The primary research has included 173 SMEs from the Czech Republic. The authors deﬁ ned 11 factors potentially inﬂ uencing the innovation potential of business entities, and they have analysed the interactions between given variables. As these variables are deﬁ ned as nominal, the Chi-square test for independence of variables have been applied while the signiﬁ cance level in every test has been set as = 0.05. From 11 hypothesized interactions, only four have been proved as statistically signiﬁ cant, respectively the null hypothesis about independence of variables has been rejected. One of the factors which are o en discussed in various studies that may potentially inﬂ uence an innovation potential of business entity is the size of an enterprise. But this variable is quite disputable; some authors argument that big companies have higher innovation potential than SMEs because of easies access to ﬁ nancial resources and generally stronger position. Other authors oppose when they state that innovation potential of small and medium-sized enterprises is higher because of they are more ﬂ exible. At application of the Chi-square test, the null hypothesis about independence between the innovation potential and the size of a business entity, has been accepted, i.e. no interaction between these two variables exists. In this context, it is possible to conclude that it is not the size of enterprise, but it’s mainly organizational structure and culture what is inﬂ uencing the innovation potential there.
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State stimulation of innovation is officially recognized as a key factor in long-term growth of the national economy (OECD, 2010). An important role in the innovative development of the economy is assigned to individual regions. There are studies that empirically confirm a pattern of asymmetric and unequal development of innovative activity in different regions of the state (OECD, 2011, P. 19; Foddi, Usai, 2013). In our opinion, it can be explained by the difference in the value of the innovation potential of the territories and the business environment. In terms of the region, the innovation potential should be considered from three perspectives: the possibility of creating innovations, possibility to carry out effective innovative activity, possibility of implementation of innovations by enterprises, as shown in Figure 2.
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Family businesses are often stigmatized as more conservative and reluctant to innovate in comparison with their non-family counterparts. Yet, in reality, most innovative firms worldwide are family owned and managed. Using the framework elucidated here and the tool offered, you can conduct an assessment of the relationships between the family and business systems in relation to innovation, and identify your family business innovation postures. This tool can help you assess the fit between the posture adopted at the business and the family system levels, providing guidance on how to unlock your family business innovation potential. Acknowledgements
Abstract The ability to innovate is an important requirement in many organisations. Despite this pressing need, few selection systems in healthcare focus on identifying the potential for creativity and innovation and so this area has been vastly under-researched. As a first step towards understanding how we might select for creativity and innovation, this paper explores the use of a trait-based measure of creativity and innovation potential, and evaluates its efficacy for use in selection for healthcare education. This study uses a sample of 188 postgraduate physicians applying for education and training in UK General Practice. Participants completed two questionnaires (a trait-based measure of creativity and innovation, and a measure of the Big Five personality dimensions) and were also rated by assessors on creative problem solving measured during a selection centre. In exploring the construct validity of the trait-based measure of creativity and innovation, our research clarifies the associations between personality, and creativity and innovation. In particular, our study highlights the importance of motivation in the creativity and innovation process. Results also suggest that Openness to Experience is positively related to creativity and innovation whereas some aspects of Conscientiousness are negatively associated with creativity and innovation. Results broadly support the utility of using a trait-based measure of creativity and innovation in healthcare selection processes, although practically this may be best delivered as part of an interview process, rather than as a screening tool. Findings are discussed in relation to broader implications for placing more priority on creativity and innovation as selection criteria within healthcare education and training in future.
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AR is not without its faults. These brief descriptions of AR rely on some sort of power source, and wearing a battery pack on the head is simply impractical. As explained by Roland Martin (2015) , the biggest challenge to the widespread use of AR is low battery life. The solution to this problem must rely on using technology and innovation to define a new way of getting power to the systems rapidly and efficiently, without imposing a burden on the employees. Ultimately, Augmented Reality may be used to figure out a way to create a smaller, more durable battery to power AR- enabled devices. Essentially, the applications of AR are continuing to expand.
Some authors see the essence of innovation potential as «a certain amount of information about the results of scientific-technological developments, inven- tions, R&D, samples of new machinery and products 5 .» In our opinion, such a definition is narrow and equates the innovation and scientific-technological po- tential. But science and scientific-technological activity only produce innovations and do not reflect the entire structure and substance of the innovation potential. Other authors interpret the innovation potential as «a system of factors and condi- tions required for the innovation process, 6 » thereby confining this concept within the limits of innovation activity as well as rejecting its interdisciplinary nature and narrowing its sphere of application. In the definition of the innovation poten- tial as «the ability of sectors of the national economy to manufacture science- intensive products meeting the requirements of the world market, 7 » the entity that is evaluated (namely, different sectors of the economy) is precisely stated, linking the term with a sector and the national economy as a whole. In many cases, the category innovation potential does not have a clear definition at all as well as the
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Abstract: In the Republic of Serbia, no comprehensive scientific multimethod research has been conducted to identify weaknesses and opportunities for improving the disaster risk management system. Regarding that, in the paper, author presents project description ,,Strengthening Integrated Disaster Risk Management System in Serbia - DISARIMES” which shall enable strengthening the disaster risk management system through research, development and innovative solutions implementation in the preparation, mitigation, response, remediation and post-disaster phases. The scientific importance of the projected research is reflected in the creation of assumptions for the advancement of theoretical and empirical knowledge in the scientific field of disaster risk management, bearing in mind that it is a relatively young scientific discipline in Serbia. The results of the project research will make it easier for decision makers in Serbia to understand the shortcomings of the system, but also provide innovative opportunities to improve their functioning in conditions of increasingly frequent and serious disasters. Establishing a scientific and professional society in the field of disaster risk management will create sustainable and necessary conditions for the transfer and improvement of knowledge and experience of importance for raising the level of operability of the system of protection and rescue of the Republic of Serbia in the event of disasters. A key contribution of the research findings will be to create a sustainable knowledge base that will be supported by the relevant amount of information regarding innovative capabilities and solutions identified as necessary to raise social resilience to a much higher level. In order to achieve the set goals, DISARIMES makes it possible, through a large number of SWOT analyses and other multimethod studies, to clearly identify and systematize the objective deficiencies and barriers encountered by the disaster risk management system in Serbia in all its stages before, during and after disasters, to identify and implement the appropriate solutions based on this. The objectives of the project are: to assess and identify strengths (advantages), weaknesses (disadvantages), opportunities (innovation potential) and threats for the disaster risk management system in Serbia; to develop and update RDI (research, development, innovation) Roadmap – knowledge databases with innovative solutions and other relevant information for improvement of the disaster risk management system; to fully deploy the DISARIMES scientific-professional network involving a broad range of the disaster risk management scientists and civil protection professions and organisations; to prepare the ground for the disaster risk management policy innovations.
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The support of innovation is one of the most debated issues in regional policy, which is a part of the key factors of development and a source of comparative advantage (Asheim, 1996). This is evidenced by the fact that the European Union and national states allocate huge amounts of resources to promote respectively innovation, research and development. The importance of innovation is declared in scientifi c literature dealing with its role in regional growth. “If we are to understand why some regions grow and others stagnate, we need to understand the interactions among economic growth, economic geography and economics of innovation.” (Acs & Varga, 2002). However, there are different views on how to set up their support in order to achieve the desired impact and results of support measures. The above mentioned debate about place- based versus space neutral policies is highly discussed in innovation support policies. The role of regions in innovation activities could be found in concepts such as innovation districts (Markusen, 1996), regional innovation systems (Cooke, 1997) or learning regions (Asheim, 1996). Contemporary theoretical and practical approaches focused mainly on concept of smart specialization; (Barca, McCann, & Rodriquez Pose, 2012; Foray, 2014) point to the fact that form and type of support should be tailored to individual regional conditions (Capello & Lenzi, 2013; Šipikal 2013).
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In fact, concerns about gentrification have been corroborated by the Community Care and Enrichment Team (CCET), a long-standing com- munity group designed to empower residents to improve their neighborhood through giving them a voice and supporting tools to change the neighbor- hood health environment. Informal discussions held with the CCET provide extensive anecdotal evidence that the DTM has not fostered an inclu- sive culture of working with neighbors and resi- dents. The most frequent comment expressed by CCET members is that those behind the DTM “are trying to move us out of the neighborhood.” Similarly remarks such as “there’s nothing for me here” or “I can’t afford to buy anything” were common. Other neighborhood residents expressed concerns about being ignored by vendors and being made to feel unwelcome by the roving security personnel. These concerns highlight a feeling of displacement that is in stark contrast to the primary goals of food innovation districts: encouraging community and place-based benefits (Cantrell et al., 2013) and creating a “more equi- table food system that values…healthy food access” (PolicyLink, 2014, p. 1). These findings also challenge the DTM’s stated intention to “stay true to our neighborhood roots” (Downtown Market, n.d.b, para. 1).
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To consider the eﬀects of both IPRs and antitrust policies, we have assumed that potential future competition comes from a follow-on innovation, so that its probability to occur depends on IP protection for U1’s initial innovation. But the dependence of on is not essential for our arguments; our main insights would still be valid if is given exogenously. Even if the initial monopoly position of U1 is due to its possession of some unique physical assets, acquired through its investment, and there is a possibility that another upstream ﬁ rm may acquire competing physical asset in the future, similar strategic considerations would be present. Our analysis thus has implications more generally for policies concerning property rights and antitrust. We focus on innovation and IP, however, because the ex-ante and ex-post welfare tension is most striking in the case of IP, and because the potential interaction/coordination between policies on IP and antitrust is especially important in many industries where innovation drives market performance.
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Recent research carried out on behalf of the Crafts Council of Ireland by Indecon International Economic Consultants has estimated the value of output of Irish craft enterprises at €498m. It estimates that the sector employs 5,771 with domestic sales of €373.5m and exports of €124.5m.⁵ Their report also highlights significant potential in the sector. Indecon suggests that employment could increase to 7,589 with domestic sales and exports growing to €527.6m and €175.8m respectively. The potential value of output of Irish craft enterprises could be in the region of €703.5m. There is therefore a major opportunity for people working in craft to realise their goal – making work they want to make and making a living as well. We are currently in discussion with our funding partners on how best this potential can be realised.
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The perceived utility potential of IMTs cannot be taken as the reason for current state of competences and IMT use in Slovene firms. Technique complexity was the most important barrier to IMT use in the period from 2003 to 2011 in Slovene firms. Technique complexity represents a serious barrier to IMT use especially in small firms. This finding is similar to finding of Libutti  who revealed that an IMT, to be usable by a small company, must be simple to explain to the personnel and must quickly produce visible effects. A similar conclusion was made by Barczak et al. . The rank order of other reasons fluctuated during the investigated period. The second most important barrier was the implementation of technique results in 2003; in 2008 it was needed coaching and training of employees to be able to use IMTs; and in 2011 it was the lack of needed data for IMT usage. The rank order of these barriers can be also explained by Dermol and Drev who found that the problem in Slovene industry is not the number of highly-educated people but rather their skills and knowledge about IMTs obtained during their education . It is very important that management insists on introducing and perfecting individual methods and techniques, and provides continuous on-job training for their staff. Using training of employees responsible for NPD will probably remove major barriers to use IMTs in Slovene firms. Universities can help to remove these barriers by adding IMT competence in their curriculum.
In the second section, the Expert Group takes as its starting point the significant financing gap, or ‘valley of death’, which is holding back the progress of promising research and innovation. To cross the bridge from early-stage high-risk proof-of-concept phases, which cannot attract commercial investment, to the development of full social and market potential, research and innovation require access to a range of flexible funding options. Because of their independence and flexibility, R&I foundations have a unique opportunity to provide support for early-stage or experimental research and innovations which have great potential for social benefit but as yet uncertain outcomes. Foundations are well-placed to apply the innovative funding tools which have proved so successful in growing social enterprise to the growth of research and innovation. Through adopting innovative financial solutions such as grants blended with forms of debt and equity, high-engagement venture philanthropy or social investment (aimed at both social and financial return), foundations can enable innovations to prioritise social impact potential whilst also developing financial sustainability.
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Under the conditions ofeconomic modernization innovative development of water management is one of the most urgent tasks. In this regard, this article discusses the system of formation of innovative markets, especially in the modernization of the system of enterprises of water management and implementation of innovation and shows the characteristics of infrastructure modernization and innovative development of water resourcesof the Republic of Uzbekistan. In assessing the ultimate effectiveness of the economic reforms implemented in the water sector, in particular, there is a need for theoretical study of water management systems, the study of theoretical aspects of innovative development based on their features(Abdullaev, De Fraiture, Giordano, Yakubov, &Rasulov, 2009). In our country, agriculture is a priority sector of strategic importance, which is directly and completely dependent on the water resources, and on the basis of innovative development of water resources, through effective use of the intellectual potential of its required technical and technological renewal on the basis of today's development requirements.
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proxy of innovation or technological progress have been pointed out by the literature (de Rassenfosse, Dernis, Guellec, Picci, & van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, 2011; Turlea et al., 2011), this source of data is still considered as one of the best measure of inventing capability and considered to be an important method of assessing various aspects of technological change (Griliches, 1990). Consequently, a large body of literature uses patent statistics as tool for studying issue of the research and innovation process (Bosworth, 1984; De Prato & Nepelski, 2012; Smith, 2005). Moreover, this type of information is also used by firms to assess the level of technology development in a particular sector or a firm (Archibugi & Planta, 1996; Patel & Pavitt, 1997). Patent statistics are also used to analyse the strengths and weaknesses of competitors (Narin, Noma, & Perry, 1987), which resembles the use of this source of information for the purpose of the current study.
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Even in situations where environmental protection is not the main driver for recycling, environmental protection goals can be an important enabler of scheme development. The Willunga Basin Water Corporation scheme, which draws on treated wastewater from SA Water’s Christies Beach Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) to irrigate vineyards in the McLaren Vale region in SA, was initiated by a group of private vineyard owners who were facing declining groundwater availability in their region. Nevertheless, a key enabling factor was the 30-year agreement (with optional 10 year extension) for SA Water to supply treated wastewater to the water corporation, initially at no charge, and the certainty that this length of agreement provides from the perspective of the private utility and their investors. A key benefit for SA Water is that the diversion of treated sewage onto land reduces the discharge of wastewater to Spencer Gulf and the potential impact on marine and coastal ecosystems.
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The application of ERT for mapping DNAPL in the subsurface has been suggested by a number of studies (e.g., Newmark et al., 1998; Power et al., 2013). However, ERT electrodes applied at the surface to detect static DNAPL is difficult (e.g., Cardarelli and Di Filippo, 2009). One reason is the complexity of the electrical target: an intricate, unknown distribution of DNAPL in heterogeneous soil. Thus, surface ERT used in time- lapse mode to monitor temporal changes associated with DNAPL has more potential. This is particularly true with recent advancements in time-lapse ERT data acquisition (e.g., Wilkinson et al., 2013) and inversion (e.g., Karaoulis et al., 2013). Chapter 4 (i.e., Power et al., 2014) demonstrated the potential of four-dimensional (4D) surface ERT to monitor the remediation of various DNAPL spills. This study revealed that the technique showed promise, providing reasonable delineation of the remediated DNAPL region and estimates of remediated DNAPL volumes. However, reduced effectiveness was evident in field scale scenarios with DNAPL located at depth (e.g., greater than 2 m). DNAPL at depth is expected when significant volumes are released, soils are highly permeable, and/or the DNAPL has a high density (Gerhard et al., 2007). In such cases, surface ERT is hampered by a limited investigation depth and reduced vertical resolution with distance from the surface (Chambers et al., 2010).
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It is important to understand and identify these modifia- ble and non-modifiable challenges because they might result in important variations among OEYCs in their abil- ity to analyze, display and manipulate spatial data. Among our participants, some OEYCs did not have any mapping capabilities, while others have the ability to use the most sophisticated market-based GIS programs (e.g., ArcGIS). GIS and mapping are knowledge translation tools that can facilitate optimal program and policy deci- sions to positively impact local communities. Given that OEYCs influence the way public services for children are offered, there might be significant implications for the gap between the information haves and have-nots. A decade ago, Sawicki and Craig  voiced their concern for the democratization of data, stating, 'community groups from low-income neighborhoods have the most to gain from full access to data, yet the least capability to achieve that access or make use of the data once they have it.' Similarly, Harris and Weiner  described their concern that GIS technology 'has the potential to disenfranchise the weak and not so powerful through the selective participation of groups and individuals'.
The principles of responsibility have been explored by the Author on the basis of a long experience in the field of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and the consciousness of the growing role that these techniques are acquiring in the transformations of society-sensitive processes. The generic nature of ICTs is confirmed not only by the many sectors they can be applied to, but also by the range of different strategic perspectives that can be associated to their use. Staying at this strategic dimension, the potential of ICTs can be exploited either to rationalise  existing processes (e.g. digitalise a booking service) or, much more radically, to define completely new processes according to longer term visions. The latter case singles out a stronger intentionality and may generate significant impacts, up to affecting the cognitive mechanisms of individuals or the collective behaviour of a community. The so called sharing economy has grown on this constitutive character of the ICTs and has indubitably produced profound effects on modern society.
2.2 Process Innovation Organizational Evolution Mechanism in Manufacturing Enterprises under the Condition of Informationization Organization is a complex system. Organizational strategy, structure, process and culture are the most important and related four variables, and any variable change will cause other variables change[8, 18]. Through the analysis of process innovation organization characteristics under the condition of informationization, it is consider that process innovation organization is evolutionary system which contains cooperative strategy, horizontal structure, task-oriented process and adaptive culture. These four elements synergy with each other under the influence of external environment, which makes the internal system produce a similar gene with transmissibility— process innovation organizational routine[19, 20]. Meanwhile, process innovation organizational routine will be embedded in a variety of organizational phenomenon after formation, which covers the organizational structure, rules, procedures, strategic, culture and many other aspects. On that basis, process innovation organization is constructed and operates. As shown in Figure 1.