We analyzed 208 innovative approaches reported in 259 studies and reports, including systematic and narrative reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster randomized controlled trials (cRCTs), controlled and un- controlled pre-post and time series studies, cross sec- tional studies, and expert perspectives papers (for a complete listing of study results, see Additional file 2: Table S1). Table 1 provides detail on the geographical distribution and types of studies as well as the level of evidence. In order to describe and map innovations into a larger landscape, we categorized findings according to the conceptual framework for MNH innovation we had defined in Fig. 1. We found that innovative MNH ap- proaches relate to all health systems building blocks (Fig. 2, categorized by primary building block), often ad- dressing more than one. Almost all approaches relate to more than one component of the continuum of MNH care – mainly to pregnancy and postnatal care – and ad- dress an overlap of demand, supply, or quality. The ma- jority of interventions (72 %) primarily addressed the supply side of health care; only 14 % focused on de- mand, 10 % on enabling environments (mostly policy initatives), and 4 % on quality of care. Many interven- tions aimed at serving pregnant women (48 %), often in combination with their newborns (30 %), while others
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One of the most popular new approaches to teaching is the flipped classroom. This approach involves a process where the typical lecture that happens in the classroom occurs at home. Students watch lectures on video, and then return to school to engage in the exercises they would traditionally have for homework, and to ask questions based on the lecture they watched on their own at home. When students watch videos at home, they can stop and go and at their own pace, and take notes a their leisure. When they return to school, they can work in groups to discuss what they watched, and/or have their questions answered by the teacher. In this process, students create, collaborate and learn at their own pace, and apply what they have learned at home in the classroom.
ative thinking was revealed. Students realized what they wanted, and their communication and desire to learn were increased. Time use became more ef Þ cient. Courage to work experimentally and try was increased. Extracurricu- lar drawing, developing designs with drawing and the self-expression process was begun. Even though the study group was limited to students who actu- ally took the class, it became a class that got participation demands from other classes and other departments. Being relieved of the boredom coming with memorizing with the innovative approach, students exhibited a more free and creative, eager to learn, and attentive manner and partook in an active learning process. They began acting with the responsibility and awareness of improv- ing themselves. Due to the attentive manner in which the class is conducted, they cared about different ideas, tried to understand them and were able to take advantage of them, and they could show the courage to make the correct choice for themselves. New suggestions for the problems and new information were created. Students who belonged in the same class with the same goal began getting to know and understand each other in a deeper way. Due to having a more active role in the class, all of the information they obtained is now permanent and it would not be wrong to tell that they are methods stu- dents can use and develop throughout their artistic lives.
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Diversity in methods and approaches can facilitate the development of the discipline. Historically under the influence of the dominant positivist paradigm sport related research predominately focused on scientific explanation and prediction through as value-free of a lens as possible (Glesne, 2006). Positivists usually embraced an ontological view that there is one reality which can be quantified and measured. Epistemologically, positivists believed that reality consists of facts and with appropriate methods scientists can ascertain those facts (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003). As such, positivists were usually characterized by a belief that, if an investigation follows the rigid methods set forth, and establishes a degree of methodological validity and reliability, the results can be considered objective and value free facts of the world (Kuhn, 1962).
The appeal to innovative psychological and pedagogical technologies in the process of preparing a competitive personality of a future specialist is not accidental. Researchers identify as their main features such as dialogic thinking, feedback, forced activation of thinking and behavior, increased emotionality, reflection, which allow you to change the content of the educational process and the position of students in this process. Practice shows that the use of innovative psychological and pedagogical technologies allows us to change not only the attitude of students to teamwork in the action of “teacher - student", but also to independent work, to improve the quality of its implementation.
Multiparticulate dosage form is pharmaceutical formulations where the active substance is in the form of a number of small independent subunit such as, granules, microparticle, beads, and microspheres. Multiparticulate drug delivery systems are specifically suitable for achieving delayed and sustained release oral formulations with a minimum risk of dose dumping, local irritation, systemic toxicity, and variation in rate of bioavailability as they are less dependent on gastrointestinal transit time and offers many advantages over unit particulate dosage forms. Microbeads are small, sphere shaped, systematically produced free-flowing properties, semi-spherical solid units. Microbeads are the agglomerates of about size ranging from 0.5 mm to 1.0 mm, obtained from various starting materials and utilizing different innovative techniques. A blend of multiparticulate can also be used to provide the desired drug release profile. These round shaped particles produced by mostly principle of atomization technique.Among various different innovative techniques Vibration technology, Electrostatic bead generator, Jetcutter technology, electrostatic forces, dropping method and a mechanical cutting device are few of many. In current article it describes about the total methods involved and their working principles with diagrams were clearly illustrated. Now a days sodium alginate beads were designed by these technologies mostly in relative to microencapsulation techniques.
impractical where large areas are involved. Therefore, leafy spurge control with lower rates of herbicide would be desirable. The cost of weed control in pasture and rangeland could be reduced by limiting herbicide application to target weed species with innovative methods from 1981 like roller applicator that avoids herbicide drift and reduces the amount of herbicide per hectare (Messersmith and Lym, 1981). Messersmith and Lym (1985) found that picloram at concentrations of 30 to 60 g L -1 dispensed with a roller applicator controlled leafy spurge
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Changes in ICT need to be considered within a wider change management context. Major hardware changes occur about every 5 years, while software changes occur about every 18 months . The latter changes not only include software updates and upgrades, but the emergence of new software. Additional factors that affect change concern enactment more directly; for example, initial teacher enactment of ICT into practice can lead to an initial downturn in performance. Mevarech  described this as a U-curve, while Leung, Watters and Ginns’s  case study of younger teachers also reported that their perceptions of ICT abilities and self-efficacy decreased during the first year of a project, with a subsequent lowering of uses of ICT during the second year. There are clear implications arising; if teachers are identifying innovative outcomes in terms of learning benefits arising within that same period of downturn from their early enactment of ICT, and if
additional technical challenges compared to many mam- malian species, we now have the technology to create precise, targeted modifications to the chicken genome. Genome editing tools have recently been applied in the chicken with both TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9 used to create targeted gene knockout chickens. The impacts of this technology could lead to improved efficiency and sustainability of poultry production to help meet the challenges associated with global food security. Specific innovations that result from gene editing technology will lead to new approaches in many areas including man- aging disease, improving welfare, increasing food safety and enhancing the production and safety of vaccines that are grown in chicken eggs. It is possible that the lat- est developments in gene editing technology may help to reduce or remove the two major barriers to the accept- ance and application of genetic engineering technology
delivery technologies, there is still a long way ahead that must be covered. This means there are still many chal- lenges that are being faced, which, in turn, mean there are many chances for the academic and industrial scien- tist to improve formulations and make a decisive impact. Further research efforts are needed to ensure the safety of long-term in vivo applications and the development of scale up from laboratory to industry in order to reach, within a few years, the safety and large-scale production at affordable costs of innovative lung delivery technolo- gies.
Microfinance in India has come to a stage where though the growth rate has been phenomenal, a number of challenges face the industry ranging from capital funding, people training, technology, access to capital market, and continued threat from political environment. This study proposed two innovative ways for the development of financial and allied services for the poor. First innovation focuses on increasing the reach of financial services to the poor in the form of microfinance by boosting private sources of funding to the sector. Since, a venture capitalist stays with an MFI for the longest possible time, benefits & limitations of private equity in microfinance were studied using the case of LOK capital, New Delhi, India. LOK capital, one of the only private equity firms to invest solely in microfinance institutions has been successfully driving private capital into the industry in a socially responsible way. The management at LOK is not only infusing capital into the sector but is also helping MFI‘s institutionalize themselves by incorporating the best practices of the corporate sector.
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This paper aims to investigate and understand the contribution of innovative pedagogies in media education through empirical findings from the classroom that emerges out of a reflective practice. Media education in the twenty-first century is about innovation, creative engagement and social thinking. One can interpret media education from two perspectives- one, where media is used in teaching, two, media used for learning. This paper argues that when constructively aligned outcome based teaching and learning is combined with the multimodal approaches in media education, it enhances assignment output of the students and has the potential to transcend geographical boundaries. For students of 21st century, technology has proved to be their natural learning habitat. As teachers we need to be supportive and adaptive of these changes by engaging innovatively with the technologies. Even in the 21st century we find a cultural divide among the teaching populace in embracing multimodality. Hence, it is essential to be mindful of the 'digital native' and 'digital immigrant debate'. The research has a constructivist grounding and takes a phenomenological approach. The paper uses data from undergraduate classroom and critically analyses the engagement of the cohort. This paper focuses on the Public Relations modules at undergraduate level for year 2 and 3.
Submitting dissertation research as an academic journal paper, rather than in thesis format, adds a layer of academic credibility making the process more authentic (Nicholson, in review). In part, this is because undergraduates become familiar with the styles and foci of journal articles but rarely read a thesis, and shorter word limits focus thoughts and writing. The attractions of publishing include the opportunity to disseminate work to a wider audience, to complete the research cycle, to participate in a ‘real-world’ research experience, to develop transferable skills and to reward good and innovative research practice (Walkington, 2008; Nicholson, in review). It can also contribute to career development opportunities, initiate understanding of publication processes (Walkington and Jenkins, 2008), and improve motivation to perform at the highest level (Charlesworth and Foster, 1996).
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However, comparison of the sub-groups within the class demonstrated that for many areas the “new” students had a significantly greater positive rating of the novel laboratory format than the “continuing” students. It is possible that the differences are due to differences in the degree of motivation of the two groups as student motivation moderates perception of the learning environment and determines approaches to learn- ing and outcomes (Biggs, 1985; Ramsden, 1991). Students’ perceptions of the learning environment (in this case workload) have been found to be a function of individual characteristics, approaches to and perceptions of the learning context (Kember, Ng, Tse, Wong, & Pomfret, 1996). Motivation (and satisfaction) of students within a course may also depend on whether or not they intend to continue in that area of study. Diseth et al. (2010) found students, within a first semester psychology course, who did not plan to continue their psychology studies, were less satisfied with their quality of education and had a higher level of surface approach than those who did want to continue. However, in contrast, students who intended to continue in aviation were less satisfied with an online aviation physiology course compared to students who were not going to continue in aviation (Artino, 2009), even though they reported greater per- ceptions of task value and greater use of cognitive control strategies. In this case it was suggested that the lower satisfac- tion of the “aviators” resulted from the course not meeting their expectations. It was concluded that subjective perceptions of the learning environment moderated motivational and beha- vioral engagement (Artino, 2009).
Abstract. The urgency of the problem being investigated is conditioned by the issues of rational use of natural resources in the conditions of transition of the economy to the trajectory of sustainable development. The analysis of conceptual views on this issue points to many arguments, which indicates a divergence of theoretical positions. The purpose of the article is aimed at the formation of a resource-saving strategy and the concepts of "cleaner production", which are one of the decisive ways in increasing the efficiency of the use of natural resources. In recent years, this process is significantly intensified, which is associated with the extraction, processing and transportation of oil and gas, which are a dangerous source of possible environmental complications. The manifestation of increased attention to the problem being investigated is based on an understanding of the main role of resource saving in market conditions. The leading approach to the study of this problem was the structural reorganization of existing production facilities and the creation of new ones based on the integrated use of petroleum raw materials, taking into account the introduction of innovative processes. The main components of scientific novelty are directions that have been further developed and containing elements of a real increase in scientific knowledge. The main results of the article are aimed at justifying the development of all components of resource-saving links. The materials of the article can be used to improve the state policy in the field of resource saving, using the principles and tools of the "cleaner production" concept, as well as in teaching courses in economic theory, the theory of resource-saving management.
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In the context of stiffer competition and expedited changes in the social and economic areas, today’s managers feel the need “to be the leaders of innovations” that are capable of performing complex tasks of managing innovative work in a project team. Formation of leadership competences requisite for the implementation of innovative projects is a relevant managerial task. Innovation management has certain specifics related to the actual innovative work, namely novelty and speed of changes, maintenance of the traditional long-term functioning, and risks, uncertainty and strain for all its subjects. Efficient management of the subjects’ innovative work is determined by a complex of external (objective – technological, institutional and cultural) and internal (subjective – social psychological and psychological) factors.
During the research the methods of economic analysis, comparative analysis, statistical grouping, monographic research, logical and abstract thinking were widely used. It consists in the following: developed scientific and theoretical approaches to the formation of innovative processes and innovative market, the development of innovative infrastructures in the water sector, as well as the use of factors affecting the use of innovative potential; the methods of evaluation of the obtained economic efficiency as a result of attracting investments for the introduction of innovations in the water sector taking into account the use of discount opportunities are improved; proposals for improving the mechanism of development of innovative infrastructure, ensuring the effective use of the existing innovative potential, intellectual property and attracted investments in the industry are developed; proposals for improving the organizational and economic basis of innovation in the water management system on the basis of effective distribution of water resources, as well as the introduction of the regime of water saving and optimal reclamation measures have been prepared; scientifically grounded recommendations on the organizational and economic directions of state support for the development of the industry on an innovative basis have been developed.
adjuvants capable of inducing the desired responses have made possible a new generation of vaccines against intracellular pathogens. 56 Innovative Th1 inducing adjuvants are already available for use in tuberculosis vaccines 57 and a whole new generation of adjuvants capable of enhancing T-cell responses is now in advanced stages of development. 56 A novel strategy for producing a new generation of leprosy vaccines combines both immunological and molecular techniques. 58,59 Antigen- specific T cells have been used to screen hundreds of M. leprae gene fragments for potential use in a vaccine 58 . Thanks to the sequencing of the whole M. leprae genome 60 it is now possible to rapidly synthesize entire M. leprae genes and to produce recombinant proteins. These advances have opened the door to the development of the first defined leprosy vaccine, which will be ready for clinical testing in 2017. In a first step, the vaccine might be administered to contacts of leprosy patients together with preventive chemotherapy in a bid to simultaneously rid them from M. leprae infection and protect them from future reinfection. 30 Vaccine safety has been studied in the armadillo model; findings indicate that a defined vaccine is safe, and actually delays nerve damage. Diagnostic tools
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Objectives of innovative design of complex systems involve searching for objects, characterized by the maximum degree of originality, and, consequently, competitiveness. To solve this problem, it is necessary to apply the methodology of cluster analysis that uses mathematical measures of similarity and inclusion of sets. Information about the analyzed object class is represented in the form of a morphological matrix, columns of which are the options for the implementation of generalized subsystems. For variants of subsystems, represented in the rows, is determined by numbers of structural and functional features. Selection of promising solutions uses criteria: matching originality determines the novelty for this class of combinations of functional subsystems; the originality of the elemental determines the number of new for this class of implementations of the functional subsystems involved in this combination; the measure of inclusion of features in the many other signs of the synthesized structures characterizes the degree of its originality. Generalized criterion of the promising solutions is the target function, the structure of which includes the criteria and the coefficients of their significance. The search technique decisions based on the calculation of a measure of inclusion consists a series of stages. During implementation the formal model, morphological matrix is constructed; for each trait the i-th row in the column corresponding to alternative implementations of the subsystem, is binary rating enable option. The relative number of matching relations is calculated; a matrix of the elemental composition of solutions is built; a description of the decisions by functional features is built; measures which enable the features of each object in the array of attributes of all synthesized solutions are determined. The analysis results are shown in the component table; they identify the objective function value, i.e. the degree of perspective of all possible solutions in the morphological matrix. The solution with the maximum objective function value is selected as the most promising for further analysis.
The hybrid approach term covers a large set of situations in which different approaches are combined in order to better process textual data and to attempt a better achievement of the dedicated task. Hybrid approaches are commonly used in various NLP applications (i.e., automatic creation of linguistic resources, POS tagging, building and structuring of terminologies, information retrieval and filtering, linguistic annotation, semantic labelling).
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