Abstract: Human exposure to radionuclides occurs as a result of transport along various environmental pathways. Ingestion of radio nuclides through food items is of more important. Activity concentrations of radio nuclides through marine food items were calculated and the ingestiondose and life time cancer risk was calculated. Ingestiondose estimated is (0.170.03) mSvy -1 and the life time cancer risk is (42673) x10 -6 .
Abstract--Radon (Rn) is a carcinogenic gas and therefore it is hazardous to inhale since it emits alpha particles. It is radioactive, odourless, colourless, water soluble and the heaviest noble gas. The occurrence and the distribution of radioactivity in water depend on the local geological characteristics of the source, soil, rock and other factors. The underground water often moves through rock and soil containing radon and radon gets soluble in the water. In this study, the result of systematic measurement of activity concentration of 222Rn in drinking water from sources of public water supply along the coastal regions of Chennai City is discussed. The method used in the present study is Radon Emanometry method using alpha counter. From these measurements, the corresponding annual effective ingestiondose is determined. Quantification of 222Rn dose in drinking water of Chennai city will help to understand how safe it is to drink. The results obtained in this study indicate that the 222Rn concentration was in the range of 1.2 to 5.3Bq l−1 with the mean value of 4.3 Bq l−1 for closed well and 2.1 Bq l−1 for open well from the 98 samples collected from different areas of Chennai City. While the average values are within the maximum concentration limit of 11.1 Bq l−1 set by USEPA and world average value of 10 Bq l−1 set by WHO. The effective dose receive by the population of coastal Chennai was found to be varied from 0.004 to 0.019Sv y−1 with a mean value of 0.044 Sv y−1 for closed well and 0.022 Sv y-1 for open well.
Radiation dose received due to the intake of food is calculated from the amount of radionuclide deposited on foodstuff, the activity concentration of particular radionuclide in food per unit deposition, the consumption rate of the food products and the dose per unit activity ingested . Annual effective ingestiondose for an adult member of the public due to the intake of radionuclide through ingestion of food can be calculated based on the metabolic models developed by the International Commission of Radiological Protection ;
In some countries the rate of groundwater usage is quite high e.g., in the US, more than 50% of the population obtains their water from groundwater (Gosink, 1990). In certain areas, groundwater contains significantly high radon concentration and its usage as drinking water may increase the ingestiondose. WHO (2011) recommends to measure radon levels of domestic drinking water supplies originating from groundwater sources. If the reference levels are exceeded, remediation should be considered. In Malaysia, the usage of groundwater as a source of water is still very low. The main reason for the lack of groundwater use in the country is the easy availability of surface water resources. Groundwater contributes only about 3% of total water used (Fahnline, 2013; Huang et al., 2015) and the remainder is contributed by streams and rivers. However, one of the states in Malaysia i.e., Kelantan uses more than 50% of groundwater for its public water supplies. The groundwater was the main choice due to its abundance, easily accessible, more convenient and cheaper treatment required compared to surface water resources. A study has been carried out to assess radon concentration in groundwater and the expected associated dose received by the people in the state. This paper reports the results of the assessment.
Ingestiondose can be estimated using the intake of uranium through drinking water pathway for different age groups according to the water intake rates. According to the ICRP-60, dose coefficients for infants is 1.2×10 -7 , 6.8 ×10 -8 for children and 4.5 ×10 -8 SvBq -1 for male and female adults . Total effective radiation dose was calculated considering drinking of 730 ly -1 . This corresponds to 2 liter of water consumed daily by the people. Dose conversion factor (DCF) is equal to 4.5 × 10 −8 SvBq -1 for 238 U. The annual radiation ingestiondose due to uranium intake through the drinking water pathway was calculated using the following equation:
Water samples from streams, hand-dug wells and boreholes in high background radiation areas in Abeokuta, Nigeria have been collected in order to determine the activity concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th in the samples as well as their physicochemical characteristics. These parameters were evaluated in order to deter- mine the quality of these water sources to the local population, who use these water resources for drinking and domestic activities. Measurements of radioactivity in the water samples were carried out using γ-ray spectroscopy, while standard chemistry methods were used for the physicochemical determinations of these quality parameters. A total of fourteen representative water samples from streams (7), boreholes (4), and hand dug wells (3) were collected for study. The determined activity concentrations of the radionuclides in these samples were used to calculate the effective dose to the population from due to ingestion of and drink- ing the locally available water. The total annual ingestion effective doses were found to vary between 115.00 ± 1.15µSv and 1362.30 ± 438.02 µSv. The physicochemical parameters where found to be lower than the prescribed standard safe limits in the water sources except for the nitrate and phosphate levels which were particularly high in the water samples from boreholes and hand-dug wells. The radiation effective ingestiondose due to ingestion of water from dug wells and streams was found to be higher than the dose due to inges- tion of water from borehole sources in the studied areas. The results obtained in this study, have been taken as a baselines for physicochemical parameters and activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in water samples within Odeda and Obafemi-owode parts of Abeokuta, Nigeria .
were determined via gamma-ray spectrometry using a 76 mm × 76 mm NaI(Tl) detector. Different common food crops representing the major sources of dietary requirements to the local population were collected for the measurements. The collected food crops were prepared into their different derivable composite diets using preparation techniques locale to the population. Using available food consumption data and the activity concentrations of the radionuclides, the inges- tion effective doses were evaluated for the food crops and diet types per preparation techniques. For the tuberous food crop samples, the annual ingestion effective doses in the raw and different composite diets were 0.02 - 0.04 µSv and cumulatively 0.04 - 0.05 µSv while in the non-tuberous crops the doses were 0.44 - 0.70 µSv and cumulatively greater than 1 µSv respectively. Results of the study indicate that method of diet preparation is seen to play a major role in population ingestiondose reduction especially for tuberous crops than in non-tuberous crops. The study also showed that more ingestiondose could be incurred in diets prepared by roasting techniques. The result of the study will serve as a useful radiometric data for future epidemiological studies in the area and for food safety regulations and policy im- plementations in the country.
If the prothrombin time is significantly prolonged, phytonadione should be administered intramuscularly at a dose of 5 – 10 mg. Upto 125 mg of phytonadione may be needed to treat patients with brodifacoum poisoning who had persistently elevated prothrombin time despite regular treatment [8, 9, 11] . Phytonadione dose must be repeated if the prothrombin time has not decreased from the original value since 24 hours.
The time and dose dependent effects of ingestion of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Helianthus annuus L.(the common sunflower),0.5g/kg and 2g/kg body weight for 28days,on the histology of the testes, Epididymal sperm properties, blood levels of Testosterone, Follicle stimulating hormone and Leutinizing hormone of male Wistar rats were investigated in two phases. The results in phase one revealed the presence of mild to severe histo-degenerative testicular changes in treated rats sacrificed by the end of day 14, 28 and 56 compared with their matched controls. This was accompanied with statistically insignificant (p>0.05) decrease in mean body weights and testicular weights in treated rats in the period of treatment. Between 28th and 56 th day when extract treatment was withheld, previously
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), more commonly known as “molly” in its pure form and as “ec- stasy” historically, is a drug that gained popularity in the 1980s and continues to be used around the world [1, 2]. Current data suggest that MDMA use is prevalent in the United States. According to the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, approximately 609,000 people over the age of 12 years had used MDMA in the previous month, and among adults aged 26 years or older, 6.5% reported lifetime use of MDMA, and 0.1% reported MDMA use in the previous month . Recreational users have reported that the drug induces “feelings of intimacy and closeness to others” and “positive mood” [3, 4]. Acute (< 1 day) and subacute (1–7 days) negative effects of the drug include confusion/delirium, loss of appetite, insomnia, panic/anxiety, low mood/depression, and difficulty concentrating, with low mood typically oc- curring 3–4 days after MDMA use . The longer-term psychological effects of MDMA are more difficult to de- fine, in part because many MDMA users are polydrug users and in part because of the high prevalence of comor- bid disorders such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia . Even less is known about the possible long-term ef- fects of a one-time dose of MDMA, though several case reports, including the present one, highlight lasting effects after a single dose [5, 6].
A singular acute dose of diazepam was used in this study so as to best replicate the effects of the dose in people new and therefore unhabituated to diazepam use. However, the effects found in this study would not necessarily be the effects found in people taking regular repeated 5mg doses of diazepam. It is known that habituation to the effects of diazepam takes place with chronic dosing, and this is evidenced by a reduction in clinical effects and the need to increase dosage to maintain a particular level of clinical effect (Lader, 1987). Habituation to psychomotor effects is supported by the findings from epidemiological studies of reduced crash risk over time (Bramness, et al., 2007; Neutel, 1995). Only one experimental study is known to have been conducted over a sufficient length of time to establish how long it takes for habituation to psychomotor effects to begin to take place. The findings from this study suggest that habituation to the effects of 15mg of diazepam a day on lane position maintenance during highway driving begins to take place during the fourth week of chronic dosing (Van Laar, et al., 1992). Hence it is possible that the deleterious effects found in the current study would begin to reduce within four weeks of continued use.
Once the 15 min ingestion period had completed, capillary samples were obtained and analyzed every 15 min thereafter for a period of 120 min. During this time, participants were also asked to rate any gastroin- testinal (GI) discomfort they were experiencing using a visual analog scale (VAS). The VAS questionnaire has been used previously in the metabolic alkalosis literature , and is a commonly accepted tool for documenting subjective pain perception and discomfort .
Hazard index (HI) values of the heavy metals studied ranged from 6.51 to 29.30 that were above 1, indicating non-acceptable level of non-carcinogenic adverse health effect. Hence, HI recorded in Tamale Market indicates the contribution of heavy metals can lead to aggregate risk via consumption of vegetables. This high HI values for all heavy metals observed in cabbage, green pepper, onion and tomato have great potential to pose health risk to the consumer. The difference in THQ values for adults and children are usually attributable to the differ- ences in the ingestion of the heavy metals, body weight between adults and children, and exposure time. Similar, studies conducted by Harmanescu et al. (2011) and Zhou et al. (2016) observed differences HI (THQ) values in males and females through vegetable consumption in Banat Country in Romania, Shizhuyuan area in China, respectively.
Uranium – 238, Thorium - 232 series and potassium - 40 represent the natural radioactivity, which is available in the earth's crust and atmosphere. You can reduce the effects of natural radioactivity on the lives of humans and animals through the improvement of water sources, forests and increasing the agricultural areas. Radiation is transmitted to the human body in different ways. Inhalation, including ingestion produced internal dose, is concentrated within the body . Deposited radionuclides are found in the soil to the leaves of plants or absorbed by plant roots and thus enter the food chain to humans and animals . Human activities, accidents, nuclear
regarding appropriate experimental conditions (e.g., caloric dose, participants, inflammatory variables) likely to induce a significant postprandial inflammatory response. In particular, these studies do not address whether metabolic disorders are associated with an increased postprandial inflammatory response, or whether ele- vated postprandial concentrations of inflammatory markers, such as IL-6, are simply observed as a result of higher baseline values. The nonpharmacologic nature of nutrition certainly contrib- utes to the difficulty in demonstrating significant changes in nutritional biomarkers where only marginal changes are ob- served in response to nutritional interventions (4). In addition, endogenous phenomena such as the circadian rhythm are tightly connected to metabolic pathways and the immune system (15) and may thus contribute to the observed postprandial changes in the concentrations of the investigated variables. Finally, human biology is systemic and, as such, characterized by robustness (16). The robustness of a biologic system can, however, be challenged by integrating dose-response strategies into study designs (17). Surprisingly, although food quantity evidently influ- ences the metabolic impact of nutrients on the organism, only a few nutritional studies have made use of a dose-response strategy to challenge the robustness of the organism in nutritional interven- tions. In this context, the Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) Project, which was created to develop a consensus on the development of nutritional biomarkers, emphasizes the need for conducting dose-response studies (5,6). In line with this policy, we propose that dose-response studies should allow for a better understanding of the impact of food on human metabolism.
intestinal absorption rates (King et al. 2018). Such an ‘over- dose’ effect appears to also diminish power output at the end stages of exercise, where in racing scenarios, the ability to perform at a higher exercise intensity is often required. Data from the current study suggest that a CHO ‘over-dose’ of lesser extent also provides a suboptimal modification of muscle glycogen utilisation but this effect also appears to be sensitive to the level of CHO consumed above intestinal saturation rates. The precise mechanism(s) explaining the loss of power output with CHO ingestion rates beyond the intestinal saturation levels has not yet been fully determined. However, exceeding doses of 90 g h −1 of glucose–fructose
These patients both presented with ALTEs without a history of ingestion. Although toxicology screening is pro- bably unnecessary in the evaluation of all patients presenting with an ALTE, maltreatment should always be con- sidered in the differential diagnosis. In cases where there is concern for maltreatment, toxic ethanol ingestion should be considered, and appropriate diagnostic testing should be obtained. The correct diagnosis of this rare but serious ingestion as a cause of an ALTE has the potential to improve patient outcomes.