Testing and certification services industry plays an important role in daily life of the Hong Kong community as well as in our external trade, e.g. medical testing support in the diagnosis of illnesses, and testing and inspection services for consumer products manufactured in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta Region. It also provides certification services for management systems. According to statistics published by the Census and Statistics Department of the HKSAR Government in 2017, the value added of the industry was $15 billion in 2017 (or 0.5% of GDP). On the other hand, employment stood at 13960 persons in 2016 (or 0.4% of total employment), increased by 2.4% from 18280 persons in 2017 . These substantial and increasing figures indicated that there was continuous growth of the TIC industry because of its important role in the daily life of the Hong Kong community and in external trade. Although there is no further detailed explanation of these professionals’ requirements, it acknowledges that technical knowledge and skills are essential to support the development of the TIC Industry to cope with the manpower demand. The major sources to supply the manpower or professionals should be the higher education institutes. Hence, there is a need to review the job competency required by the TIC stakeholders, the competency standards for TIC industry, the curriculum in higher education institutes in order to find out if there is skill mismatch in TIC.
ABSTRACT: This paper presents a nondestructive testing method in evaluating bridge condition in comparison with visual inspection that has been used for ages. While condition ratings are all qualitative and defined primarily as sets of visual indicators in routine inspection, nondestructive testing are more quantitative and has large potential in determining damages inside the structure that are not visible. Hence, an attempt to integrate the nondestructive evaluation and bridge management system has been carried out by several researchers. This study is aimed to determine bridge strength through non- destructive testing and thus establish correlation between visual inspection rating and the nondestructive testing results. 75 concrete bridges under the supervision of Public Works Department (Malaysia) have been selected for the preliminary testing which includes the Rebound Hammer test, Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity, and electromagnetic cover meter. However, this paper will only discuss the methodology and results from Rebound hammer test. Generally, this study indicates good correlation between visual rating and strength from Rebound Hammer result. Ratings assigned to the bridge during visual inspection are within an acceptable range in reflecting the bridge strength. Rebound hammer has a potential to be a preliminary test in evaluating the bridge condition. However, since the nondestructive testing is not always readily available and there may be problems occurred with the lack of experienced inspectors to conduct the test, the implementation of this method in routine inspection may be limited. Therefore, an initial study to develop an intelligent rating system combining both nondestructive test data and visual inspection rating has been conducted in the later stage of this research as part of the solution to this problem.
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In order to do this, a representative sample of timber specimens must be assessed and tested to destruction in order to establish a basis for prediction. This is generally not possible to do with historical, in-situ timber and so, for this study, testing has been carried out on new structural sized timber joists in conjunction with other testing and timber grading work being undertaken at Edinburgh Napier University. This removes some of the unknown factors encountered in inspection and allows a focus on the predictive power of inspection methods. The work described here has been carried out as part of the first year of PhD research into the subject of combining NDT and SDT together with visual assessment. It is hoped that the output of the PhD research will be of use to practitioners assessing the mechanical properties of in-situ timber for change of use, renovation or repair.
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In order to also reduce cervical cancer among older cohorts of women unprotected by the vaccination pro- gram, in 2013, the Rwandan Ministry of Health (MoH) initiated a screening campaign. This campaign was based on primary careHPV testing and the use of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) to triage careHPV- positive women for treatment . Indeed, WHO guide- lines for cervical screening in low and middle income countries (LMIC) include an algorithm of high-risk (HR) HPV-testing followed by VIA triage as one of its three recommended screen-and-treat options . Although some experiences have since been reported [6 – 8], WHO recommendations acknowledged that there was no
The organizations further improve the quality of software products by driving the testing process with statistical sampling, measurement of confidence levels, trustworthiness and software reliability goals. This goal is stronger than the software quality evaluation goal at level. It may be recalled that the quality evaluation goal focuses on different kinds of software qualities such as functionality, reliability, usability, and robustness. Automated tools are used for defect collection and analysis. Usage modeling is used to perform statistical testing, where a usage model is selected from a subset of all possible usages of the software. From statistical testing one can conclude the general operational performance of the software product. Subgoals that support statistical quality control are as follows:
The fourth element of the cable CM program is the identification of stressors affecting cable systems and their associated aging/failure mechanisms. By identifying these stressors, and quantifying their severity, the cable engineer can determine the primary aging and failure mechanisms that will affect each cable circuit. These are the processes that the cable CM program inspection and testing activities must be able to detect and monitor, since they can cause degradation or other damage that may, over time, lead to the ultimate failure of a cable system. This information may then be used by the cable engineer, in cable CM program element 5, to select the most effective CM inspection and testing techniques for detecting and monitoring the anticipated aging/failure mechanisms.
Therefore, the present study evaluated the applicability of the nondestructive microwave testing for crack detection us- ing straight metallic tubes 7 m in length. Seamless tubes were used because an earlier study found that flange connections, which connected many short tubes to simulate a long straight tube, caused reflections comparable to those due to a crack 9) .
source for the deployment of the equipment and infrastructure required for undertaking testing activity. Both the input (raw materials) and the output including final products and services are tested for conformance and requirements. Apart from this, the on-going process is continuously checked for its performance, which is called in-process inspection. Audited data on past processes formed the input as a reference for the inspection. Contractual specifications, inspection and test plan control the inspection and testing activity to ensure that testing are not unnecessarily performed and are done right towards the overall objective of the project. All data and results obtained through this process are recorded for future use.
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Non-destructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and technology industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage. The terms non-destructive examination (NDE), non-destructive inspection (NDI),and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) are also commonly used to describe this technology. Because NDT does not permanently alter the article being inspected, it is a highly valuable technique that can save both money and time in product evaluation, troubleshooting, and research.
Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide with 530000 new cases every year and the second most common cancer in resource limited countries . Due to its long pre- invasive phase it is preventable and easily identifiable by clinical and pathological examinations. Identification and treatment of the precursors of cervical cancer can be done through screening by various screening methods. Screening methods for cervical cancer such as visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid (VIA), Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing on cervical and vaginal samples for the detection of CIN are reported in various study settings [2-6]. HPV-DNA testing has demonstrated a better yield over Pap and VIA conventional tests of cervical screening. Physician collected cervical sample for HPV (CHPV) is preferred over self-collected vaginal sample (VHPV) testing to detect high risk HPV as indicated through review based studies . Single test approach by adopting any cervical screening test in isolation often lacks adequate performance in the detection of high grade CIN. Low sensitivities for cobas HPV testing and Pap testing were observed in ATHENA trial [8,9], which suggest routine cytology and HPV co-testing offering greatest protection against cervical cancer . There was only a single large US study that adopted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved co-testing strategy of cytology with Hybrid Capture (HCII) to assess the safety of routine clinical practice of three years screening intervals, using concurrent testing for HPV and cytology among women aged 30 years or older . Investigating and exploring co-testing of the tests such as VIA, Pap and HPV would be of help to better understand different combination specific co-testing performance of tests for the detection of high grade CIN. Some studies have reported
A critical review of the available literature concerning the minimum reliably detectable defect size aNDI for Magnetic Particle Testing (MPT) in aerospace applications is presented. Four Probability Of Detection (POD) studies relevant to detection of fatigue cracks in aircraft components were found over the period 1968 to 2011.as the statistical method used in these four previous studies were either outdated or otherwise deficient, the original data were reanalyzed using currently accepted techniques. A meta-analysis of the results is presented, with emphasis on statistical inferences for the defect size expected to be detected with 90% pod.it is shown that the minimum reliably detectable defect size aNDI=2.0mm currently specified by the royal Australian air force for wet fluorescent magnetic particle inspection using the continuous method is consistent with estimates of the average performance of MPI derived from the reanalyzed of the literature.
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Crevice corrosion  is a well-known damage mechanism in Oil and Gas facilities and is caused by a concentration of corrosive substances within a confined space. The crevice between two adjoining flanges is the ideal environment for initiation of crevice corrosion. Because of the concentration of these corrosive substances in a localized area, rate of corrosion gets accelerated. When flanges are used in very corrosive environments such as sea water, acid service and H2S concentrated drain piping the flange face is particularly susceptible. Corrosion of the sealing area can cause loss of containment and therefore have the potential to cause a release of product with potentially catastrophic consequence. Phased Array Ultrasonic testing technology , was recently introduced by specialized inspection companies, the technology can be used to identify the flange face gasket seating surface condition and extent of corrosion in all types of Carbon Steel flanges (weld neck raised face and ring groove) in the Piping and Pressure vessels while in service and without the need to separate the flange joint. The PAUT technology can be described as a semi-quantitative technique to measure the metal wastage (Crevice corrosion, erosion etc.,) at the flange faces gasket seating area. Defect dimensions are measured in C-Scan image (plan view) and POD  (Probability of detection) is up to 90%. The PAUT technology was validated in the current research by two ways one is by break opening few bolted in-service flanges and also by the use of flanges with artificial defects/flaws and compare them with inspection findings. This research paper is discussing the results for the use of PAUT technology in a large scale inspection survey of the process industries. The paper will discuss results, results validation, technology strength point and limitations. The same is seen as valuable information for all oil and gas operators worldwide.
Besides that, the inspection of model’s parameters lead us to conclude that in our community sample, as in similar studies testing bifactor models and involving both clinical and community participants, all HADS items, except item #14, loaded more highly on the general factor than on each specific group factor. As recom- mended by Cosco et al. , findings like ours should in- duce caution in the interpretation of group factors scores, posing the clinical usefulness of the two subscales as ques- tionable. On the other hand, they support the suitability of a reliable and valid single measure of general psychological distress.
The inspection of a batch of food generally relies on testing a small number of samples. Yet, this low rate of testing still results in a signiﬁcant expenditure for the producer as well as a substantial laboratory workload due to the large number of safety and sanitary characteristics involved. A new double sampling methodology employing a compressed limit in the ﬁrst stage of inspection is introduced. The proposed double sampling plan provides the same or better consumer protection with substantially smaller average sample size and hence it reduces the testing cost and the laboratory workload. This plan is intended for sanitary characteristics where the bacterial count generally ﬁts a Poisson or a mixed-Poisson distribution, resulting in a high proportion of zero values. Optimum determination of the compressed limit, which is set well below the regulatory or speciﬁcation limit, is addressed. The application of the new plan is validated using a large empirical dataset of aerobic plate counts observed in milk powder samples. For this dataset the Poisson-gamma was found to be the best ﬁtting distribution. An interactive web-based tool (shiny app) that allows the design of the new sampling plan is also provided for practitioners and food safety professionals.
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Ultra high strength steels viz. Maraging 250 grade steel, that are used for realising rocket motor casings have a tendency to undergo brittle fracture in the presence of cracks. Thus, it becomes imperative to resort to fracture mechanics for determination of critical crack sizes that could cause a catastrophic structural failure. The flaw sizes that are characterised as critical are then taken as the minimum detectable flaws for NDT. Ultrasonic NDT is an effective method to detect small tight cracks available in weldments. Weld defects are sized/evaluated by comparison with standard reference notches listed in AMS 2632 viz. E, F and G Notches. The weld defects occur with a wide spectrum of geometric shapes and orientation. Hence there is possibility of missing defects of certain orientation and depth when carrying out Ultrasonic inspection with a single angle UT Probe. To overcome this problem during conventional ultrasonic inspection, multiple probes of various beam angles viz. 45deg, 60deg and 70 deg are used to inspect the same weldment. This results in multiple scanning of weldments which is further time consuming. Moreover certain type of defects that have a favourable orientation to the beam may not give the right amplitude echo so as to size it with the above said standard notches. An advanced Ultrasonic Inspection using Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing is implemented where sectorial scanning using various angles is performed on maraging steel weldments. The detection of the various SAE AMS standard reference notches are demonstrated on the welded plates. Phased array Sector scan result is compared with local A-Scan result to arrive at the geometric attributes of the defect.
material caused by repeatedly applied loads. It is the progressive and localized structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic loading. The nominal maximum stress values that cause such damage may be much less than the strength of the material typically quoted as the ultimate tensile stress limit, or the yield stress limit. Flouroscent dye penetrant inspection (FDPI), also called liquid penetrant inspection(LPI) or penetrant testing (PT), is a widely applied and low-cost inspection method used to locate surface-breaking defects in all Non porous materials. The penetrant may be applied to all non-ferrous materials and ferrous materials; although for ferrous components Magnetic particle inspection is often used instead for its subsurface detection capability. FDPI is used to detect casting, forging and welding surface defects such as hairline cracks, surface porosity, leaks in new products, and fatigue cracks on welded in-service components.
Acceptance sampling plays a crucial role in food quality assurance. However, safety inspection represents a substantial economic burden due to the testing costs and the number of quality characteristics involved. This thesis presents six pieces of work on the design of attribute and variables sampling inspection plans for food safety and quality. Several sampling plans are introduced with the aims of providing a better protection for the consumers and reducing the sample sizes. The effect of factors such as the spatial distribution of microorganisms and the analytical unit amount is discussed. The quality in accepted batches has also been studied, which is relevant for assessing the impact of the product in the public health system. Optimum design of sampling plans for bulk materials is considered and different scenarios in terms of mixing efﬁciency are evaluated. Single and two-stage sampling plans based on compressed limits are introduced. Other issues such as the effect of imperfect testing and the robustness of the plan have been also discussed. The use of the techniques is illustrated with practical examples. We considered numerous probability models for ﬁtting aerobic plate counts and presence-absence data from milk powder samples. The suggested techniques have been found to provide a substantial sampling economy, reducing the sample size by a factor between 20 and 80% (when compared to plans recommended by the International Commission on Microbiological Speciﬁcation for Food (ICMSF) and the CODEX Alimentarius). Free software and apps have been published, allowing practitioners to design more stringent sampling plans.
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The techniques involved to evaluate usability includes formal usability, testing, usability inspection, card sort, focus groups, questionnaires, think aloud, analysis of site usage logs cognitive walkthrough, heuristic evaluation, Software Usability Measurement Inventory, Metrics for Usability Standards in Computing, etc. Table 1 gives comparative summary about various usability measurement methods. Following sub-sections describe usability evaluation methods in brief:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------***----------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract- Welding is a process of joining metals or thermoplastics, by using high heat to melt the parts together and allow them to cool causing fusion. Welding is different from other metal joining process like as brazing and soldering which are usually done at lower temperatures without melting the base metal. We basically concentrated on the weld defects which are occurred during and after welding process. Types of testing which are destructive testing and Non-destructive testing (NDT) are performed. With the help of Dye-penetrant inspection the welding defects has been identified for T-Joint and Butt joint. The process involved in Dye-Penetrant inspection are pre-cleaning, application of penetrant, excess penetrant removal, application of developer, inspection, post cleaning.
There were appropriate staff numbers and skill mix to meet the needs of residents on the day of the inspection. The inspector also reviewed the actual and planned rota and found that there was enough staff on duty seven days per week to meet the specific needs of residents outlined in the statement of purpose while taking into account the size and layout of the centre. At the time of the inspection 16 of the 30 residents had their nursing care needs and dependency assessed as maximum care.
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