Yeager (1999:9) explained that the institution becomes the rules of the game in the society that it include regulation establishing society during the interactions. The institutional can reduce uncertainty inherited by the human interaction by creating the pattern of behaviour. The institutions can be defined into two groups. First, the definition refers to the attempt of designing interactional pattern amongst economy agents to perform interactional activities. Secondly, in relation to the purpose, institution is concentrated to create efficiency in economy based on the structure of power in economy, politics and social amongst the agents (Yustika, 2006). The preview on new institutional economy consists of two levels consisting of institutional environment (macro level) and the institutionalarrangement (micro level). The institutional ————————————————
Background: Crop productivity in the highlands of Ethiopia is critically challenged by land degradation and climate change and variability. Massive plantations and several kilometers of soil and water conservation technologies have been practiced in response to those challenges. Yet land degradation and the level of sustainability of the technolo- gies have continued to be critical challenges. Thus, the objective of this research was to examine the sustainability, challenges and future prospect of climate smart community-based soil and water conservation practices. Data were collected using household survey, key informant interview and focus group discussion. Analytic hierarchy process for multi-criteria decision making was used to analyze the sustainability of community-based climate smart practices. Results: The finding revealed that the overall score of the sustainability dimensions was about 67.5%, which lies in the zone of “sustained but at risk.” The institutionalarrangement has limitations in that farmers were involved in imple- mentation phase while there is little room in planning, monitoring and evaluation phases. The major challenges of the soil and water conservation practices were: destruction of the communal forests and structures for personal benefits, overlapping work calendar with irrigation and off-farm works and structures wasted farmland.
is the knowledge invested or knowledge used. a and b is estimated coefficient, π is the opportunity output of knowl- edge input or knowledge application when organized effi- ciently. Enterprises in technological innovation system arrangement and innovation management affect the π size of Logistic equation, which is related to the possibil- ity of original innovation of technology. As a result, the technology of original innovation organization collabora- tive factor mainly includes institutional arrangements fac- tors and its operation factors: institutional arrangements factor is related to the original innovation of enterprise technology business purposes, management strategy, in- novation standard, management organization and the pro- vision of the respect such as business functions, and it is the rule to restraint and incentive primitive innovative personnel behavior, which can be expressed as “s”. Or- ganization operation factor is original innovation of tech- nology enterprise planning, leading, organizing and con- trolling process, expressed as “m”.
A new transformation followed from around 1880. New institutional arrangements and technological shifts could be observed along with new business strategies focusing on animal production and international marketing of processed food (Bjørn, 1982). Co-operatives were introduced as a new mode of collective action based on deliberative competences acquired in continuation of the specific Danish Enlightenment project, and with traces back to institutions from the village communities (Ingemann, 2002). Similarly, rural actors and their intellectual supporters founded private organisations (parcel out associations) to provide farmland for smallholders with lack of sufficient land to provide for themselves and their families according to the productive and reproductive conditions of that time (Skrubbeltrang, 1952, Ingemann, 1997). Again, transformation could be traced in specific landscapes as well as societal fields and spaces of flows.
Our first contribution stems from our finding that both conflicts and their solutions repeatedly reoccurred; similar conflicts were fought with similar arguments, despite decades having elapsed since the first occurrence, with solutions that resembled historical predecessors. Our study provides empirical evidence that institutional multiplicity can endure over a long period of time without logics becoming hybridized, blended or eliminated. While the different logics in our study were combined to constitute relatively stable institutional arrangements, they remained visibly different and recognizable. The uneasy and often conflictual co-existence of different logics in a condition of temporary truce did not result in their blending; the ongoing existence of conflict likely contributed to keeping the logics distinct. For example,
The study evaluated Microfinance as a tool for poverty reduction in Ghana using central region as a case study. A survey design involving quantitative, qualitative and participatory methods within the framework of impact assessment techniques was used. Simple random and stratified sampling methods were employed to select five Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) and one hundred microcredit beneficiaries. The study made use of both primary and secondary data. It was found out that though there are challenges microfinance has a positive impact on poverty reduction. Among the recommendations were that microfinance clients should be trained before and after disbursement of the loan; and also they should be effectively monitored. In addition to the above recommendations it was concluded that if the challenges facing the Microfinance sector (eg; inappropriate institutionalarrangement, poor regulatory environment etc) are addressed microfinance will be a potent tool for poverty reduction not only in Ghana but all developing countries at large. Key Words: Micro Finance, Poverty Reduction, Poverty, Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Microcredit
Dominance of a particular type of matrix means that alternative institutions (‘from the opposite matrix”) are complementary, they complete the institutional structure and make it “whole”. Basic and complementary institutions appear in diverse institutional forms (norms, laws, types of organization, rules, etc.). Total domination of basic institutions, without necessary contribution of complementary institutions, leads to crisis and stagnation. For this reason, western nations, for example, introduce public regulation to fill market failures, centralize power not to let separatism of federal units, invent consolidating ideas of a communitarian type designed to overcome citizens’ and countries’ individualism (up to creation of trans-national units like the European Union with its own Constitution). In countries with X-matrix, in their turn, let us take Russia or Japan, a major concern is how to implant market institutions into the tissue of redistribution relations, to decentralize power and to implement administrative reforms and strengthen the role of local governments. The ideology of such societies has a perpetual task to strengthen individualistic rationality in their people, to encourage self-interest motivation and citizen’s responsibility and to overcome their infantilism and tendency to paternalism.
Mosquitoes were identified morphologically as An. gambiae (s.l.), and were dissected into head and thorax, abdomen, legs and wings. DNA was extracted from legs and wings by alcohol precipitation  and samples stored at -20 °C. DNA extractions were subjected to PCR amplification of the intergenic spacer region of ribosomal DNA following the method of Scott et al.  to identify An. gambiae (s.s.). Previous studies in east Africa have indicated that only the S form is present in this area  and therefore it was assumed that only the S form was present in this study. These same samples were analyzed for presence of the 2La chromosomal arrangement as described by White et al. : primers were designed for amplification of the 2La/a and 2L+ a /+ a proximal breakpoints. The 23A2 and 27A2 primer pairs were used for specific amplification of 492 bp product on the 2La/a break- point, while the DPCross5 and 23A2 primers were used for the 2L+ a /+ a breakpoint, yielding a 207 bp product. Amplicon size was scored on 3 % agarose gels and compared with a molecular weight ladder (Fig. 4). A single band of 207 bp size was scored as a homokaryotypic standard (2L+ a /+ a ), whilst a single band of 497 bp size was scored as the homokaryotypic inverted condition (2La/a). Presence of both bands from a single
In this paper, an alternate method is suggested to put up the posters, which achieve more improvements in reaching the people. The efficiency of the proposed method of arrangement mpared to Bhatt and Jaiswal method has been assessed in terms of reach and frequency. Further we have also presented the values of reach and frequency for these two methods for various values of m and p, where m is the number of posters and p is the probability of seeing the
Phlegmariurus vanuatuensis A.R.Field is described as a new species for plants endemic to the islands of Vanuatu that were previously identified with P. nummulariifolius (Blume) Ching. The Vanuatuan species differs from the widespread Asian-Oceanian species in several characteristics, most notably its acutely divergent leaf arrangement and thicker less branched fertile spikes. Phlegmariurus nummulari- ifolius is here re-circumscribed as plants occurring in Asia and into Oceania as far east as the Solomon Islands, being replaced eastwards by P. vanuatuensis. In addition, new nomenclatural combinations are made for Phlegmariurus australis, a species from Polynesia and for Phlegmariurus copelandianus, a spe- cies from Malesia.
In the HT, a point in an image and a point in a curve de3ne a point spread function (psf) that represents the trace of a curve in an accumulation space whose size is exponentially proportional to the number of free parameters of the shape. By using an invariant char- acterisation, a psf can be reduced to a collection of points in a 2D space whose arguments represent shape’s location. The size of this space is independent of the transformation or complexity of the shape, thus, in- variance provides a general approachfor reducing the computational requirements of the gathering process in the HT. In order to characterise invariance, each point in a model is related to a collection of other points de3ning a geometric arrangement whose properties re- main invariant under a particular transformation. Thus, each point in the model has an invariant characterisation which does not depend on the location of primitives but on the local geometry. The transformation is ob- tained by solving for the parameters according to the arrangement of points de3ned for a point in the im- age and a corresponding arrangement of points for the model withthe same invariant properties. Since for a given point a great number of potential arrangements can be de3ned, then to avoid combinatorial complexity only selected points in the curve are considered as can- didates of the arrangement. In this approach occlusion and points that do not belong to the primitive gener- ate wrong evidence, however, there is no uncertainty associated with the data. Experimental results show that the techniques are capable of extracting arbitrary shapes under occlusion and when the image contains noise.
In the final age, noise control was one of the major requirements to improve the living environment. For example, in the construction sector. The high cost involved in the building and renovation of noise barriers makes the growth of sustainable barriers necessary. One of the methods to execute that is provided by sound absorber. This survey was directed to look into the potency of using reed grass (Imperata Cylindrica) as sound absorbing. Different with the experiments before, this experiment using 3cm length of the reed grass that arranged in vertical arrangement.
Our results suggest the possibility that L2 may be radially permuted relative to the L1 capsomer axis. This model for the organization of L2 is strikingly similar to the arrangement of the polyomavirus minor capsid proteins, VP2 and VP3, relative to the major capsid protein, VP1 (10, 32). Although the similar external appearances of the capsids of polyomaviruses (includ- ing SV40) and papillomaviruses initially led to their phyloge- netic classification within a single family, Papovaviridae, the uncovering of major differences in the genetic organization of the two virus groups eventually led the International Commit- tee on the Taxonomy of Viruses to conclude that the two families never shared a common viral ancestor (discussed in reference 16). However, this judgment has recently been called into question by the discovery of a chimeric polyomavirus/ papillomavirus occurring naturally in an Australian marsupial (52). Furthermore, the view that polyomaviruses and papillo- maviruses never shared a common viral ancestor doesn’t pre- clude the possibility of shared genetic components in the early histories of the two virus families. For example, it seems likely that both virus families originated when an episomal genetic element fortuitously captured a cellular gene that facilitated intercellular transmission of the episome. One class of proteins that might theoretically serve as a protocapsid is embodied by the cellular chromatin chaperone nucleoplasmin, a pentameric protein whose core fold closely resembles that of the polyoma- virus and papillomavirus major capsid proteins (9, 18, 32). In this scenario, the cellular precursor of the minor capsid pro- teins would presumably have been captured in a second re- combination event. Thus, even if the polyomaviridae and pap- illomaviridae never shared a common viral ancestor, it seems possible that the similar structural interrelationship of their minor and major capsid proteins reflects a similar series of gene-capture events occurring during the early histories of the two virus families.
Furniture arrangement in house or in office can be a tedious work if there are too many furniture to be placed in the room or simply people don’t have any idea how to do layout of the furniture. People can either draw up the room and furniture in paper or use computer applications that assist people or they can just arrange furniture right away to see how it looks and fits in the room. In our proposed system, we will use the concept of AR to help people view the furniture in their room without actually placing it in the area.We present an interactive furniture layout Android application that helps users arrange their furniture by simple actions like sliding, pinch-in, pinch-out, etc. This will greatly minimize the user’s time and effort.
The working of graph comparison algorithm joins: First, the graph relationship is completed. To complexity two diagrams it is crucial and distinguishes comparing vertices. By then a rundown of correspondence between the vertices are organized as an orchestrated of virtual edges that join the vertices over the two different diagrams under thought .In our framework, the summary of vertex is the once-over of row and columns from the two d-matrix. A schematic representation of the graph connection is to recognize the related neighborhood likenesses in two diagrams, given a summary of correspondence between vertices from the two graphs. At initially, every one arrangement of correspondence vertices is a substitute social occasion. Plus, regular get- togethers are consolidated reliably by single linkage with a given measure of resemblance. After this joining, the data which is regular from two graphs is collected. By using this resultant data, we make as of late graph (i.e. equivalence between two graphs).This as of late chart is used to fabricate the last d-matrix. This d-matrix is the last yield for our undertaking which is ascended out of the heterogeneous D-matrices .
The environment of the school building and the classrooms play a very important role in a student’s day. The following review of literature reveals some of the research that has been done to show which areas in the school and classroom environments are the most beneficial towards the behavior and education of the students. To better understand the different areas that are of importance to this topic, the review of literature has been divided into seven sections. School building environment, classroom environment, seating preference, classroom spatial needs, seating arrangement, the classroom environment and special needs students, and case studies. Student’s degree of territoriality based on gender and seat preference in different types of classroom arrangements was studied by Kaya and Burgess. The types of classroom arrangements included rows of tablet-arm chairs, U-shaped, clusters, and rows of tables with individual chairs. The study was carried out through a survey at a large public institution in the southeast region of the United States.