Integrated Air and Missile Defense

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Distributed Air & Missile Defense with Spatial Grasp Technology

Distributed Air & Missile Defense with Spatial Grasp Technology

A high-level technology is revealed that can effectively convert any distributed system into a globally programmable machine capable of operating without central resources and self-recovering from indiscriminate damages. Integral mis- sion scenarios in Distributed Scenario Language (DSL) can be injected from any point, runtime covering & grasping the whole system or its parts, setting operational infrastructures, and orienting local and global behavior in the way needed. Many operational scenarios can be simultaneously injected into this spatial machine from different points, cooperating or competing over the shared distributed knowledge as overlapping fields of solutions. Distributed DSL interpreter or- ganization and benefits of using this technology for integrated air and missile defense are discussed along with pro- gramming examples in this and other fields.
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Heterogeneous Air Defense Battery Location: A Game Theoretic Approach

Heterogeneous Air Defense Battery Location: A Game Theoretic Approach

Joint Publication 3-01 (JP3-01) denes Integrated Air Defense Systems not as a formal system itself but as the aggregate of air and missile defense (AMD) systems such as sensors, weapons, C2, communications, intelligence systems, and personnel operating in a theater [33]. These systems can further be distinguished as active AMD or passive AMD. Passive AMD relates to detection, warning, or concealment to minimize the eectiveness of enemy air and missile threats [33]. Our focus aligns closer with active AMD which relies on the use of aircraft, weapons, sensors, and other direct defensive measures to destroy or nullify the eectiveness of air and missile threats [33]. JP3-01 also discusses the importance of streamlined coordination in the decision-making process, highlighting the importance of having air defense assets in place and a strategy for defensive counter air operations, should they be necessary. Finally, the JP3-01 mentions several dierent AMD systems available to the defender such as SAMs, AAA, and electronic warfare systems, which is a motivating feature of this research.
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A Game Theoretic Model for the Optimal Disposition of Integrated Air Defense System Assets

A Game Theoretic Model for the Optimal Disposition of Integrated Air Defense System Assets

We motivate our problem by using Israel’s Iron Dome air defense system as an example. Iron Dome is a short-range anti-rocket system designed to selectively in- tercept short-range rocket threats that are in-flight and targeting population centers. The Iron Dome system consists of a portable missile firing unit, detection radar, and battle management center [5]. This system was designed by Israel to counter attacks from either the Gaza Strip or Syria. The question for Israel, then, is where should they place Iron Dome batteries? Assuming that the main objective of an IADS is to protect valuable assets (e.g., population or infrastructure), the set of decisions involves the location of batteries to protect the most valuable targets. This logic is applicable and will yield the best coverage based on the defender’s valuation of tar- gets. However, if we assume that Hamas, the attacker, knows the layout of Israel’s defense, they may attack smaller, unprotected targets that an IADS system with lim- ited resources cannot protect, or they may attack the most valuable targets that are protected by the IADS if there is a sufficient likelihood of penetrating the air defense. The same argument applies for Hamas. If Hamas seeks to maximize the damage to Israel without consideration of Israel’s defensive resources, they must attack as many valuable targets as possible. However, with Israel’s air defense system there is a probability that a rocket attack is ineffective, which increases with improvements to Israel’s defense.
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Multi-Level Multi-Objective Programming and Optimization for Integrated Air Defense System Disruption

Multi-Level Multi-Objective Programming and Optimization for Integrated Air Defense System Disruption

Oriented against aerial threats to border security, ground-based air defense weapons are emplaced as part of an antiaccess/area-denial (A2/AD) strategy to defend against enemy aircraft attempting to penetrate a country’s border region during active con- flict. Many countries have adopted A2/AD strategies (Schmidt, 2016) and signif- icantly advanced their Surface to Air Missile (SAM) technology. Over the last 10 years, Russia has developed and fielded the S-400 Triumf air defense weapon system which can destroy aerial targets at ranges of 40-400 km (Foss & O’Halloran, 2014). This highly-effective SAM system is capable of engaging the world’s most premier aircraft, as well as cruise missiles and ballistic missiles. Recent reports indicate the Russian military currently operates 39 S-400 battalions, with each battalion consisting of eight launchers and up to 112 missiles, along with radar systems and a command post (Gady, 2017). China, Turkey, India, and Saudi Arabia have all signed contracts for the purchase of multiple S-400 systems from Russia (TAS, 2017). Motivated by this trend in air defense posturing, in this study we construct an air defense test instance as an illustrative border security application.
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CFD Simulations and Wind Tunnel Experiments of a Generic Split-Canard Air-to-Air Missile at High Angles of Attack in Turbulent Subsonic Flow

CFD Simulations and Wind Tunnel Experiments of a Generic Split-Canard Air-to-Air Missile at High Angles of Attack in Turbulent Subsonic Flow

Simulation parameters were dictated by the properties of the Aerodynamics Research Group’s subsonic wind tunnel. Theoretical maximum flow velocity in the tunnel is approximately 70 m/s. Due to detected model vibration at higher angle of attacks, the velocity was limited to U = 45 m/s (Ma = 0.13). The missile model for the wind tunnel experiments was constructed in scale 1:2.5. The Reynolds number referenced on the model’s body diameter of 60 mm was approximately 185,000. The dimensions of the computational grids used in the simulations were scaled to match those of the wind tunnel model. In this way both the Reynolds number and the Mach number are close to each other in the simulations and the experiments. Standard sea level atmosphere values were used for the kinematic viscosity and the speed of sound ( = 14.61 x 10 -6 m 2 /s, a = 340.3 m/s).
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The Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis

By the morning of 25 October, the Soviet leadership had received a tough terse reply to Khrushchev’s defiant pronouncement of the previous day. Kennedy wrote, ‘It was not I who issued the first challenge in this case’. Kennedy underscored his ‘hope that your government will take the necessary action to permit a restoration of the earlier situation’ (May and Zelikow 1997: 421). Khrushchev reconvened the Presidium. He switched to a tone of conciliation. He was ready, he said, to ‘dismantle the missiles to make Cuba into a zone of peace’. He suggested the following: ‘Give us a pledge not to invade Cuba, and we will remove the missiles’. He was also prepared to allow UN inspection of the missile sites. First, though, he wanted to be able to ‘look around’ and be sure that Kennedy really would not yield (Fursenko and Naftali 1997: 240–3). Khrushchev was stirred to action the next day by a series of intelligence reports, some false and based on little more than rumour, warning of imminent American military action against Cuba (Fursenko and Naftali 1997 257–8, 260–2). Khrushchev promptly sent instruc- tions to accept UN Secretary-General U Thant’s proposal for avoiding a confrontation at the quarantine line, promising to keep Soviet ships away from this line. He also dictated a long personal letter to Kennedy suggesting a peaceful resolution of the crisis. In the letter, he stated that if the USA promised not to invade Cuba, ‘the necessity for the presence of our military specialists in Cuba would disappear’ (Fursenko and Naftali 1997: 263). (See Box 14.2.)
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SECURED MISSILE NAVIGATION

SECURED MISSILE NAVIGATION

Abstract : This project is designed to improve the security of the Military network. In this project the position of missile navigates as per the user’s requirement. This is done by entering the position, an angle of missile and giving directions in forward/ reverse, left/ right directions of missile onto user interface. The user sends the co-ordinates through PC based server on the base station. For security purpose encryption is done with RC4 algorithm. The microcontroller reads the encoded frame and decodes the frame by applying the RC4 decoding algorithm. The RC4 algorithm can encrypt and decrypt the information in many kinds of memorizers, such as SD cards.
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Combined Arms for Air Defense   FM 44 8 pdf

Combined Arms for Air Defense FM 44 8 pdf

1-31. High-performance aircraft, operating in a ground attack role, attack at relatively high speeds. They normally operate under centralized control and are directed against preplanned targets. These aircraft target the division and corps rear area where they deliver ordnance selected to optimize destruction effects on the target. If they have ordnance remaining after completing their primary mission, the aircraft may be released to attack targets of opportunity on their return flight. Whether against preselected targets or against targets of opportunity, the attack will usually include a high-speed, low-level penetration run to a point near the target area to avoid low- and medium-altitude air defenses. Ground attack aircraft are effective against preplanned targets. The pilot generally knows the target location and will carry the correct ordnance for the target. Effectiveness decreases against targets of opportunity. Pilots must locate their targets, plan their attack, and deliver their ordnance in a short time. As a result, accuracy and effectiveness are degraded. The use of area type weapons such as CBUs or FFARs can be expected on the initial attack run, while cannon and machine-gun fire will likely be used in the follow-on attack.
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Options to mitigate utility-scale wind turbine impacts on defence capability, air supremacy, and missile detection

Options to mitigate utility-scale wind turbine impacts on defence capability, air supremacy, and missile detection

Modern radars that have been shown to improve aircraft detection and/or reduce the visibility of wind farms include the Raytheon ASR-11 (produced in Canada) and the UK equivalent, the Lockheed Martin TPS-77, which has enabled the UK Ministry of Defence to lift objections to over 3,000 MW of offshore wind projects [28]. (Table 2). The Wind and Radar Expert interviewed by the authors advocated “the Lockheed TPS 77 is a fabulous radar that is designed to provide advanced targeting and coverage for the military”, adding “published limits (for the radar) indicate it can provide coverage as close as 500 m to the edge of the wind farm.” Tom Vinson has stated that the DOD replaced an old ASR-8 with an ASR-11 at the Travis Air Force Base, yet the DOD will not go so far as to outwardly validate the efficacy of these mitigations, and are also testing the TPS-77 radar which has been demonstrated in other countries to also improve coverage around wind farms [24]. NOAA’s NEXRAD radar is also a favourable mitigation option for turbine interference, with its superior processing capability for weather forecasting [29]. For secondary radar systems, Mode Select (Mode-S) radars have the ability to selectively interrogate aircraft and request specific information; however for Mode-S SSR to be effective, all aircraft should be equipped with Mode-S compliant transponders [19].
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Sources of evolution of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force's strategy

Sources of evolution of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force's strategy

In addition, entering the Koizumi administration, Japan carried out the implementation of the defense bill. The purpose of this legislation was to establish an active defense posture against armed attack. The defense bill consisting of the “Armed Attack Situation Response Law,” the “Amendment of the Self-Defense Forces Law,” and the “Establishment of the National Security Council Law,” was passed by the Diet by an overwhelming majority in May 2003. After the law was passed, neighboring countries such as Korea and China criticized it heavily claiming that Japan would abandon the principle of an exclusively defense-oriented policy. The “Armed Attack Situation Response Law” contained the basic concept and procedure for how the Japanese government should handle an armed attack against Japan. By this law, Japan came to possess the capability and posture to conduct a self-defense war at least by enacting that the Prime Minister could order the move. Furthermore, the law expanded the concept of the “armed attack situation” from “the situation occurred the armed attack” to “the situation expected the armed attack.” The “Amendment of the Self-Defense Forces Law” newly stipulated the cooperating duty of the civilian sector for the JSDF’s smooth activity in an emergency. This law facilitated expropriation of private land or demolishing a house by the JSDF not only after the order for moving but also when the order for moving is expected. The “Establishment of the National Security Council Law” was to set up an expert committee consisting of the JSDF, the Ministry of Defense, the National Police Agency, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the National Security Council. 247
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Space Information Requirement Analysis of Air Defense Operation Action

Space Information Requirement Analysis of Air Defense Operation Action

In the future, air defense operation which is dominated by information confrontation, is integrated operation with air and aerospace defense. In the face of long-distance, high precision and abrupt air raid, defenders quick reaction rests with early detection, accurate identifying and continuous grasping air raid weapons, rapidly transmitting information to operation command center, and providing real time and precise intelligence for commanders organizing resisting and defense. Early aerospace defense warning is the first defense system, and its requirement to space information includes the following:
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The current state, problems and future of Germany's air and missile defence. OSW Commentary No. 105, 2013-04-10

The current state, problems and future of Germany's air and missile defence. OSW Commentary No. 105, 2013-04-10

The final decision on further German in- volvement in NATO’s ballistic missile defence has not yet been taken. It will probably be left for the next government to resolve, and the outcome will depend on political, military and financial factors. For now, the German government seems to have adopted a ‘wait and see’ approach, and to be watching the implementation of the US EPAA program as well as the plans of the other allies. The de- cision to step up German involvement will de- pend on whether Germany feels threatened by attacks using medium- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles. The plans of other European NATO members as well as changes in the atti- tude of Russia, will also be important. Finally, Berlin’s decision will also be influenced by fi- nancial considerations. The cost of buying or developing the systems in question are very high, and will be acceptable to Germany only if they are shared in a co-operative arrangement by several European countries.
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United States Air Force Defense Suppression Doctrine, 1968-1972

United States Air Force Defense Suppression Doctrine, 1968-1972

The Air Force’s leaders had not taken these defenses into account when determining their attack tactics. As they had planned to do in Europe, F-105s began air operations against North Vietnam by ingressing at low altitude, pulling up to 10,000 feet to dive-bomb their target, then egressing using the Thunderchief’s superior speed. The North Vietnamese, after determining USAF ingress and egress routes, began siting the guns accordingly. Furthermore, they also mixed the guns at each site so that the various cannons could complement one another. The final effect was to create a veritable steel curtain in USAF’s fighter’s paths. The F-105s, unlike their World War II and Korean predecessors, proved unable to pierce this curtain. All too often, a heavy shell burst was close enough to pierce the Thunderchiefs’ unprotected fuel tanks, a cannon round struck their fragile engines, or the aforementioned cocktail waitress and her fellow militia members were lucky enough to hit the unprotected hydraulic lines of a low-flying Thud. F-4s, increasingly carrying bombs as the number F-105s were attrited, did not fare much better. In order to lessen losses, strike aircraft began to ingress and egress at high altitude. 36
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Integrated Defense Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics Life Cycle Management System

Integrated Defense Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics Life Cycle Management System

1. INTRODUCTION. The Integrated Defense Acquisition, Tech- nology, and Logistics Life Cycle Management System Chart is a training aid for Defense Acquisition University (DAU) courses. It serves as a pictorial roadmap of key activities in the systems acquisition processes. The chart illustrates the interaction of the three-key processes that must work in concert to deliver the capabilities required by the warfighters: the requirements process (Joint Capa- bilities Integration & Development System [JCIDS]); the acquisition process (Defense Acquisition System); and program and budget development (Plan- ning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution [PPBE] process). These three major decision support systems are illustrated in the top left front of this chart. This chart is based on policies and guidance from the following Department of Defense (DoD) documents and Web sites:
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THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS, OCT

THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS, OCT

> During 1955-1960 U.S. Air Force leaders argued that the U.S. faced a "bomber gap," and then a "missile gap," in which the Soviets had or were gaining a first-strike capability over the U.S. U.S. photo-reconnaissance satellites verified the reverse--U.S. nuclear

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GSM Based Navigation of Missile

GSM Based Navigation of Missile

There are different types of algorithms used for data encryption some of them are Rivest, Shamir and Adleman RSA, Digital Signature algorithm, DSA, Data Encryption Standard DES [4]& Ron‟s code RRC4 Algorithmis symmetric key algorithm in which same key is used for encryption and decryption. While RSA, DSA are asymmetric key algorithms in which different keys are used for encryption and decryption. Hence for simplified data communication we are using RC4 algorithm. In this paper we are using cryptography for the commands to be given for controlling the missile position from remote place using GSM technique.
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Incorporating Unmanned Aerial Systems Into The Japan Air Self-Defense Force

Incorporating Unmanned Aerial Systems Into The Japan Air Self-Defense Force

The Navy’s existing UAS programs are mostly limited to small, handheld tactical devices used for local intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance. There are about 163 sailors holding the Navy's existing secondary (NECs) for UAS, which includes UAS pilots, technicians and payload operators. The primary UAS in service is the ScanEagle, a small aircraft with a 10-foot wingspan that sends live video feeds to ship commanders. The Navy has seven ScanEagles in service, which are prioritized for deploying ships. While traditional pilots will maintain their primary role, new technology is expected to push highly trained sailors into UAS roles including flight operators, real-time intelligence analysts, and targeting decision-makers. “UAS are going to provide an opportunity for sailors to get into a new realm of war fighting,” says Rear Admiral Mark Guadagnini, the chief of naval air training. He also notes, “We have to decide what rating can be a part of this or do we need to generate a completely
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The Research on the Analysis and Application of Detecting Underground  Civil Air Defense with GPR

The Research on the Analysis and Application of Detecting Underground Civil Air Defense with GPR

due to the air-ground interface and to remove both low and high-frequency noise in the vertical and horizontal directions, as well as to amplify the received signal. The processing sequence applied is: time-zero correction, dewow filtering, gain application (“gain function” with linear and exponential components), spatial filtering (“background removal”), and band-pass (“butterworth”) filter. GPR data processing objective is to suppress random and rule interference. GPR image shows available reflection with the greatest possible resolution. Ex- traction of reflected wave’s useful parameters (e.g. electromagnetic wave velocity, amplitude and waveform) is helpful to explain.
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Multifunctional flood defense structures : an integrated benefit calculation method

Multifunctional flood defense structures : an integrated benefit calculation method

Furthermore, there were also limitations regarding the different methods that we decided to combine in order to develop the integrated benefit calculation method. For example, the TCM that we used to calculate the recreational benefits requires a survey, in which questionnaires should be distributed to visitors asking them about the amount of money that they are willing to pay in order to visit an amenity. However, it may actually be quite difficult to measure the cost of accessing a site or amenity. This is because of the opportunity cost associated with the travel time. If the opportunity cost of all individuals is the same then the estimated price will be accurate. If, however, the opportunity cost of individuals accessing the site varies, which is more likely, then the measure will be inaccurate [15]. Another limitation regarding this method is that the estimation of willingness to pay used in the TCM is usually for the entire site access rather than specific features. The TCM only provides a price or value relating to the cost of accessing the amenity or recreational site and it does so for the whole site. It may, however, be the case that we wish to value a certain aspect of the site in our project appraisal [15]. For example, in the case of MFFDs we do not wish to value all the functions, but instead the park on the top of the dyke. Therefore, further research could conduct a real survey and calculate precisely the recreational benefits in a case of MFFDs.
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Effects and Modes of Air Defense Forces Operation Supported by Space Information

Effects and Modes of Air Defense Forces Operation Supported by Space Information

Battlefield situational awareness is that air defense forces in battlefield make use of all kinds of surveillance instruments to grasp the situation of the enemy, us, friendly neighbor, and battlefield environment information of terrain, clime and hydrology. Battlefield situational awareness is the base of operation action. The advantage of battlefield situational awareness may show the one-way transparent battlefield. Space information support system deploys the antenna of battlefield situational awareness in space, assumes the main task of acquiring information. Space information support system composed of reconnaissance, mapping, weather and surveillance satellites, adopting optics, infrared, electron and radar reconnaissance technology, with various reconnaissance fashions of multi-star formation, maneuver orbital transfer, census and detailed investigation, has all-weather, high resolution, real time reconnaissance abilities. The space information support system can accurately and reliably acquire all kinds of intelligence information, real time situational awareness information, provide macroscopic and microcosmic battlefield situation picture, enhance the diaphaneity of battlefield, improve the real time and accuracy of battlefield situation information which is grasped by air defense forces commanders, and insure air defense forces commanders and command department to judge situation rapidly, grasp the chance accurately, and make decision scientifically.
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