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Applicability of prompt gamma ray analysis to the initial analysis of the extraterrestrial materials for chemical composition

Applicability of prompt gamma ray analysis to the initial analysis of the extraterrestrial materials for chemical composition

5. In addition to the above features, PGA has several advantages over instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence (SR- XRF); INAA leaves a significant level of induced-radioac- tivities and SR-XRF yields less reliable and less accurate values for elemental composition. Judging from these fea- tures and characteristics, it is concluded that PGA can be one of the most suitable analytical methods potentially ap- plicable for initial analysis of returned samples from space.

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An initial analysis of packet function aware extension to Dijkstra algorithm for wireless networks

An initial analysis of packet function aware extension to Dijkstra algorithm for wireless networks

In this paper, we promote the packet function (e.g., packet size) -aware extension of the Dijkstra algorithm (i.e., PFA_SPF) as a base algorithm where any routing protocol can evolve it and integrate it with appropriate routing metrics. In particular, we propose a generic algorithm for packet function-aware path setup for multi-hop networks. The algorithm is based on a generic and novel extension of the classical Dijkstra algorithm in which the cost of each link is a non-negative-valued function of packet parameter(s) (e.g., packet size) rather than a scalar value. The algorithm minimizes the sum of the cost functions (e.g., total transmission delay or total energy consumption) experienced by each packet (e.g., maximizing the throughput) from the source to the destination node. We did initial analysis based on simulation of the algorithm for various random multi-hop wireless networks (e.g., 802.11), utilizing realistic link delay models. Finally, we demonstrate the initial significant potential performance improvements of our algorithm over the existing prior art.
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Ios Mobile Device Forensics: Initial Analysis

Ios Mobile Device Forensics: Initial Analysis

Hex-dump analysis allows for the physical acquisition of mobile device files (Zareen & Baig, 2010). This procedure involves connecting the mobile device to an evidence receptacle or removing the SIM card and utilizing a reader then ‘dumping’ the contents to the receptacle. The evidence retrieved is in a raw format, which requires a data conversion. Access to the deleted files that have not been over- written can be achieved however the nature of the evidence obtained results in inconsistent reporting, is difficult to use, requires custom cables and the source code is often protected by the manufacturer (Zareen & Baig, 2010). Additionally, this method is a derivation of the hacker community that may be considered inappropriate in an investigation as is the utilization of the Jailbreaking methodology. Chip-off is a method of acquisition where the investigator physically removes the chip from the device then proceeds to read the device using a secondary device such as another mobile device or an EEProm reader to perform the forensic analysis. This method is very expensive but is able to extract all of the data. In addition, the resulting acquisition can be difficult to interpret and convert (Zareen & Baig, 2010). It should be noted that since the drive is always encrypted in the iOS environment, this method has a low degree of success (Wright & Adler, 2010).
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Trends in teacher education across Europe: an initial analysis

Trends in teacher education across Europe: an initial analysis

For each of these broad trends, the paper has identified some convergences and some distinct divergence in implementation. So, for example, the analysis shows convergence in reforming teacher education but distinct divergences in how this is being achieved with many European countries moving to higher levels of qualifications (often Masters level) but other countries seeing a proliferation of alternative routes or even the removal of any requirements at all for formal pre-service qualifications. The trend towards increasing the amount of school-based learning is found across Europe but there are distinct divergences in how this is being implemented and what it means in terms of change to the structures of pre-service programmes and consequently to teacher knowledge. The importance of those who teach teachers and the need to pay attention to the quality of their work is also a pan-European trend but national responses to this have, again, been divergent.
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INITIAL ANALYSIS OF ACHIEVEMENT OF CURRICULUM FOR EXCELLENCE LEVELS 2019

INITIAL ANALYSIS OF ACHIEVEMENT OF CURRICULUM FOR EXCELLENCE LEVELS 2019

following a range of quality assurance processes from school staff and central officers. The initial data provided by schools was, in some cases, further quality assured by central officers directly with schools and where necessary provided with additional support and guidance to ensure the submission or robust and reliable data.

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Initial Analysis of and Predictive Model Development for Weather Reroute Advisory Use

Initial Analysis of and Predictive Model Development for Weather Reroute Advisory Use

In response to severe weather conditions, traffic management coordinators specify reroutes to route air traffic around affected regions of airspace. Providing analysis and recommen- dations of available reroute options would assist the traffic management coordinators in making more efficient rerouting decisions. These recommendations can be developed by examining historical data to determine which previous reroute options were used in similar weather and traffic conditions. Essentially, using previous information to inform future decisions. This paper describes the initial steps and methodology used towards this goal. A method to extract relevant features from the large volume of weather data to quantify the convective weather scenario during a particular time range is presented. Similar routes are clustered. A description of the algorithm to identify which cluster of reroute advisories were actually followed by pilots is described. Models built for fifteen of the top twenty most frequently used reroute clusters correctly predict the use of the cluster for over 60% of the test examples. Results are preliminary but indicate that the methodology is worth pursuing with modifications based on insight gained from this analysis.
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Economic Analysis of Initial Public Offering Underpricing in Stock Market of Pakistan

Economic Analysis of Initial Public Offering Underpricing in Stock Market of Pakistan

The initial or primary share that has been offered to investors or speculators for economic returns on their investment of capital is known as Initial Public Offering (IPO). Mostly the new established or those firms and industries that are running in lack of funds or aims to expand their business, production and capital offer IPO to investors. The IPO offers enables firms and manufacturing units to expend their capital, investment, replace classical technology with modern technology, increase capital and labor efficiency by hiring skilled labor. The IPO offering to general public is the most common financing way especially for private business firms and the investors invest the funds to earn lum-sum economic returns (Alok et al., 2016). The IPO underpricing is an important factors to attract new investor in open market organization aims to support the deficit financing by offering them some incentives for future returns on current investment.
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No role for initial severity on the efficacy of antidepressants: results of a multi-meta-analysis

No role for initial severity on the efficacy of antidepressants: results of a multi-meta-analysis

cluded because this data set is highly heterogeneous and includes primary care patients with dysthymia and major depressive patients who accepted to be randomised to medication, psychotherapy or placebo, fixed as well as flexible dosage studies and medication up to 50 mg of paroxetine but only up to 100 mg of imipramine [21-25]. It is interesting that a common denominator of the studies included in this specific meta-analysis was that the efficacy of psychosocial inter- ventions depends also on initial severity, the same way the medication does. In the Unduraga and Baldessarini set, variance measures are missing in many trials. How- ever, in the Khan et al. data set, only 21 out of 45 studies reported a standard error of measurement or a standard deviation of mean change. The data of the Turner et al. set are not available to the authors of the current paper except for the effect sizes of individual studies. On the other hand, the Kirsch et al. set is more complete and available online.
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Initial review and analysis of COVID-19 host genetics and associated phenotypes

Initial review and analysis of COVID-19 host genetics and associated phenotypes

component of the lymphocyte. In a separate study with 452 COVID-19 patients, severe cases tended to have lower lymphocyte counts and higher leukocyte counts, as well as lower percentage of monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils (Table 1)(Qin et al., 2020). To what extent the lower lymphocyte counts seen with disease are related to baseline lymphocyte or other hematologic indices is unclear. Here, we used 29 haematological assays that were performed on whole blood from UK Biobank (Category 10081), to fit multivariate predictive models for phenotypes using the snpnet package(Qian et al., 2019). The idea is that there are individuals that have altered counts of white cell types that are crucial to our immune system due to germline genetic factors, which can aid in potentially identifying individuals that are at risk of progressing to severe outcomes. Here, we trained genetic risk prediction models using a genotype data set that is a combination of the directly genotyped array variants, imputation, HLA alleles, and copy number variants for a total of 5,182,706 variants in the analysis(Aguirre et al., 2019). Overall, we find improved predictive performance for haematological measurements of immune cell subtypes involved in viral defense including lymphocyte count and percentage beyond standard covariates like age, sex, and principal components (Table 1, Figure 1). Furthermore, we find that PRS captures individuals that are likely to have low lymphocyte count and percentage levels that may play a role in susceptibility to viral infection and disease progression. For example, we find that individuals at the bottom 5% of lymphocyte count PRS are likely to have lymphocyte count levels below 1.67 x10 9 per litre, and those at the
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Initial Experiments In Cross Lingual Morphological Analysis Using Morpheme Segmentation

Initial Experiments In Cross Lingual Morphological Analysis Using Morpheme Segmentation

• we give non-analyzed V ERB surface forms to Morphnet as the input. The output is a full morphological analysis with ambiguous annotations, merged with the previously analyzed surface forms. To correct the analyses acquired with the greedy algorithm and Morphnet predictions, we project annotations from Source across T arget on the basis of string intersection (one- to-one orthographic match). We suppose that the intersection keeps loan words and cognates, which share the same set of morphological annotations. Finally, we employ transliteration of the analyzed target data back to its non- normalized format.
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An Analysis Of Initial Global Citizenship In A Liberal Arts College In Northeastern Pennsylvania

An Analysis Of Initial Global Citizenship In A Liberal Arts College In Northeastern Pennsylvania

There are an increasing number of organizations conducting business in the global environment (Hill, 2011). Expatriate employees are frequently used and are critical for success in these assignments (Carpenter, Sanders, & Gregersen, 2000). Adjusting to a foreign culture is one reason for high failure rates of expatriates (Garonzik, Brockner & Siegel, 2000). According to Morais and Ogden (2010), there is a need to measure global citizenship in a way that can validate the outcomes of a study abroad experience, specifically, and the development of a global citizen, generally. College and University Study Abroad programs introduce students to global cultures and citizenship; however, college graduates are not prepared to enter the global workforce (Hunter, 2011). This article analyzes and measures initial global citizenship in a liberal arts college in Northeastern Pennsylvania. This study utilizes the Global Citizenship Scale to explore the initial levels of social responsibility, global competence and global civic engagement (Morais & Ogden, 2010). The researchers will discuss the implications for educators, administrators, and researchers. Findings, conclusions, and recommendations will be presented.
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Comparative Analysis of Serologic Screening Tests for the Initial Diagnosis of Celiac Disease

Comparative Analysis of Serologic Screening Tests for the Initial Diagnosis of Celiac Disease

The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and nega- tive predictive values of the AGA and EMA tests are presented in Table 1. There were no statistically sig- nificant differences in either specificity or sensitivity between the isotype-specific AGA or EMA assays on monkey esophagus. The EMA assay on human um- bilical cord sections was more specific than either the IgA or the IgG AGA assay (P , .02) or than EMA analysis using monkey esophagus sections (P , .08). However, its sensitivity was significantly lower com- pared with AGA (P , .003) or EMA using monkey esophagus (P , .02). All patients with celiac disease were identified when either one of the tests was positive, suggesting that, in combination, a positive
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Analysis tool for initial high level assessment of candidate MEA architectures

Analysis tool for initial high level assessment of candidate MEA architectures

Fig. 1 summarizes different modelling fidelity levels and their use toward EPS design and analysis [2]. To date, modelling and simulation has predominantly been used for detailed aspects of system analysis, whereby high-fidelity behavioral level models are used to analyze low- level system effects, such as switching behavior and thermal stressing. However, the analysis tool proposed within this paper resides within the architectural level, and uses a combination of fundamental mathematical models, and up-to-date data driven models, to facilitate rapid, high-level, system appraisal. The tool also has the capability of assessing system wide impact of emerging technologies.
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The initial robustness analysis of designed U pole placement control systems

The initial robustness analysis of designed U pole placement control systems

The main contents of this paper are divided into four sections. In section 2 the designed U-Model based pole placement controller is introduced to represent the fundamental methodologies. In section 3 the basic robustness analysis is introduced for implementing system robust stability study. In section 4 a step by step procedure is listing of proposed robustness analysis. In section 5 a Hammerstein model is selected to demonstrate the robustness analysis and the corresponding simulation results are presented with graphical illustrations. In section 6 a summary of the paper is presented.
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The analysis of initial probability distribution in Markov Chain model for lifetime estimation

The analysis of initial probability distribution in Markov Chain model for lifetime estimation

The fatigue crack growth process is an integrates of random factors such as inhomogeneity of real material, manufacturing processes, load spectrum, the geometry of component, randomness or cracking process and condition of technological such as quality of manufacturing and environmental conditions [9,10]. These random factors explained the influencing of the uncertainty factors to the fatigue crack growth process, and it contributes to the scattering of the crack size. There is significant number of research works that have focused on fatigue crack growth models: these include models presented in [11-15]. Many of these models rely on the experiment. The data provided by the experiment are needed to run the model where data and analysis can be applied statistically as the fatigue crack growth data have a statistical nature [16].
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An Empirical Analysis of Productivity Developments in "Traditional Banks" : The Initial Post-Liberalization Experience

An Empirical Analysis of Productivity Developments in "Traditional Banks" : The Initial Post-Liberalization Experience

By utilizing a DEA-type Malmquist Index approach, we investigated the initial effects of new bank entries and financial reforms introduced during the 1980s on the productivity, efficiency, and technology growth of the traditional Turkish commercial banks. Our results suggest that productivity and efficiency of the traditional banks has initially deteriorated. However, over time, especially in the second half of the 1980s, the traditional banks have recorded significant productivity improvements. It appears that it took traditional banks a number of years to adjust to the challenging conditions of the new operating environment. Overall, the productivity growth was mainly driven by the efficiency increases, i.e., substantial efforts of the inefficient banks to catch up with the best practice banks, rather than technical progress, i.e., the expansion of production frontier outward by the leading banks. Efficiency increases, on the other hand, were mainly as a result of the improvements in management practices rather than the improvements in scale. Our results by ownership indicate that once the uneven treatment between private banks and state banks is reduced gradually after liberalization, the performance difference between those banks has started to vanish because private banks, domestic or foreign, recorded much higher productivity and efficiency increases. These results imply that financial reforms put into effect after 1980 were somewhat successful in promoting competition among the traditional Turkish banks that have been enjoying a quiet life for a long time, and in initiating a noticeable upward trend in their productivity and efficiency performance.
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Spirit baptism and the doctrine of initial evidence in African Pentecostal Christianity: A critical analysis

Spirit baptism and the doctrine of initial evidence in African Pentecostal Christianity: A critical analysis

Pentecostalism is known for the belief in Spirit baptism that is accompanied by the doctrine of initial evidence, that is, speaking in tongues. The practice of the doctrine of initial evidence has become a unique feature of Pentecostalism for many years since its beginning. Similarly, Spirit baptism and the doctrine of initial evidence are practised in African Pentecostal Christianity, especially in classical Pentecostal churches and charismatic movements. However, there are challenges with this doctrine: speaking in tongues is perceived as the only evidence, and there is an emphasis on gifts than fruit of the Holy Spirit and a great emphasis on public spiritual experiences than personal encounters with God. In re-imagining the doctrine of initial evidence in African Pentecostal Christianity, speaking in tongues should not be emphasised or practised as the only evidence of Spirit baptism because there are other evidences that demonstrate the baptism in the Holy Spirit. The emphasis should be on prayer than the speaking of tongues. In addition, priority should be given to the fruit of the Spirit and on a personal encounter with God. Finally, speaking in tongues should be accompanied by interpretation in a public service because the public cannot understand the language.
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Homotopy Analysis Method for Solving Initial Value Problems of Second Order with Discontinuities

Homotopy Analysis Method for Solving Initial Value Problems of Second Order with Discontinuities

where  is a nonlinear operator, x denotes independent variable, u x ( ) is an unknown function, and k x ( ) is a known analytic function. For simplicity, we ignore all boundary or initial conditions, which can be treated in the similar way. By means of generalizing the traditional homotopy method, Liao [1] [2] [3] con- structs the so-called zero-order deformation equation

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General practitioners' responses to the initial presentation of medically unexplained symptoms: a quantitative analysis

General practitioners' responses to the initial presentation of medically unexplained symptoms: a quantitative analysis

A response from the GP can be verbal or nonverbal, but since this research only concerns verbal reactions, the nonverbal reactions are excluded from further analysis. The verbal response is defined as a single turn, stretching from the first word of the GP to the start of the next turn of the patient. There are a few exceptions to this verbal def- inition, which are not scored as a GP's response: The GP finishes the sentences of the patient with a few words or a very short sentence (e.g. when the patient falters); Short facilitations/exclamations (e.g. 'yes', 'okay'); The GP tries to start his turn, but is immediately interrupted by the patient, who continues his turn; Literal reflections uttered by the GP to confirm that he heard correctly or to encour- age the patient to continue. These reflections may only refer to the last sentence of the patient and the patient has to continue his turn immediately after the reflection. GPs' Response
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Tensor numerical methods for multidimensional PDES: theoretical
          analysis and initial applications

Tensor numerical methods for multidimensional PDES: theoretical analysis and initial applications

First successes in the rank-structured tensor calculations of multivariate functions and operators in the Hartree-Fock equation originated the grid-based tensor numerical methods in scientific computing [55, 58, 60–62, 73, 74, 125]. Combined with the matrix product states (MPS) techniques developed in the physics community, [107, 119, 120, 122, 124], including its particular form, the tensor train (TT) format [99, 103], and with the newly developed quantized tensor approximation of discretized functions [68] and operators [100], these methods boiled up to a powerful tool for the numerical analysis in higher dimensions. Concerning computational quantum chemistry, the real space numerical methods combined with FEM or plane waves approximations have become attractive in (post) Hartree-Fock and DFT calculations as the possible alter- native to traditional approaches [15, 16, 19, 31, 33, 46, 88, 108].
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