Insight problem solving

Top PDF Insight problem solving:

The interactive effects of associative response priming and personality traits on insight problem solving over time

The interactive effects of associative response priming and personality traits on insight problem solving over time

and richly emotional life. In other words, individuals with high emotional creativity can produce new, different, and effective emotional responses and can reflect on someone’s true values and beliefs. Empirical studies have suggested emotional creativity plays an important role in creativity. Ivcevic et al. (2007) found emotional creativity was significantly correlated with participants’ creativity performance on poem writing. Although it is claimed emotional creativity plays an important role in behavioral creativity (Ivcevic et al., 2007), no studies have been conducted to investigate the relationships among emotional creativity, priming, and insight problem solving. According to Averill (1999), emotional creativity requires a divergent thinking process and a generation of appropriate and original responses. It can involve a manipulation and transformation of experience that leads to problem solving in the domain of emotions. In a related study, Zemack- Rugar et al. (2007) demonstrated valanced emotion concepts could be unconsciously activated, but remained inaccessible to conscious awareness and affected behavior in an emotionally specific way. The affect-as-information theory, which assumes emotional processes occur without conscious awareness, provides a framework for a cognitive approach to understanding the unconscious influence of emotion on behavior; affective feelings allow people to explicitly learn about their implicit judgments and decisions (Skandrani-Marzouki & Marzouki, 2010). Broaden- and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998) also suggests positive emotions can extend a person’s thought-action repertoires. These findings suggest emotional creativity may interact with priming and, further, influence insight problem solving.
Show more

20 Read more

Mitigating the effects of implicit constraints in verbal insight problem solving through training

Mitigating the effects of implicit constraints in verbal insight problem solving through training

As reviewed earlier in Chapter 3 (.section 3.3.2), the earliest study cited that attempted some form of generic training for verbal insight problem solving was by Wicker et al. (1978). Two experiments were conducted which revealed that training in a reformulation strategy that encouraged problem solvers to keep changing their view of the problem to avoid making unnecessary assumptions was sufficient in raising the solution rate to 68% (Experiment 2) when compared to a visualisation condition that required participants to form a detailed visual representation o f the problem. Training entailed practice with solution feedback on eight problems in Experiment 1 and three problems in Experiment 2. Although the results are promising, the study incurred methodological criticisms. That is, the reformulation strategy was not specified in detail and participants were not given practice in identifying and rejecting incorrect assumptions. Further, a list of the training and test problems was not provided which makes it difficult to assess the transfer relationship between the conditions. Finally, verbal protocols were not collected, therefore it was now known to what extent training was applied during problem solving. The above criticisms are addressed in the experiment reported in this chapter.
Show more

231 Read more

Event Related Potential Effects Associated with Insight Problem Solving in a Chinese Logogriph Task

Event Related Potential Effects Associated with Insight Problem Solving in a Chinese Logogriph Task

This brief review indicates that insight involves complex cognitive processes as reflected in activation in multiple regions of brain (Luo, 2004; Qiu et al., 2008). For the electrophysio- logical substrates of insight, there has been only one component (N380 or N320) observed that may reflect the process of breaking mental set or cognitive conflict (Mai et al., 2004; Qiu et al., 2006). Although it is indispensable to break the mental set in order to reach insight, the formation of novel association may be crucial to insight as well (Bowden & Beeman, 2003 & 2007; Beeman, et al., 2004; Luo, 2004; Luo & Niki, 2003; Luo, Niki, & Phillips, 2004), as insight is one form of creativity. So far no study has looked at how novel association is reflected in the ERPs. One possibility is that there are mulitple ERP re- sponses under the catalyzed paradigm associated with breaking mental set and new association formation. Thus, it is hypothe- sized that an ERP response similar to N380 or N320 will be elicited, which may reflect breaking mental set, later, some more ERP effects would be observed which may be related to new association formation.
Show more

5 Read more

Developing and Evaluating Visual Analogies to Support Insight and Creative Problem Solving

Developing and Evaluating Visual Analogies to Support Insight and Creative Problem Solving

The processes in creative problem solving might be the same as in insight problem solving. However, design practitioners prefer to describe them somewhat differently. For example, in the preparation stage, a designer considers how “to create a new product” and not “to find out what is the problem here”. In essence, they follow the same stages to reach their final goals, except that in the creative problem solving process, the individual inspects the “potential new product” in a non-analytical fashion using intuition, experience and memory to define the relationships between the product features, while in the insight problem solving process, the individual is solely focused on finding and understanding the problem in the initial stage. In contrast, designers are more likely to present a set of flexible, ill-defined tasks that evoke a variety of responses and any number of potential candidates that could lead to a solution to the presented problem. In the initial phase, the imaginary representations of the product are built, then, by scanning the environment, impressions are gathered (e.g., through sketching, drawing) to externalise these mental images and use as references for later stages. This stage places more emphasis on the use of imagination and intuition rather than rational processes, which are not totally discounted but play a secondary role in creative problem solving. Usually, the resources and tools designers use in the search for their concepts are very different, as is each individual’s mindset and the setting and location in which the creative act takes place. In a chapter on problem solving and situated cognition, David Kirsh (2009, p. 268) writes: “If we could appreciate the abstract in the concrete, we would recognise analogies and be able to transfer learning from one domain to another more readily than we do. The reason we do not is because our understanding of problems is usually tied to the resources and tools at hand. We are hampered by the mindset appropriate to the setting in which our activity takes place”.
Show more

348 Read more

A brighter side to memory illusions: False memories prime children's and adults' insight-based problem solving

A brighter side to memory illusions: False memories prime children's and adults' insight-based problem solving

McDermott, 1995) as well as Underwood’s (1965) original implicit associative response model. For example, Kershaw and Ohlsson (2004) discovered that insight problem solving involves searching through related concepts in memory for relevant information. Bowden et al. (2005) also suggested that insight-related problem solving involves the activation of concepts in memory, including ones that are unrelated to the solution, followed later by the weak activation of concepts that are critical to the solution. Indeed, research has already shown that true memories can be used to prime problem solving and reasoning tasks successfully (e.g., Kokinov, 1990), so it may not be too far-fetched to anticipate that false memories might also prime problem solutions. In fact, some evidence has recently emerged showing that at least for adults, false memories can and do prime solutions to CRAT problems. However, this priming only occurred when the critical lure was falsely remembered on a recall test and not simply due to the presentation of a DRM list whose critical lure was not falsely recalled (Howe, Garner, Dewhurst, & Ball, in press).
Show more

16 Read more

An Introduction to Engineering Problem Solving

An Introduction to Engineering Problem Solving

SUMMARY This chapter introduces the types of problems solved by engineers. These problems are usually solved by a team of specialists in technical disciplines. Engineering prob- lems can be divided into two broad categories: design problems and analysis problems. Analysis problems require calculating or measuring the physical properties of a given system. Analysis problems are generally well defined and have a single correct solution. In contrast, design problems are open ended and have many correct solutions. A design problem solution usually requires the creation or invention of a system that has specified properties. The solution to a design problem is therefore a product, machine, or system that meets a human need. Both classes of problems require a methodology or step-by-step procedure to solve. We will present this procedure in detail for both types of problems in later chapters.
Show more

10 Read more

Thematic problem solving: a case study on an approach to teaching problem solving in undergraduate mathematics

Thematic problem solving: a case study on an approach to teaching problem solving in undergraduate mathematics

The current article presents a case study of an approach to problem solving that highlights the character of different subjects in mathematics (for example analysis, algebra etc.) and enables students to develop a library of techniques that provide insight into developing strategies. The proposed strategy utilises a stepwise approach, influenced by Polya’s work, as well as Mason et al. but also aims to develop the notion of strategic knowledge (Mayer, 1992). However, our approach differs in the content of workshop sessions from the discursive model, described by Lakatos (1976) for example, and instead uses similar ideas from Realistic Mathematics Education, (Freudenthal, 1968 and 1973), discussed below to discover, study and reflect on themes.
Show more

6 Read more

Distributed Problem Solving and Planning

Distributed Problem Solving and Planning

Plan synchronization need not be accomplished strictly through communication only. Using messages as signals allows agents to synchronize based on the comple- tion of events rather than reaching specific time points. But many applications have temporal features for goals. Manufacturing systems might have deadlines for fabricat- ing an artifact, or delivery systems might have deadlines for dropping off objects. For these kinds of applications, where temporal predictions for individual tasks are fun- damentally important, the formulation of distributed plans can be based on scheduling activities during fixed time intervals. Thus, in these kinds of systems, the individual planners can formulate a desired schedule of activities assuming independence, and then plan coordination requires that the agents search for revisions to their schedules to find non-conflicting times for their activities (which can be accomplished by DCHS (see 3.0)). More importantly, different tasks that the agents pursue might be related in a precedence ordering (e.g. a particular article needs to be dropped off before another one can be picked up). Satisfying these constraints, along with deadlines and resource limitation constraints, turns the search for a workable collective schedule into a dis- tributed constraint satisfaction problem.
Show more

34 Read more

Design as interactions of problem framing and problem solving

Design as interactions of problem framing and problem solving

3) Sentences “Try proving that λλλλ holds.” represent a recursive step returning to level 1 of the model, and a designer’s attempt to address the unresolved issue by amending one or another available knowledge space. It is a kind of ‘order’ to an agent to evaluate the predicate λλλλ with the new arguments provided. Let us describe two reasoning schemas that are explainable di- rectly from the proposed recursive model. Note that these are not problem solving methods. They are proposed as abstract models of certain types of reasoning that may be observed in a conceptual de- sign. Due to limited space, we discuss in detail only two patterns showing frame amendment. First, it is a non-monotonic introduction of new knowledge refining the frame in a form of assumptions. The second schema is an example of conceptual re-framing.
Show more

6 Read more

Perspectives on problem solving in educational assessment: analytical, interactive, and collaborative problem solving

Perspectives on problem solving in educational assessment: analytical, interactive, and collaborative problem solving

To this end, we need to acknowledge that problem solving is not a consistent field of research even though the definitions of problem solving in PISA have a lot in com- mon. This situation is clearly reflected by the different assessment instruments found in the PISA cycles over the last decade. However, besides the differences mentioned, there is considerable overlap with regard to the cognitive processes that have been targeted (e.g., the notion of knowledge acquisition and knowledge application is found in all conceptualizations of PISA) and with regard to the intention to move beyond the mere assessment of domain-specific abilities in the context of an educational large-scale as- sessment. To further deepen our understanding of problem solving—be it embedded into a specific content domain (OECD, 2003), as an individual transversal skill (OECD, 2012), or in collaboration with others (OECD, 2015)—further research needs to address the theoretical understanding and the empirical side of problem solving. In order to make some suggestions for this facilitation, we will next describe how bringing together edu- cational assessment and cognitive science, in which problem-solving research is rooted, may benefit both sides and the field of problem solving in general. Originally, research on problem solving emerged in experimental cognitive psychology (cf. Jonassen, 2007), and a strong link between educational assessment and cognitive psychology has yet to be established despite the potentials inherent in such integration. We see several ways in which the cooperation between the disciplines of cognitive psychology and educational assessment can be further extended in the future. For instance, open questions in assess- ment could be addressed by experimental laboratory studies, whereas log data provided by computer-based assessment in LSAs may prove valuable for understanding cognitive processes and behavioral patterns.
Show more

21 Read more

The Effects of Creative Problem Solving Training on Cognitive Processes in Managerial Problem Solving

The Effects of Creative Problem Solving Training on Cognitive Processes in Managerial Problem Solving

Evidence has supported the effectiveness of the Osborn-Parnes CPS model on enhancing one’s creative thinking ability (e.g., Basaduar, Graen & Green, 1982 Fontenot, 1992; Titus, 2000; Wang & Horng, 2002). More recently, it begins to have some supports for its effects on actual work outputs and problem-solving processes. For example, Fontenot (1992) employed CPS train- ing to 62 american business managers. Thirty-four participants’ post-CPS problem solving per- formance in solving a business case was compared to the pre-CPS problem solving performance of the other 28 managers. The results showed that eight hours of the CPS training significantly in- creased a participant’s problem-solving performance measured by the fluency in data finding, and the fluency and flexibility in problem finding. Wang Horng 2002 made an attempt to inves- tigate the effects of CPS training on R D performances with 106 R D workers of a large manu- factory company in Taiwan. Seventy-one of them volunteered to participate in the CPS training and were divided into three groups. Each group received 12 hours for CPS training and two fol- low-up training sessions over a one-year period in a time-series design. The results showed that participant’s scores on fluency and flexibility of ideas were higher after the CPS training. In terms of R D performance, participants’ number of co-authored service projects increased significantly from pretest to posttest, whereas no such change was observed among the remaining 35 R D workers who did not participate in the CPS. The purpose of this study is to examine whether or not the effect of CPS can be extended to cognitive processes in managerial problem solving.
Show more

18 Read more

Action and Analogical Problem Solving.

Action and Analogical Problem Solving.

There is also evidence that adults can benefit from guided enactments during abstract reasoning. Catrambone, Craig, and Nersessian (2006) examined the relationship between action during the explanation of a story involving a ‘converging forces schema’, and the subsequent application of this schema to a novel problem, in a method adapted from Gick and Holyoak (1980, 1983). Participants read a story (‘Rebel Leader Story’; Appendix A) about a rebel leader attacking a dictator’s fortress. To avoid setting off sensitive mines, he had to split his army into weaker sub- armies and have them ‘converge’ at the dictator’s compound. After studying the story for 3 minutes participants either: 1) verbally recounted the story without gesture, 2) recounted the story with a simple drawing, or 3) recounted the story in physical space using a set of wooden blocks to represent the armies and the dictator’s compound.
Show more

34 Read more

Solving The Stefan Problem with Kinetics

Solving The Stefan Problem with Kinetics

Phase-changes, or the Stefan problems in which material melts or solidifies occur in a wide variety of natural and industrial processes. Mathematically, these are special cases of moving-boundary problems, in which the location of the front between the solid and liquid is not known beforehand, but must be determined as a part of the solution [8]. The basic partial differential equation is heat transfer equation, never- theless, solving the problem is not straightforward due to the moving boundary. In general, when solving the problem, the technique should be able to track the mov- ing boundary. Stefan problems model, many real world and engineering situations [16, 46]. Examples include solidification of metals, freezing of water and food, crystal growth, casting, welding, melting, ablation, etc. Many numerical methods have been used for solving the Stefan problems. Crank [8] as well as Lynch and ONeill [38] provide a comprehensive summary of the numerical methods used for this type of problems. Phase-change problems have always remained an active area of research. Analytical progress in the solution of Stefan problems has remained very limited and usually unavailable. In one-dimensional Stefan problem we wish to determine the free boundary (sufficiently smooth) which is given by x = s(t) and the temperature solution u(x, t). In this paper, we consider the modified one-phase Stefan problem and seek a solution (u(x, t), s(t)), which satisfies the one-dimensional heat equation
Show more

13 Read more

PROBLEM SOLVING FOR NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICING

PROBLEM SOLVING FOR NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICING

The police are responsible for reducing crime, but in many cases other organisations will be more able to solve a particular problem. For example, a response to street prostitution is to block off one end of each affected street, turning through streets into dead ends. The police cannot do this, but local government organisations can. The better you understand a problem, the easier it will be to identify what partners and the public can do. Working with others is key to problem solving: most responses will be more effective if they involve partner organisations, and many problems can only be solved by others. In these cases, the role of the police is to co- ordinate the SARA process.
Show more

24 Read more

Mathematical Creativity and Problem Solving

Mathematical Creativity and Problem Solving

reach  a  conclusion,  or  what  solution  path  to  take.    The  fifth  problem-­‐solving  prompt  gave  students  the   freedom  to  set  up  a  starting  point.    It  was  up  to  them  to  place  points  on  the  indicated  lines,  but  with  no   specific  limitations  other  than  to  use  points  on  the  indicated  lines.    Problem-­‐solving  activity  #5  was  very   open-­‐ended,  giving  students  no  starting  or  ending  point.    There  was  room  for  creativity  and  originality   throughout  this  prompt,  but  the  prompt  seemed  to  be  too  open-­‐ended  for  the  fact  that  the  students   had  no  guidance  in  reaching  a  conclusion.    The  most  effective  problem-­‐solving  prompts  in  promoting   creative  approaches  are  open-­‐ended  problems,  with  a  starting  point,  that  provide  opportunities  for   students  to  use  multiple  solution  paths  to  reach  a  conclusion.    It  is  also  important  that  the  prompts   provide  a  high  level  of  cognitive  demand,  but  require  a  skill  and  ability  level  that  is  appropriate  for  the   student  population,  and  will  allow  students  to  maintain  a  state  of  flow.  
Show more

59 Read more

A Talk Framework for Problem-Solving

A Talk Framework for Problem-Solving

beneficial. However, even with clear prompting from the researcher regarding the extent to which individuals were to think-aloud (see ‘interviewer’s monologue’ above), it was considered likely that verbalisations might well be inconsistent due to the combined demands of working alongside peers, tackling a ‘new’ mathematical problem, and attending to the requirements of the think-aloud protocol (this informs the student teachers’ “psychological situation” (Rotter, 1954) discussed below in 6.2). Such inconsistent or ‘incomplete’ verbalisations might then lead to difficulty identifying, for example, whether any “analogical problem solving” (Robertson, 2001, p.15), or indeed any other kind of problem-solving, was being employed (this was presuming, of course, that discussing this would be valuable for the student teacher participants). Additionally, if the task set was (or appeared to be) relatively simple, then participants might take ‘short cuts’ to providing the answer; thinking- aloud might not be as relevant if the problem was not especially taxing. Robertson (2001) refers to such short cuts as “fast and frugal heuristics” that require little in the way of computational effort, and this can be related to Kahneman’s (2011) “system 1 and system 2” thinking as discussed above in 2.6.4. “System 1”, in this case, is the “fast and frugal” system 10 ., whilst “system 2” is the ‘slower’ and more deliberative thinking that involves paying greater attention to potentially misleading statements in a question or questioning what seems to be immediately apparent, and double- checking as necessary to see that results are in line with the question set. In this respect, it provides a further rationale for “looking back” as Pólya (1957) recommends, whilst also indicating that deliberately putting thoughts into words, as a T-AP demands, may be beneficial to ‘test’ for assumptions that may prove misleading (bearing in mind Piaget’s (1929) observation about individuals not wishing to ask questions for fear of others already knowing the answers; this provides one reason for verbalisations being ‘incomplete’).
Show more

318 Read more

Overcoming Barriers and Problem Solving

Overcoming Barriers and Problem Solving

lems are “not evil, but tricky, devious, messy and big, with interacting and evolving dynamics of social societal context” (Leisinger 2015 ). This is supported by research by Pattberg et al. ( 2012 ) who found that less than one quarter of partnerships output aligned directly with their stated goals. Overcoming barriers and problem solving has strong connections to the ‘how’ of partnerships and is often dependent upon context. Context is the sub-heading for the last three stages of the International Civil Society Centre ‘Nine building blocks for successful partnerships’ ( 2014 , p. 14), referenced throughout the storyline. The building blocks were identifi ed for creating successful multi-stakeholder partnerships based on over 15 years of research from successful and failed partnerships (ICSC 2014 ).
Show more

5 Read more

Language Learning as Problem Solving

Language Learning as Problem Solving

LANGUAGE LEARNING AS PROBLEM SOLVING LANGUAGE LEARNING AS PROBLEM SOLVING Modelling logical aspects of Inductive learning to generate sentences in French by ma n and machine M i c h a e l Z O C K Gil[.]

6 Read more

Problem Solving in Rheumatology

Problem Solving in Rheumatology

Index CCL2 162 CD4* T lymphocytes 93 in Sjogren's syndrome 129 celecoxib, cardiovascular risk 61- 2, 63 CENP antibodies 132 central core disease 253 central nervous system involvement Be[r]

18 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...