Abstract: Baculoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses which are highly selective for several insect groups. They are valuable natural control agents, but their utility in many agricultural applications has been limited by their slow speed of kill and narrow host speci®city. Baculoviruses have been genetically modi®ed to express foreign genes under powerful promoters in order to accelerate their speed of kill. In our and other laboratories, the expression of genes coding for insect juvenile hormone esterases and various peptide neurotoxins has resulted in recombinant baculoviruses with promise as biological insecticides. These viruses are ef®cacious in the laboratory, greenhouse and ®eld and dramatically reduce damage caused by insect feeding. The recombinant viruses synergize and are synergized by classical pesticides such as pyrethroids. Since they are highly selective for pest insects, they can be used without disrupting biological control. Because the recombinant virus produces fewer progeny in infected larvae than the wild-type virus, they are rapidly out-competed in the ecosystem. The viruses can be used effectively with crops expressing endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis. They can be produced industrially but also by village industries, indicating that they have the potential to deliver sustainable pest control in developing countries. It remains to be seen, however, whether the current generation of recombinant baculoviruses will be competitive with the new generation of synthetic chemical pesticides. Current research clearly indicates, though, that the use of biological vectors of genes for insectcontrol will ®nd a place in agriculture. Baculoviruses will also prove valuable in testing the potential utility of proteins and peptides for insectcontrol.
Fixed-wing aircraft used to apply insecticides should be equipped with standard nozzles or rotary atomizing devices that will deliver the majority of the insecticides in droplets within the range of 100 to 300 microns. Fly 5 to 10 feet above the crop for the most effective insecticide placement and least drift. Mix emulsifiable concentrates with water immediately before application and apply from 1 to 5 gallons of the insecticide-water mixture per acre. For mid- to late-season insectcontrol, particularly “worms,” apply 3 to 5 gallons of total mixture per acre. Fly proper swath widths to obtain complete coverage of the field. Correct swath widths depend on the type aircraft used, weather, number and kind of insects present, and other factors.
Bt-TRAITS FOR CORN: Most corn hybrids now contain one or more Bt traits. Some traits target caterpillar pests including corn borers, cutworms, fall armyworm and corn earworm in the whorl, and corn earworm and fall armyworm in the ears. Hybrids with two or three stacked traits for caterpillar control will be available for the 2011 season. Hybrids also may contain one or more Bt traits for control of western corn rootworms that attack roots during mid-season. Bt-rootworm traits are effective against mid-season rootworms but are NOT effective on seedlings against southern corn rootworm or other soil insects such as wireworms and white grubs. Depending on specific traits, refuge requirements for hybrids with Bt traits are either 20% or 50% of the corn acreage on a farm. Check with seed supplier for a complete list of resistant management restrictions. A table listing various combinations of Bt traits and relative efficacy against pests in Georgia is in the InsectControl section of the current Georgia Corn Production Handbook and on the Georgia Grain web page.
The availability of relatively low-cost, effective chemical insectcontrol allowed growers to realize greater benefits from fertilizer and irrigation inputs, and began a period of concerted effort to maximize yields. During the 10 year period from 1936 to 1945, which preceded the first wide-scale use of organochlorine insecticides in 1946, cotton yields averaged about 251 lbs. of lint cotton per acre. This compares to average yields of about 300 lbs. of lint cotton per acre, or 16 % more, during the first 10 years, 1946 to 1955 that DDT and other organic insecticides were used extensively . In addition, the new insecticides made it possible for growers to use longer season varieties with higher- quality, longer-staple lint, due to their ability to protect plants from weevil damage through an extended fruiting period .
trees with trunk diameters more than 16 inches at chest height, apply two (2) gallons of solution in a circular band from the base of the tree outward for three to four (3-4) feet. Do not irrigate immediately after a soil drench application. Depending on the size and vigor of the tree, the uptake period may vary from one week to three months for larger trees. Insectcontrol will be achieved when the uptake and translocation from the roots to all plant parts (leaves) has occurred.
Fixed-wing aircraft used to apply insecticides should be equipped with standard nozzles or rotary atomizing devices that will deliver the majority of the insecticides in droplets within the range of 100 to 300 microns. Fly 5 to 10 feet above the crop for the most effective insecticide placement and least drift. Mix emulsifiable concentrates with water immediately before application and apply from 1 to 5 gallons of the insecticide- water mixture per acre. For mid- to late-season insectcontrol, particularly “worms,” apply 3 to 5 gallons of total mixture per acre. Fly proper swath widths to obtain complete coverage of the field. Correct swath widths depend on the type aircraft used, weather, number and kind of insects present, and other factors. Insect Pests of Cotton
Public health agencies have long fought rat and mice infestation. With the assistance of sanitarians and pest control operators, rat harborages are located and the owners of the property identified. The BOH sends a written order to the owner or occupant of the affected property requesting abatement and offers professional guidance for long-term preventive alterations to property and structures. If the owner fails to cooperate, the BOH may abate the problem by bringing legal action against the property owner.
Mississippi cotton producers are fortunate to have a wide array of naturally occurring biological control agents that play an im- portant role in managing pest populations. Collectively, these biological control agents are the main method of controlling cotton insect pests in Mississippi. Often the full economic value of these biological agents is not recognized or appreciated. Severe out- breaks resulting in high levels of crop loss or unusually high control costs seldom occur unless natural control has been disrupted. Profitable cotton production would not be possible in Mississippi without the help of these biological control agents. ese biologi- cal agents include predators such as big-eyed bugs, lady beetles, spiders, and minute pirate bugs; parasites such as Cardiochiles, a wasp that parasitizes tobacco budworms; and diseases such as the Neozygites fungal disease, which helps control aphid outbreaks. To gain the maximum economic benefit from the control provided by these natural control agents, growers need to know which species are beneficial, how to identify these species, which pests they attack, what factors enhance their usefulness, when they are most useful, and when they may not provide eﬀective control.
Nematodes enter host through natural body openings or penetrate cuticle. A symbiotic bacterium is released from the nematode gut, which multiplies rapidly and causes rapid insect death. Nematodes feed upon the bacteria and liquefying host, and mature into adults. The nematode life cycle is completed in a few days, and thousands of new infective juvenile nematodes emerge in search of fresh hosts.
Pheromone traps use simple plastic bags, jars or jugs with one way lids (Figure 4). A non-poisonous natural pheromone solution attracts ﬂies into the container from which they cannot escape. Most tack and feed stores stock kits to convert milk jugs or other reusable containers into traps, as well as all-in-one traps. These traps generally work best on house ﬂies, the most common ﬂy pest. These traps generally attract ﬂies within a radius of 100 to 150 feet. Homemade bait jars utilizing raw hamburger or ﬁsh in one inch of water at the bottom of a jar can be made but tend to smell and may attract household pets and wildlife, such as raccoons and opossums. These traps will not catch beneﬁcial insects, as they are not attracted by the pheromone. Stable ﬂies require a different pheromone so check the type of trap you are buying to ensure it will control stable ﬂies. A sticky ﬂy trap is also available that attracts biting ﬂies such as stable ﬂies. They are only available directly from the company. See the resources at the end of this fact sheet for stable ﬂy traps.
t’s a terrible day when the museum staff member finds evidence of an insect eating away at invaluable and irreplaceable material from their museum collection. Emotions can run high and panic can set in as they try to decide how large the infestation is and where it may be coming from. It is at this critical point, though, that it is best to remain calm and scientifically look at the problem. Sex pheromones can prove to be a very valuable tool to pinpoint infestation sources in the situation above if the identified pest has a commercially available lure. Unfortunately, I have seen many institutions shy away from using pheromones only because they do not have all of the facts about them or they have been misinformed. Pheromone traps,
and rewarding hobby. Many novices dream of plucking perfect fruit off trees in their yards. This does not happen without a great deal of work. Control of pests (insects and diseases) is an integral part of the care necessary to achieve good results.
F ruit flies seriously interf e re with the intern a t i o n a l marketing of fruit and vegetable commodities, and thus are a major impediment to economic develop- ment. Few insects have a greater impact on world trade in agricultural produce than fruit flies, and SIT is seen as a major tool within a systems approach to c reate internationally recognised fly free or low pre v a- lence areas to overcome these trade barriers. Fruit flies also cause devastating direct losses requiring inten- sive insecticide treatments to produce worm - f ree fru i t . The resulting damage to non-target beneficial org a n i s m s , d i s ruption of biologically based controls of other o rc h a rd pests, and general contamination of the enviro n- ment, are the other major forces driving the need for more e n v i ronment-friendly methods such as SIT to control fru i t flies.
against the insects concerned. More recently it has been used extensively as an industrial fumigant for stored products, mills, warehouses, ships and railway cars. For this purpose it has now largely replaced hydrogen cyanide. Methyl bromide has also been used as a sterilizing agent, although it has approximately one tenth the activity of ethylene oxide against bacteria and fungi (Bruch, 1961; Richardson and Monro, 1962). Its use for the sterilization of space vehicles in combination with ethylene oxide has been reported by Vashkov and Prishchep (1967). At concentration x time products considerably higher than those needed to kill insects, methyl bromide may also control microorganisms such as Aspernillus spp. and Penicillium spp. in foodstuffs (Majumder, 1954).
Insect nematodes have enormous potential for inoculative and inundative release and control of a wide range of insect pests. They are probably second only to bacteria (i.e., Bt ) in terms of commercially important microbial insecticides. Commercially available species of nematode as bioinsecticide are in three families: Rhabditidae, Steinernematidae, and Heterorhabditidae. Nematodes parasitize their hosts by direct penetration either through the cuticle or natural opening in the host integument (i.e., spiracles, mouth, or anus). Insect death is not due to nematode itself but a symbiotic bacterium that is released upon entry into the host. The symbionts are specific with members of the genus Xenorhabdus associated with the steinernematids and Photorhabdus associated with the heterorhabditids (Lacey and Goettel, 1995). In general, both steinernematids and heterorhabditids tend to do best against soil-inhabiting insects and borers. There have been limited successes when applying to other insects. Strain selection and new formulations may be able to address this limitation. Molecular techniques such as RFLP, RAPD-PCR, AFLP, ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) analysis, satellite DNA analysis have been applied to measure genetic diversity of the nematodes and provide an initial screen to identify useful strains. The development of large- scale in vitro rearing systems and formulations that would allow for adequate shelf life and infectivity in the field are underway. Currently, nematodes are successfully grown in large-scale bioreactors similar to those used for the production of Bt or antibiotics. Formulation by chilling the produced nematodes prior to formulation and then mixing with materials that will enhance their handling, application, persistence, and storage will help to create a commercial venture. Another limitation of nematodes for insectcontrol is their susceptibility to environmental stress, extreme temperature, solar radiation and desiccation. The potential of genetic engineering to enhance these traits is being explored. In addition, genes that confer resistance to insecticide or fungicides could also be incorporated for protective purposes (Harrison and Bonning, 1998).
1 NZ Forest Research Institute Ltd, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua 2 HortResearch, Ruakura Research Centre, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton
The efficacy and safety to plants of mineral spray oils for use against mealybugs were assessed in field trials on persimmon. Repeated applications of oil and adjuvant-enhanced oil in the three months prior to harvest had no deleterious effects on fruit size or quality. Fortnightly applications of such oils in a commercial orchard maintained fruit insect- free. Oil sprays, enhanced with alkylsilicone adjuvant, provided significant control of mealybugs, and mites, in a persimmon orchard subjected to intensive pest pressure close to harvest. Addition of oil to insecticide used at half the recommended rate gave equivalent insectcontrol to the full-rate insecticide regime. Oil had no effect on insecticide residues, which were halved in the half-rate treatment.
Reduction of mosquito populations will, at least, reduce substantially the transmission of malaria disease. One potential method of achieving this reduction is the environmentally-friendly popula- tion control method known as the Sterile InsectControl (SIT) method. The SIT method has so far not been widely used against insect disease vectors, such as mosquitoes, because of various prac- tical difficulties in rearing, sterilization and distribution of the parasite population. For mosqui- toes, male-only release is considered essential since sterile females will bite and so may transmit disease, whereas male mosquitoes do not bite. This work concerns the mathematical modelling of the effectiveness of Sterile Insect Technique for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, when the female sexual preference is incorporated. We found that for a released value of the sterile male mosquito below 40,000, the wild mosquito population decreases over time while the sterile male mosquito popu- lation increases. Therefore, the transmission of malaria and dengue infection declines because the sterile male mosquitoes dominated the environment. We also found that for a released value of the sterile male mosquito above 40,000, the wild mosquito population decreases and the sterile male mosquito population decreases as well. Therefore, if the injection of sterile male mosquitoes is large enough, the environment will be rid of mosquitoes over time. The result also shows that if sexual selection is incorporated into a reaction diffusion system, modelling the spread of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) will still be a successful control measure.
Bats play a relevant action in the protection of economically important crops against lepidopteran pests. Insects considered as pests, often concentrate in large quantities in cultivated landscapes, have been found in the diet of several species of bats. To install artificial roosts (bat boxes) can be a real important way to protect bats and to be very useful to agriculture as well. In the Ebro Delta (Spain), where there are some of the largest European rice paddies, soprano pipistrelle, Pipistrellus pygmaeus , acts as efficient biological controller of one of the most devastating pest, the rice striped borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). In this area several bat boxes have been installed; they accommodate up to 4,500 bats and have greatly reduced the deleterious impact of this pest on rice crops, minimizing the use of insecticides (Flaquer et al. 2011). In France 24 samples were analyzed from droppings collected under artificial lodgings (bat boxes) on the edge of an olive orchard (sampling in September and October during the fly flight period). Four PCR tests were performed and the results show that six samples of bat droppings are po- sitive showing an adult predation of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), by Pipistrellus kuhlii (Ricard et al. 2008). The less pesticides used on crops the less we take in when we eat. Bats are among the best friends to organic farmers. They play a role in pest control and attracting bats to farms can make a significant difference to farmers who want to use natural biological insectcontrol, rather than rely upon chemicals that may threaten our environmental and personal health.
Biological implications of the model’s predictions The present study shows that the hovering flight of the model insect is unstable but controllable; this implies that the model insect must stabilize its flight by active control. The model predicts that the flight could be stabilized by feeding back pitch rate, pitch attitude and horizontal velocity. The sensor system of the insects must measure these feedback signals. Existing experimental data on sensor system of insects show that hoverflies and many other insects can provide those feedback signals. The pitch rate information might come from the compound eyes and also, for Diptera, from the mechanosensory halteres (e.g. Blondeau and Heisenberg, 1982; Nalbach, 1993; Dickinson, 1999; Sherman and Dickinson, 2003) [with both the compound eyes and the halteres, fruit flies could sense a wide