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The game-based student response system (Kahoot!) was used as a part of a third-year course on InformationSystemsStrategy and Governance in the second semester of 2016 (between July and November). This tool was used in four (4) different ways during seven (7) different lectures by teaching staff (out of 13 lectures altogether), with a duration of about 30 min on average (students could also play Kahoot! outside of the classroom). These include the following: to quiz students on various topics to understand their competence before tailoring lesson plans, for exploring students’ knowledge of topics after they were delivered in lectures, to help students to validate their comprehension and understanding of topics by having them design their own Kahoot! assessments which were then collectively played, and for fun where the focus was on topics unrelated to the course (e.g. sports). Kahoot!s designed by teaching staff were typically 10 to 12 questions long (e.g. covering the IS Cost recovery topic) while those designed by students were eight (8) questions long (e.g. covering IT-supported work). Students designed nine (9) Kahoot!s altogether. Thus, over the course, students played seven staff-created Kahoot!s and nine student-created Kahoot!s. Moreover, the Kahoot! game environment was designed with many interactive features (including suspense music), where students used mobile devices (smartphones, tablets and laptops) to join the games and answer questions, and responses to their choices were visualised (illustrated in Fig. 1).
When informationstrategy is identified, the focus is upon an array of related but very different strategies, e.g., an information technology strategy, an informationsystemsstrategy, an informa- tion management, an informatics strategy. Within the literature some specific acknowledgements of an informationstrategy incorporate the following: an alignment between an organisations’ structure and the information system that supports its operations (Jordan & Tricker 1995); infor- mation strategy in the NHS, which focuses on a national information technology strategy (Keen and Muris 1995); information strategies in UK higher education institutions, where the theme relates to the failure of IT-driven applications not fulfilling their promise (Allen & Wilson, 1996); information strategies where the alignment of the business case highlights the need to manage informational assets (Asprey 2004); the development of an national informationstrategy in Scot- land, where the emphasis is placed upon open access and institutional repositories (Law, Mac- Gregor, McCulloch, & Wallis 2005); an informationstrategy as a systemsstrategy, or other tech- nically focussed issues (Goldschmitt, 2004); an informatics strategy as a mechanism for manag- ing all things informational (Beynon-Davies, 2009, p. 283). All of the above identify a number of alternative foci with regards to the concept of an informationstrategy, all tending to focus on eve- rything but what their title infers, that is, information.
An enterprise resource planning system is a fully integrated business management system covering functional areas of an enterprise like planning, design, logistics, production, finance, accounting and human resources. It organizes and integrates operation process and information flows to make optimum uses of resources such as men, material, machine, and money. ERP provides an integrated view of core business process often in real time, using common databases maintained by database management system. ERP systems track business resource cash, raw materials, production capacity and the status of commitments like orders, purchase orders, and payroll. This system shares the data across the various departments that provide the data.
application of GISs, new questions about GIS technology and its use are continually emerging. One of the most discussed topics concerns privacy, and in particular, what is referred to as locational privacy. In other words, who has the right to view or determine your geographic location at any given time? Your parents? Your school? Your employer? Your cell phone carrier? The government or police? When are you willing to divulge your location? Is there a time or place where you prefer to be “off the grid” or not locatable? Such questions concerning locational privacy were of relatively little concern a few years ago. However, with the advent of GPS and its integration into cars and other mobile devices, questions, debates, and even lawsuits concerning locational privacy and who has the right to such information are rapidly emerging.
This study also identified the risk involved in not un- derstanding the culture of remote team members. This was highlighted by the strategy of having the Malaysian staff work long hours because they seemed to be prepared to do them. This was directly due to their cultural reluctance to say no when asked to take on extra work . A large number of Malaysian staff left the organization as a consequence of being over worked. This resulted in the loss of a large num- ber of personnel which the organization had invested time, effort, and money in training. Depending on the stage of the project when their departure took place this dictated the level of damage which such a strategy incurred. Having realized this, the Irish-based management had forbidden such prac- tices within their section. This was not the case with other divisions who were offshoring work to Malaysia and their engineers continued to work long hours which resulted in very high attrition rates and the loss of key personnel. As this research highlighted, this can be a risky, costly, and in- efficient strategy .
The knowledge presented in this submission highlights the development of thirteen years of research into strategic IS investment in SMEs. This document identifies the reasons for considering such a study and demonstrates that it is possible to understand the different drivers for investment by SMEs. In particular, it is clear that the business objectives and strategies of SME owners as well as their market position as indicated by customer dominance are critical in decisions on strategic IS adoption. The development of the research from exploring the value of strategic IS models and a new approach to informationsystemsstrategy in SMEs to identification of the different drivers strategic IS investment, leading to new model development, is discussed. The acknowledgement of SME heterogeneity in strategic IS investment led to further exploration of knowledge management and e-business. Strategic IS investment in e-business is a final theme that is explored in later papers, which both critique existing concepts and develops new models that are applicable to SMEs. The contribution to knowledge is discussed and the rationale for the methodology used. Current research on strategic alignment and future research on adoption of innovative technologies in SMEs is discussed in the context of the papers included here. The research is shown to have had impact on the research community as well as practical use in teaching.
Informationsystems within businesses could support strategy by making contributions in a variety of ways argue Leonard and Higson (2014). Fluidity and extensiveness of system use for wide-ranging strategy patterns or the ability to change system use as needs change, for instance, where top managers engage in interactive strategising. Interactive and procedural strategies could be related to the importance of the system, where strategies are more likely to occur if the system has strategic significance. The system could also identify activities of managers, and identify processed champions, in order to orient them towards the organisation’s goals, provide guided support, and encourage fluidity.
trators use software applications to analyze the data collected from the field-sampling devices from the different environmental systems monitoring air and water quality and noise levels so they can adjust the mitigation pro- grams and policies to limit unsafe exposures as necessary. For example, computer software applications such as the Brüel & Kjær Airport Noise and Operations Management System (ANOMS) identify and track active noise, patterns, and specific areas of unhealthy noise levels. Computer-based simulation models can be run to deter- mine projected noise levels based on aircraft activity, wind direction, and distance from runways, taxiways, maintenance facilities, and terminal buildings. Information generated from simulations help airport administra- tors determine the potential need to purchase surrounding properties under the airport’s noise abatement pro- gram to use for activities conducive to airport operations. Key users of the Environmental Management System include airport environmental engineers, noise abatement officers, airport property appraisers and real estate agents, airport airside employees, and FAA personnel. Indirect users include occupants of businesses and homes located around airport property, and especially those in the direct flight paths of takeoffs and landings. EMS management information connections utilize software modules for airport noise and environmental monitoring in addition to separate applications dedicated to specific systems. Software applications developed by various equipment manufacturers for monitoring environmental compliance include COTS programs as well as custo- mized software specifically developed to suit a particular airport’s needs. Some of these software programs al- low the airport to run a complete suite of applications within the program while others target a single environ- mental issue such as air quality. For example, Adaptive Data Modular Systems (ADMS) measures air quality and emission levels around an airport and collects data on the different sources of air pollutants from aircraft, ground vehicles, and commercial industries surrounding the airport.
In the paper the possibility of computer analysis of quite complex magnetic devices used in information control systems by one of the numerical methods, by the method of secondary sources, is considered. The proposed calculation algorithm allows the use a variety of computing systems and this can significantly reduce the complexity of the process and allow virtually less error. In this case, it is possible to effectively apply this method for wider range of various magnetic elements and devices of information control systems automatics.
What does it mean when a company has a competitive advantage? What are the factors that play into it? While there are entire courses and many different opinions on this topic, let’s go with one of the most accepted definitions, developed by Michael Porter in his book Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. A company is said to have a competitive advantage over its rivals when it is able to sustain profits that exceed average for the industry. According to Porter, there are two primary methods for obtaining competitive advantage: cost advantage and differentiation advantage. So the question becomes: how can information technology be a factor in one or both of these methods? In the sections below we will explore this question using two of Porter’s analysis tools: the value chain and the five forces model. We will also use Porter’s analysis in his 2001 article “Strategy and the Internet,” which examines the impact of the Internet on business strategy and competitive advantage, to shed further light on the role of information technology in competitive advantage.
There is evidence from this study that most CIOs report directly to the CEO while taking full responsibility for IS management and govern- ance. Further, most CIOs had adequate knowledge, business and IS skills to perform their governance functions. CEOs typically articul- ated a clear mission for their CIOs with specific responsibilities. Most CIOs were required to attend major strategy formulation meetings. These findings correlate favorably with studies by Earl et al.(2000), Delisi et al.(1998), Ragunathan et al.(2002), Gottchalk (2000), Yodakawa (2000), Bai & Lee (2003), MITI (1999), Jenks & Dooley (2000), Feeney & Ross (1999), Evans & Hoole (2005).
extraordinary scientific vision, Franklin never foresaw the advent of nerve gas, weaponized anthrax and nuclear weapons.’ - S. Harris, ‘The First Amendment and Dangerous Information: Restrictions are justifiable’, The National Law Journal (07 December 2006) - via URL: <http://www.nlj.com/> (accessed: 03/01/2007); for another area where there is arguably (at least a public) accountability ‘deficit’, see B. Sweetman, ‘US Black Programmes: Funding the Void: Classified projects form a large and increasing proportion of the US defence budget’, Jane’s Defence Weekly (12 April 2006); see also C.D. Leonnig and E. Rich, ‘U.S. Seeks Silence on CIA Prisons: Court Is Asked to Bar Detainees From Talking About Interrogations’, The Washington Post (04 November 2006). For concerns about a lack of accountability in the world of diplomacy generally, see, for example, C. Ross, Independent Diplomat: Despatches from an Unaccountable Elite (London: Hurst, 2007); see also P. Wilson, ‘Dealing with the pressure for accountability’ in his ‘Preparing to Meet New Challenges’, chapter 9 in S. Tsang (ed.), Intelligence and Human Rights in the Era of Global Terrorism (London: Praeger Security International, 2007), pp.116-117; see also ‘Be better at oversight’ in ibid., p.119; see also ‘EDITORIAL: Dick Cheney Rules’, The New York Times (03 June 2007); ‘EDITORIAL: Presidential Stone Walls’, The New York Times (17 June 2007); ‘EDITORIAL: White House of Mirrors’, The New York Times (24 June 2007); P. Baker, ‘Cheney Defiant on Classified Material: Executive Order Ignored Since 2003’, The Washington Post (22 June 2007); S. Shane, ‘Agency Is Target in Cheney Fight on Secrecy Data’, The New York Times (22 June 2007); for more on Dick Cheney and his style of
A Directive adopted in late 2013 (hereafter the Cybercrime Directive) places emphasis in particular upon a Strategy to fight new methods of creating cybercrime, for example, large scale ‘botnets’ i.e. networks of computers with a cross-border dimension. 50 It purports to criminalise access to systems, systems interferences and data interference, with penalties from two to five years. It provides for an ostensibly unwieldy procedure in Article 12, whereby a Member State must inform the Commission where it wishes to take jurisdiction over offences outside its territory. An earlier version of the Cybercrime Directive has been criticised for its vague legal obligations and its over-criminalisation, especially of ‘small-scale’ hackers. 51 The Commission has invoked Eurobarometer surveys on cybercrime referencing the legal uncertainty surrounding protections for consumers making online payments to warrant the use of so-called ‘Third Generation’ EU Criminal law. 52 However, in this regard, in contrast to the Framework Decision, it is not necessarily a superior regulatory instrument. As a Directive, disparities inherent in its implementation practices may cause its provisions to be unevenly interpreted across the Member States, which seems undesirable from the perspective of regulating risk holistically. It is worth noting that a ‘comprehensive’ vision of EU cybercrime law was mooted at the launch of the Directive by the Commission to include provision for financial cybercrime, illegal Internet content, the collection, storage and transfer of electronic evidence, as well as more detailed jurisdiction rules, in the form of ‘comprehensive’ legislation operating in parallel with the Convention, with non-legislative measures. It is a
petroleum and mining services, services and health. The G100 initiative was launched in 1998 by GIPC to give due recognition to enterprise building and corporate excellence in Ghana . The study adopts purposive sampling technique also known as non-random sampling where the researcher arbitrarily selects a sample considered relevant for the study and believed to be as typical and representative as the population . The GC 100 companies purposively selected for the study is typical of corporate organizations in Ghana and comprises organizations from varied sectors or industries. As such, it provides a point to assess and ascertain how their perception of IS Strategy influences their strategic approach to leveraging the potentials presented by the IS and related tools for competitive advantage and determine their varied levels of utilization, planning and management of the organizational IS/IT.
In Japan, the National Police Agency reported in February that computer crime was up 58 percent in 1998 compared with 1997— a 1,300 percent growth since the first statistics were kept in 1993. Specific crimes increased even more than the aggregate average; for example, forgery and data diddling cases grew 67 percent in 1998. Current Japanese laws do not consider unauthorized penetration of a com- puter system as a crime; only breaches of data integrity are criminal. 34 Allan Watt, director of forensic operations for computer security specialists S P Bates & Associ- ates of New Zealand, said that his studies strongly support the view that 80 percent of computer crime is perpetrated by insiders. He said that many executives dismiss the consequences of computer crime as malfunctions and warns that it is unwise to allow information technology (IT) staff to investigate suspected crime without supervision by forensic experts outside the department. His research also supports the widespread opinion that 90 percent of detected computer crime is unreported because of fears of embarrassment. 35 The Chinese Department of Public Security announced that it had solved 100 cases of criminal hacking in 1998 but estimated that this was only about 15 percent of the actual level of unauthorized system access. Reported computer crime was growing at an annual rate of 30 percent, the department said. About 95 percent of all Chinese systems on the Internet had been attacked last year, with many banks and other financial institutions the target of Chi- nese and international criminals. 36 The annual Australian Computer Crime and Security Survey, organized by the Victorian Computer Crime Investigation Squad and Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, reported on computer crimes in 350 of the largest Australian companies. In brief, about one-third of respondents had suffered one or more attacks on their systems in 1998; of those, 80 percent had experienced insider attacks; 60 percent experienced outsider attacks; and 15 percent of the respondents with any attacks claimed they had been the targets of industrial espionage. Almost three-quarters of all the respondents had no formal policy requiring notification of police authorities in case of attack. More than a fifth of all the respondents had experienced a breach of confidentiality, and almost a fifth reported a breach of data integrity. 37
There is no formal strategic market intelligence within the organisation. More detailed factual information is needed relating to the companies’ position within their relative markets and the success of their products. Focussed market research is not within the range skills and expertise of staff in-house. Markets cannot be targeted efficiently without this market research hampering the companies’ development. Key managers have tacit knowledge about the industry, the competitive environment, specific markets and gather intelligence on an ad hoc basis. That knowledge is not always communicated throughout the company. Promotion and marketing was also seen as key to providing customers with product information.
considered when planning a new accounting informationsystems. More said by O'Brien and Maracas (2008: 17) the success of asystem of accounting information should not be measured only by the efficiency in terms of minimizing the cost, time and resource usage information. The success of informationsystems should also be measured by the effectiveness of information technology in support of the organization's business strategy, enabling business processes, improve the structure and culture of the organization and increase customer value and business enterprise. The success of an information system should not be measured only by the efficiency interms of minimizing the cost, time and resource usage information. The success of informationsystems should be measured also by the effectiveness of information technology in support of the organization's business strategy, enabling business processes, improve the structure and culture of the organization and increase of customer value and business enterprise. As the statements above, Jones and Rama (2006: 574-575) also confirms that the business process is generally regarded as an important factor affecting the success of the accounting information system. The study conducted by Lipajand Davidaviciene (2013) prove that the accounting information system is affected by the business process. The results Clarkand Stoddard (1996) showed that business processes affecting interorganizational accounting informationsystems to fundamentally redefine the relationship of buyers, sellers and even competitors within an industry. Based on the description above can be concluded that the business processes affect the quality of accounting information system (O'Brien & Maracas, 2008:17; Jones & Rama, 2006: 575; Whitten & Bentley, 2007:35; Laudon & Laudon, 2011:95; Jones & Rama, 2006:574-575; Lipaj & Davidaviciene, 2013; Stoddard, 1996)
increased investment in technology and policy reforms. The capability of agriculture to sustain growing populations has been a concern for generations and continues to be high on the global policy agenda. The uncertainties in managing rural farming activities in developing countries are a global problem. From north to south and from west to east across the world, there are comparable asymmetries. Though this can be attributed to divergent and disparate economic, social and political conditions, the same predicaments occur in rural regions such as sustaining extant businesses and/or in commencing new ones, depopulation, senescent, dilapidated facilities, economic recession, detriments of biodiversity, pollution decrepitude, lack of appropriate infrastructures, dearth of services for tourism and a scarcity of job opportunities for the population. There are potential solutions to these challenged and different options to achieving them. Suffice it to assert that this depends on the potential of each community, on its physical qualities, and also on the culture, social and economic policies the communities postulate. Over the last few decades, solutions have been proffered and validated through research, projects and initiatives, and this had been of great interest to the authorities. These solutions had been endorsed with positive outcomes as it created opportunities for more business but nonetheless, it took little cognisance of improvement of intelligent systems and technology. Furthermore, the expansion of small and medium-sized farming communities represented a possible opening strategy for diversification, but in this case, it encouraged crop diversification relegating the possibilities and benefits intelligent systems can offer. It is generally opined that those solutions