cific injurypreventionprogramme. This bottom-up approach implied that tennis players, trainers and other stakeholders contributed to the development of the programme. The KTS consists of five steps: (1) problem statement, which seeks to review the magnitude of the problem (epidemiological, economical and social); (2) evidence synthesis and description, which aims to review the scientific evidence that is already available in order to estimate the gain from the aimed intervention; (3) knowledge transfer group meetings with stakeholders from the target group and researchers with relevant expertise—this group discusses the findings of the first two steps and makes recommendations for the next step; (4) product development, during which the ‘product’, in this case the preventionprogramme, is fully developed; and (5) finally, during evaluation, the programme is tested for effectiveness and is implemented. As we will illustrate in this article, we deviated somewhat from the formal KTS. Figure 1 shows the process steps that were used.
The iPlay programme is, to our knowledge, the first school based physical activity related injurypreventionprogramme for primary school children. The iPlay inter- vention showed small but promising effects in terms of the reduction of physical activity related injuries, espe- cially in physically less active children. The results showed that injuryprevention lessons should not only focus on children who participate in organised sports club activities, but on all children. Schools are an impor- tant setting because the reach into the student body is high. However, adoption and implementation of the programme need to be high.
The results of this study provide valuable information regarding design and implementation of school connectedness programmes for risk and injuryprevention. For example, further research may address specific groups of teachers that should be targeted. Considering teachers’ perceptions and the positive results of whole-of-school interventions, it may be that PD on enhancing students’ connectedness should be delivered across all school staff. Teachers also indicated that they appreciated the PD as a rare opportunity to take time out with others to share knowledge and ideas that may improve their practice. Future training may therefore build on this positive aspect by focusing more on skill and knowledge sharing among participants as a means of increasing teacher connectedness with each other, as well as facilitating development of connectedness strategies for their students.
Due to the fact that the forerunner of the InjuryPreventionProgramme Data Collection Projects was EHLASS (European Home and Leisure Accidents Surveillance Systems), there were initial problems in the use of a common methodology, common classification and therefore comparability of the collected data. EHLASS was originally meant to be a programme supporting the Member States in collecting their own data about Home and Leisure Injuries, with their own methods (Decision No 3092/94/EC; OJ L 331, 21.12.1994). The InjuryPreventionProgramme Data Collection Project had as one of its objectives to enhance comparable methods of data collection in the Member States in order to support comparability and to increase the European added value. It was a challenge to streamline the data collection methods and the codification used and in the same time not to lose the most important partners. A significant part of the budget spent was on projects with the goal of comparing historical information stored in the Home and Leisure Accident data base, which was collected with different methods: the results are indeed less cost-effective than if they would have been based on a common approach to data collection methods, classification and reporting in Europe.
In Australia, farm injury is associated with many hazards in differing production systems; farm injury is a high risk for the population that lives and works in rural settings, settings that are often isolated—physically and socially. The prevention of farm injury requires a multifaceted collaboration on the part of a number of key stakeholder agencies and the employment of contemporary public health approaches that are proving valuable in maintaining the collaboration at the national as well as at the state level. The investment by the NSW Department of Health and the New England Area Health Service in the Australian Centre for Agricultural Health and Safety at Moree—in northwest NSW—has supported the progress being made in the prevention of farm injury. This article describes some Australian approaches to the prevention of farm injury.
A body of literature exists evaluating the cost-effectiveness of type 2 diabetes prevention activities, with most of it finding prevention through intensive lifestyle changes and/or pharmacological intervention to be cost-effective, and often cost-saving (International Diabetes Foundation, 2015). However, the significant variation in the nature of each intervention, reflected in factors such as its structure and the population targeted, has led to a significant degree of variation in their cost- effectiveness. As such, only limited inference can be drawn from the existing literature as to the cost-effectiveness of the Healthier You programme, which would require a programme-specific evaluation to determine if it represents a cost-effective use of limited NHS resources. The following estimates bring together existing evidence on the Healthier You programme to consider the impact 1
ABSTRACT. Drowning is a leading cause of injury- related death in children. In 2000, more than 1400 US children younger than 20 years drowned. Most (91%) of these deaths were unintentional and were not related to boating. For each drowning death, it is estimated that at least 1 to 4 children suffer a serious nonfatal submersion event, many of which leave children with permanent disabilities. Environmental strategies, such as installa- tion of 4-sided fences around swimming pools, and be- havioral strategies, such as increased supervision of chil- dren while around water, are needed to prevent these tragedies.
Conclusion: This intervention has been helpful in reducing the burden of HIV and AIDs among Out-of-School-Youths in Nigeria. Although, the effective implementation of minimum prevention package for intervention in HIV/AIDS preventionprogramme carried out in the communities could be attributed to the dialogues held at the commencement of the project. However, there are still shortfalls in attainment of the expected results. It is therefore recommended that there be increased integration of services and decentralisation of MPPI activities to primary health care centres and rural communities, stepwise supervision and monitoring of HIV prevention activities be strengthened and engagement of all tiers of governance to engender political commitment and ownership of the HIV response with a view of ensuring sustainability of these programmes.
A body of literature exists evaluating the cost-effectiveness of type 2 diabetes prevention activities, with most of it finding prevention through intensive lifestyle changes and/or pharma- cological intervention to be cost-effective, and often cost- saving (International Diabetes Foundation 2015). However, the significant variation in the nature of each intervention, reflected in factors such as its structure and the population targeted, has led to a significant degree of variation in their cost-effectiveness. As such, only limited inference can be drawn from the existing literature as to the cost-effectiveness of the Healthier You programme, which would require a programme-specific evaluation to determine whether it repre- sents a cost-effective use of limited NHS resources. The fol- lowing estimates bring together existing evidence on the Healthier You programme to consider the impact required to demonstrate cost-effectiveness. The EConDA toolkit was used to gauge the change in the level of obesity (the primary type 2 diabetes risk factor targeted by the programme) neces- sary for the programme to be cost-effective.
In a nutshell, intervention fidelity refers to the extent to which an IPEP has been implemented as intended, in a comparable manner among all study participants . Intervention fidelity of an IPEP includes both exercise fidelity (athletes performing the exercises according to instructions) and utilisation fidelity (IPEP delivered and exercises in the IPEP are executed with the prescribed number of sets and repetitions) . Further, the extent of exercise fidelity can be dependent on the utilisation fidelity including how the IPEP was delivered, received and executed. Intervention fidelity is, therefore, a key methodologic requirement and integral to the internal validity of any prevention trial [15, 16]. Although RCT reporting guidelines such as the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement  is widely endorsed, the quality of reporting aspects of intervention fidelity reporting remains poor. For example, a system- atic review of sports injury preventions trials found only 12% of all included studies reported aspects of interven- tion adaptation and less than 1% reported on mainten- ance of the IPEPs . Thus, the exercise fidelity of an IPEP is seldom evaluated alongside the RCT. In commu- nity-level Australian-rules football, only 67% of the players performed the exercises in an IPEP as prescribed . To our knowledge, no other studies have evaluated exercise fidelity in an IPEP. This is especially a problem- atic issue for IPEP trials, because without in-depth infor- mation about the extent to which participants complied with the prescribed IPEP (exercise and utilisation fidelity of the intervention), findings are of lesser value ; evalu- ation of intervention fidelity can facilitate correct interpretation of results (positive or negative) and prevent incorrect conclusions of an intervention outcome .
Landing in the toe-in position increases a number of biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury, including kinematic variables associated with a dynamic knee valgus position, and therefore should be avoided. The adverse biomechanical effects of toe-in landing position are exacerbated in females. Changing foot landing position appears to significantly alter lower extremity biomechanics for both men and women during a double-leg jump and can be a target for movement pattern modification in both sexes.
The concept of injuryprevention has not been recognised in Nepali society but is very much needed in the country today. In a previous qualitative study, community members expressed their unfamiliarity with this issue and were keen to be involved in future endeavours . Their genuine interest to be involved was reflected in their participation in this project. This project started its field activities just before the two Nepali festivals of Dashain and Tihar (in October) which also coincide with the paddy and maize harvesting season. However, mothers arranged their meeting early in the morning in order not to miss participation, thus maximising attendance despite the need to collect the harvest. This demonstrated their commitment to the issue. The FCHVs also showed their commitment by completing the four- day long first-aid training just before the festival holidays; one of the FCHVs had her son’s wedding during the first-aid training but she didn’t take time off from the training.
Injury surveillance was completed as previously described between 2011 and 2013 at the annual South African Rugby Union (SARU) Coca-Cola Youth Week tournaments. 17 Focusing on the under-18 Craven Week tournaments only, data were obtained from the SARU injury database that is part of an ongoing injury surveil- lance project coordinated in conjunction with the BokSmart National Rugby Safety Programme. 18 Video footage containing the concussion injury events at the under-18 Craven Week tournament was also accessed for analysis from the SARU video database. Over the 3 years, 18 concussions were recorded. However, only 10 were available for analysis due to the poor quality of the video footage. On the basis of the 10 injury events (5 tackle events — 4 tackler injured and 1 ball-carrier injured; 4 ruck and 1 aerial collision), 83 non-injury events were identi ﬁ ed (19 tackle, 61 ruck and 3 aerial collisions). The concussion event was ﬁ rst analysed in a similar fashion to that by Hutchison et al, 13 using descriptors speci ﬁ c to concussion. Thereafter, both the injury and non-injury events were analysed using coding variables for each phase of play, and for general playing situ- ational variables as outlined by to Hendricks et al. 19 20 The authors were granted access to these databases by SARU and the UCT Human Research Ethics Committee (injury database HREC Ref: 438/2011; video database HREC Ref: R042/2013).
Wyandot County Nursing Home used a process that reflects many of the recommendations in these guidelines to address safety and health concerns and phase-in its current program that entails no manual lifting of residents. First and foremost, Wyandot’s administrator provided strong commitment and support in addressing the home’s problems. He also involved Wyandot’s workers in every phase of the effort. He talked to his employees, learned about stressful parts of their jobs, and then found solutions. He and his employees identified existing and potential sources of injury at the home and worked to implement solutions. He trained employees each time the nursing home introduced new equipment. He continually checked new equipment, and he continues to evaluate the overall effectiveness of his safety and health efforts. Wyandot is located in Upper Sandusky, Ohio. It is a 100-bed, county-run facility that has served Wyandot County in its present building for the past 28 years. It is divided into two sections to serve residents with different levels of need. The A- wing, with 32 rooms, serves residents who are mostly ambulatory and require only a minimum of help with daily living.
Although the experts in Cohen’s report did not agree on every point, the authors did demonstrate that there is indeed a broad consensus between experts on the most significant aspects of injuryprevention counseling. Considering the recent re- views of the efficacy of counseling to prevent childhood injuries 3 as well as the cost-benefit eco-
The majority of participants found this to be a “useful and enlightening study” and thought that participating helped clarify their thinking. There are still areas in need of consensus building, however. There is lack of agreement on the priority of many potential injuryprevention strategies. This is espe- cially a problem for the strategies requiring consis- tent, active participation by parents. In addition, al- though the experts agreed on the factors that should be used to make prioritization decisions, there was disagreement about the relative importance of these factors. Although all the experts believe both injury problem-related factors (eg, severity, frequency) and strategy effectiveness should be taken into account, there was little agreement about how to balance these two types of factors.
Another stressor for Korean ballet dancers, which emerged strongly from the interviews, was dance directors’ attitudes and behaviour toward dancers. Although ballet is a hierarchical profession, directors often used what the dancers perceived to be insulting or humiliating words during practice or rehearsals. Further, dancers complained about experiencing negative feedback from directors, regarding their performances, which were based on inconsistent requirements. Dancers found it particularly stressful when directors changed their mind, reversing their instructions/feedback to dancers on different occasions. Hamilton (1999) reported that dancers who experienced this kind of occupational stress had more performance anxiety and overuse injuries than those who did not report such experience. Moreover, Hamilton found that some directors believed that injury could be cured through practice and performance, so they expected injured dancers to work while injured. In fact, this behaviour can lead to dancers developing chronic injuries (Arnheim, 1980). Interviews, in the present thesis, also showed that the dancers used a range of coping strategies, but many dancers (over 60% of dancers) did not cope well with their circumstances, using