In order to study the effect of changing the ratio k on the angular acceleration and torque output of the crank- rocker mechanisms shown in figure 2, the stroke S, was fixed. This was done in order to keep all the input energy to all the systems the same. Therefore, link L41 and throw angle are maintained with the same values for all the mechanisms, while Link L3, is set to be 3.5 times the crank radius. The crank speed for this analysis was fixed at 2000 rpm.
Here in this work analysis is done to minimize the actual error where deflections of the linkage along with the clearances are considered. Deformation of the pin connecting the inputlink and the coupler and the output link and coupler are computed considering both bending and Hertz contact stress. Deviation of generated coupler curve from the desired curve due to above deformation is computed and optimum link lengths are found out using optimization and in the process error is reduced.
As mentioned before, the Inmos design had four inputlink controllers, which we consider a barrier to using the processor to build large parallel networks. To mitigate this problem we introduced the concept of virtual channels, yet it is difficult to implement this idea for input operations. This is because if we modify the inputlink controller to implement a queue of processes, then we would need a buffer of potentially infinite size to store the partially received messages from other OpenTransputers. Furthermore, messages from any waiting process can arrive at any point of time. Thus, maintaining a simple linked list of all processes would be very inefficient, since in the worst case the controller would have to iterate through every item in the list to match an incoming message with its intended recipient. In this sense, a more sophisticated data structure should be used to implement the scheduler of the inputlink controller. However, complex schemes are difficult to implement in hardware and have other undesirable side effects such as increased power consumption. Due to these issues, we consider that implementing an input controller similar to the output one has more disadvantages than benefits, yet we still consider that four links as in the original Transputer is too limiting. For this reason, we decided to include 16 inputlink controllers per OpenTransputer, which share a single bidirectional link with the output controller.
In this paper, we analyze the departure process of an ATM service mul- tiplexer with dierent line speeds between input links and the output link in the North Carolina Information Highway (NCIH) environment. The ATM service multiplexer is modeled as a nite-buer discrete-time single- server queueing system, the arrival process for each individual inputlink is assumed to be a Bernoulli process with parameter , and the service rate
We statistically evaluated the fit between the predicted four- bar model behavior and the measured kinematics of the raptorial appendage. Given that the carpus, propodus and dactyl are tightly coupled once the dactyl begins to sweep toward its target, we assumed that these three segments share the same pivot point and rotate an equivalent number of degrees during the sweeping phase of the strike. This allowed us to measure the rotation of the propodus as the output angle equivalent to the rotation of Link 3 (carpus); the propodus is larger, visible in a greater proportion of video sequences and can be more accurately digitized than the carpus. We tested whether the slope of the relationship between the input (Link 2) and output angles (Link 3=propodus rotation) measured from the high-speed videos was significantly different than the slope predicted by the four-bar model [modified t-test, see p. 32, Grafen and Hails (Grafen and Hails, 2002)]; incorporating individual effects and treating video sequences nested within individuals as random effects using Residual Maximum Likelihood method in JMP statistical software (v. 5.0.1).
The idea to eliminate the bulkier dc link capacitor causes the introduction of torque ripples at the output of motor. Hence a new method proposed is a low value inexpensive capacitor (ceramic capacitor) and a switch connected between the converter and the inverter. The ceramic capacitor used to reduce the torque ripple has a value of 25 F which replaces a 470 F dc link capacitor. A switch with antiparallel diode is used to provide the required current to run the motor.The motor drive is fed with a voltage between 0 to 325 V without a dc link capacitor. The build-up of phase current is possible when rectified mains voltage is greater than back emf. With the compensation technique,capacitor is charged when input voltage is less than back emf. Energy stored in capacitor is discharged when < , so that current in motor is maintained at current reference . Discharge of capacitor can be controlled by gating pulse applied to the switch. Controller is developed in such a way that gating pulse is generated based on value of back emf and rectified mains voltage.
operates at MPP point. The second stage is a grid tied VSC (Voltage Source Converter) which feeds the power into the distribution system. A single phase two stage grid tied PV generation system with constant DC link voltage is shown in . Moreover, the three phase grid tied PV generation system with constant DC link voltage control is also shown. The concept of loss reduction by adaptive DC link voltage for VSC in hybrid filters is shown in  wherein, the DC link voltage is adjusted according to reactive power requirement of filter. However, in the proposed system the DC link voltage of VSC is made adaptive with respect to CPI voltage variation. Moreover, the circuit topologies in both the systems are different. Therefore, the work presented in ,  is very different from the proposed work.
It has been well established that Internet traffic exhibits long range dependence (LRD) characteristics –. Furthermore, core and metropolitan Internet links are shared by a large number of users, so by the central limit theorem, the traffic on such links which represents multiplexing of traffic generated by many users can be assumed to follow a Gaussian process for the purpose of performance evaluation and link capacity dimensioning . In addition, Internet traffic is transported based on the store and forward principle, where packets are stored in router buffers before they are forwarded towards their destination. Therefore, a queue fed by fractional Brownian motion (fBm) input has been considered a fundamentally important model for Internet queueing performance analysis and capacity assignment and has attracted significant attention –. To date, despite the effort, only asymptotic results are available for queueing performance of fBm queues.
The proposed high-speed electric generating unit is intended to operate within a 9000–18 000-r/min speed range with both rated power of 4 kW and overall efficiency of 90% at a 18 000-r/min rating speed. The minimum provided power output should be 500 W at 9000 r/min. At any rotational speed within the operating range, the generating unit is expected to supply a 42-V power-net architecture, with a maximum value of 48 V. According to that, a controlled rectifier with adjustable voltage gain is required to step up the PM generator three-phase output voltage against a 42-V rated voltage dc link . In consideration of both the relatively low value of the alternator output voltage and the high fundamental frequency being considered in the envisaged application, it can be recognized that the synchronous inductance (i.e., L s ) of the PM generator plays a key role as discussed in the following.
current ripple. For the simulation purposes, a value of 12μH has been considered for the boost inductor in order to reduce the peak to-peak current ripple within 15–20 A. As an additional disadvantage compared to the other two topologies being considered, the BOOST- DR does not allow vector control of the alternator phase current, so the maximum torque per ampere cannot be exploited. The use of a diode rectifier causes significant distortion of the generator current waveforms with respect to the sinusoidal shape, and as a consequence, the generator torque contains a pulsating component having relatively high amplitude. This is a remarkable disadvantage as the presence of such a pulsating torque can significantly influence the durability and reliability of the turbo-expander/generator unit. Furthermore, the conduction power loss in the BOOST-DR is mainly related to the rectifier diodes, which show worse conduction performance with respect to low-voltage power switches as MOSFETs. The 3L-BR shows a more complex hardware and control structure, mainly due to both the number of switches and the third harmonic injection for the balancing of the dc-link capacitor middle point. However, the implementation of the control algorithm is still congruent with conventional industrial-grade digital signal processors (DSPs); moreover, future trends of the power electronics market could limit higher costs related to semiconductor devices and driving circuits. On the other hand, the use of a multilevel configuration for the controlled rectifier leads to effectively reducing the current ripple to an acceptable value, thereby allowing low values for the THD, which is an essential requirement for the desired high efficiency and to lower both mechanical vibrations and acoustic noise.
The basic control approach for the SPV system is shown in Fig. 2. The control of the system can be divided into two main parts, which are control of the boost converter and control of a grid tied VSC. The input voltage of a boost converter is adjusted according to MPPT algorithm and the output voltage of boost converter, which is also the DC link voltage of VSC is also kept adaptive according to CPI voltage condition. In overall, the proposed system is operated such that both the input and output voltages of boost converter are adjusted according to sensed variables of the circuit. The boost converter feeds the power to the DC link of VSC, which then feeds that power into the three-phase grid at unity power factor with respect to CPI. A composite InC based MPPT technique is used to estimate the reference PV array voltage and a PLL-less control is proposed for the control of the VSC. The amplitude of the refrence grid currents is estimated using a PV feedforward (PVFF) term and a PI controller DC link voltage error. A set of unit vectors is estimated from grid voltages to synchronize output currents of VSC. The estimated reference grid currents are compared with sensed grid currents and a hysteresis current controller is used to generate switching logic for VSC. The detailed formulation for control algorithm is presented in the later half of this section.
In joint J 4 , a gear train with a speed reduction ratio of 0.5 was used. A PEA can exert large force when x sl is small, as shown in Figure 9. Therefore, the PEA is considered to be of greater advantage for small ranges of motion. For example, in the case of φ 4 = 20 ° without the gear and r = 15 mm, T AM4 was calculated to 0.746 Nm. When the gear train was mounted and the angle of the output shaft of the train was set to φ 4 = 20 ° , the required input pul- ley angle was only 10 ° , and the calculated T AM4 was 0.554 Nm. Although the output angle and speed are inversely proportional to the output torque in a normal gear train, in this case the output torque was greater than 50% (0.554/0.746 = 74.26%) when the output angle doubled. In the case of φ 4 = 30 ° , the output T AM4 without and with the gear (for an input pulley angle of 15 ° ) was 0.384 Nm and 0.464 Nm, respectively. That means that the output angle remained unchanged, and the output torque improved to 0.464/0.384 = 120.83%. Installation of a gear train has a disadvantage in that it increases the weight and may delay the response. However, this can be a useful trade-off depending on the rotational range.
collected. After a connection request arrives, link cost is assigned by using either the physical link distance or the Q-penalty expressed in equation (3.1) depending on the chosen routing approach (i.e., shortest path routing and IA routing, respectively). Then, k routes are calculated between the source and the destination of the connection request using iteratively Dijkstra algorithm (for the detailed computation, check Paper II). After that these routes are analyzed one by one. If there is at least one common available wavelength on every link of the route under consideration, this route is then stored in the set of candidate routes. At the end of this process if no route is found, the connection request is blocked. In the case of shortest path routing, the candidate route with the shortest physical distance is selected first, and then its BER is computed. While in the case of traditional IA routing, i.e., IABP algorithm, and our ICBR-Diff, the BER of every candidate route is calculated. With IABP the candidate route with minimum BER is then selected. For both shortest path and IABP, the BER of the selected route is compared against a single signal quality threshold regardless of the signal quality requirement of the connection request. If the BER is greater than the threshold, the connection request is blocked. In contrast, in our ICBR-Diff approach the BER of each candidate route is compared against the signal quality requirement of the connection request, i.e., different BER thresholds according to the request needs, and the route with the highest BER, which satisfies the signal quality requirement, is selected. After that the first available wavelength is assigned to the chosen route.
Even smartphone manufacturers are implementing fingerprint sensors in their products or developing fingerprint sensors for smartphones for improving smartphone security. Hencethe security of the password input process, which is the weakest link in controlling user access to smartphones or SNSs, can be improved by using fingerprint verification, as shown in Figure 3. More, over, this method can be used not only for smartphone unlocking and access but also for user verification in various smartphone applications.
Future directions include a marketing campaign tar- geted at faculty and instructors to promote LibGuides. Initially, we chose not to market the Research Help link in Canvas actively until we were certain the program was stable and the coding functioned consistently. In winter 2016, the library’s graphic designer created a print postcard to send to all teaching faculty and instructors at the USU main campus as well as the University’s regional campuses. Before we mailed the cards, we gathered feedback from a small group of faculty members and edited the postcards based on their responses. This marketing will help with general awareness and will hopefully help faculty identify LibGuides as a resource. We will encourage subject librar- ians to follow up with their faculty members, answer any questions about customizing guides, and continue to col- lect statistics on LibGuide usage and requests for specific course guides from faculty members.
As the dominant optical transport network architecture, SONET/SDH provides a well-known robust survivability mechanism, the self-healing ring. It is actually a link-based dedicated loop-back recovery scheme. The building block of SONET networks are rings and every link is incorporated in a ring. When a link failure occurs, the service connection will be automatically loop-backed along the ring. However, a ring based WDM network architecture suffers from low cost-efficiency and scalability, so a mesh-based architecture is more promising . Following the idea of self-healing ring, several ring-based protection schemes have been proposed for the mesh-based WDM network. Among them are the ring covers scheme , which finds the minimum number of rings to cover all links and every link is protected by its ring cover in the same way as the SONET/SDH self-healing ring, and the p-cycle scheme , which does not require every link to be covered by a ring. Links on the p-cycle are protected as in the ring cover, but links not covered by p-cycle will be protected by the loop-back paths along the p-cycle that they interconnected with. A generalized loop- back recovery scheme was proposed recently in . The merits of the approach is that a primary digraph consisting of a set of fiber links and wavelengths is backed up by another backup digraph consisting of a set fiber links and wavelengths in the reverse direction of the primary digraph. This scheme enables the distributed operation for link or node failures and is proved simpler and more cost-efficient than the ring cover and p-cycle schemes. The main drawback of the above loopback methods is the high management overhead to maintain the rings or loopback digraphs. They also suffer from high time complexity.
Assume that a voice channel occupies a bandwidth of 4 kHz. We need to combine three voice channels into a link with a bandwidth of 12 kHz, from 20 to 32 kHz. Show the configuration, using the frequency domain. Assume there are no guard bands.
Yet in the literature addressing the potential link with performance, the analysis of the correlation structure has been limited to separate elements of lean. Potential synergies between two or three elements tend to be analyzed, thus implying that elements may be perceived as being independent. As an example, we refer to Bou and Beltran (2005: 71), who claimed that “the influence of TQM on organizational results will be greater when its implementation is supported by a high-commitment strategy”, and therefore HRM and TQM should have a synergistic effect on performance. They tested this hypothesis via a structural equation model, where TQM and high commitment management (HRM practices) are two independent latent variables that positively interact on financial performance (Bou and Beltran, 2005: 81, figure 2). They quoted Dwyer (2002: 536) by stating that “a model integrating quality and people [practices] could have an impact on the bottom line of the organization”, but did not test for this integration by assessing whether their two latent variables were correlated and loaded on a single dimension. Moreover, by assuming that the correlation between TQM and the HRM- centered commitment variable is negligible, they contradicted their observation that the correlation could be significant, as an “analysis of the foundations of high-commitment management shows clear parallelism with the quality climate proposed by TQM experts, since both approaches [i.e. TQM and high-commitment management] emphasize employee participation, commitment and trust within the organization” (Bou and Beltran, 2005: 75). In short, despite acknowledging their expectation of integration between OM and HRM, the authors followed the general trend in the literature and limited the investigation to synergistic effects. Proposition 1 remains to be tested.
A new type of AC-DC-AC boost MC (boost matrix converter) based on boost circuit is presented, by connecting a boost circuit operating in the state of high frequency to the middle direct current link of AC-DC-AC matrix converter. The voltage transfer ratio of matrix converter is increased through utilizing the voltage increase function of boost circuit. This new topology is analyzed, and the control strategies of rectifier stage, inverter stage and middle boost circuit are studied. The results indicate that the voltage transfer ratio can be higher than 1.0, the output voltage waveform is very close to standard sine wave, and the harmonic contents increase slightly, which is mainly composed of high harmonics around of switching frequency .The Boost Converter provides a higher output voltage than input voltage . Boost converter topology can be seen in Fig 3.