most methods because concern with the computer can be completely suppressed. The principle of user centrality leads us to insist on employing only the user’s vocabulary instead of playing Humpty- Dumpty, where the analyst not the user decides the meaning of terms, as nearly all analysts and programmers do when forced to use current methods. Therefore the names of affordances are restricted to be semantically unitary words or expressions in the normal discourse of the business. It should be reasonably easy to develop a thesaurus containing information that will enable the computer to create a preliminary analysis of the vocabulary being studied in the form of default classifications that the analyst can amend as he thinks fit. As we accumulate reliable fragments of ontological structure through the analysis of many cases, the thesaurus will become enriched by their addition. The analyst will have the benefit, as he studies an expression, of the consolidated experience of his predecessors, and the gradual perfection of these analyses through criticism. We shall have less need to reinvent every wheel.
There are many different views on what the term Infor- mation Systems means. This paper provides a simple explanation of what an Information System is in practice to assist in clarifying the confusion. If this simple explanation were widely understood, then current diffi- culties with InformationSystemsdevelopment, practical problems with ongoing InformationSystems, the ap- plicability of much Information System’s research, and a general lack of awareness of the potential for the academic study of InformationSystems, could all be improved upon. The description of what a practical Information System turns out to be is given, and the reasons why its major features exist and are important are discussed. Implications arising from the acceptance of this definition are offered.